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chapter 56 powerpoint l

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Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Beverly_Hunk

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The Biosphere:  The Biosphere Chapter 56 Outline:  Outline The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Major Biomes Patterns of Ocean Circulation Life in the Oceans Marine Ecosystems Freshwater Habitats Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems Human Activity and Biosphere Stress Global Warming The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation:  The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation Biome distribution results from the interaction of features of the earth and: the amount of solar heat that reaches different parts of the earth and seasonal variations. global atmospheric circulation and resulting ocean current patterns. Relationships Between the Earth and Sun:  Relationships Between the Earth and Sun The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation:  The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation Warm tropics Because the earth is a sphere, some regions receive more solar energy than others. Sun’s rays arrive almost perpendicular to the equator. Earth’s annual orbit around the sun and its daily rotation on its axis play important roles in climate. The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation:  The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation Major atmospheric circulation patterns Warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air. Warm, moist air rises at the equator, cools, condenses, and falls as rain near the equator, and then flows back toward the poles. Air masses descend and produce arid zones at 30o N and S latitudes. rise again at 60o N and S latitudes Atmospheric Circulation:  Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation and Climate:  Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Most of the major world’s deserts lie at 30o N and S latitude. Other major deserts are formed in the interior of large continents, or because of the rain shadow effect. Mountain ranges intercept moisture-laden air masses from the sea. The air mass rises, cools and drops rain on windward side. leeward side often much drier Rain Shadow Effect:  Rain Shadow Effect Atmospheric Circulation and Climate:  Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Latitude Because there are no seasons in the tropics, there is little variation in mean monthly temperature in tropical ecosystems. As you move away from the equator, sunlight strikes the earth at a more oblique angle, thus less sunlight falls on a given area. Atmospheric Circulation and Climate:  Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Elevation Temperature progressively becomes colder as you move up in elevation. 6o C for every 1000 m increase Microclimate very localized climatic conditions Elevation and Latitude:  Elevation and Latitude Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Biomes are major communities of organisms that have a characteristic appearance and are distributed over a wide land area defined by regional variations in climate. Biome Distribution:  Biome Distribution Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Biomes and climate Temperature and precipitation are two key parameters determining biomes. In the absence of geologic features and differing sea temperatures, each biome would form an even belt around the globe, defined largely by latitude. Predictors of Biome Distribution:  Predictors of Biome Distribution Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Tropical rain forests receive 140-450 cm annual rainfall contain at least half earth’s terrestrial plant and animal species Savannas seasonal rainfall (75-125 cm annually) dry tropical grassland transitioning from tropical rainforests to deserts Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Deserts less than 25 cm annual rainfall plants and animals adapted for water conservation Temperate grasslands (prairies) highly productive temperate regions herds of grazing mammals Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Temperate deciduous forests mild climates and plentiful rain perennial herbs Temperate evergreen forests cold winters and a strong, seasonal dry period nutrient-poor soils broad transitional zone Major Biomes:  Major Biomes Taiga long cold winter coniferous trees Tundra open, windswept, and boggy Permafrost (permanent ice) exists within a meter of the surface. Patterns of Ocean Circulation:  Patterns of Ocean Circulation Ocean circulation determined by atmospheric circulation and location of land masses. Patterns of Ocean Circulation:  Patterns of Ocean Circulation El Nino southern oscillation Pacific Ocean is normally fanned by constant east-west trade winds. Pushes warm surface water away from eastern coastal areas, and allows cold, nutrient-rich, water to well up. If winds slacken, warm water moves back inward, cutting off nutrient supply. Commercial fishing off Peru and Chile decreases dramatically. El Nino Winter:  El Nino Winter Marine Ecosystems:  Marine Ecosystems Oxygen supply can be critical in the ocean. As water temperatures rise, the amount of oxygen that can be held lowers. Carbon dioxide is extremely plentiful. uniform distribution of minerals Patchy bottom environment may contribute to species formation. 90% of living species are terrestrial. sharp habitat boundaries Marine Ecosystems:  Marine Ecosystems Neritic zone Area less than 300 m below the surface along coasts of continents and islands. Intertidal (littoral) region is exposed to air when the tides recede. Nutrient runoff from the land near coastal regions contributes to productive continental shelf fisheries. Marine Ecosystems:  Marine Ecosystems Pelagic zone Open sea supports a diverse biological community, primarily composed of plankton. most live in top 100 m light penetration Plankton collectively account for about 40% of all photosynthesis on earth. Marine Ecosystems:  Marine Ecosystems Benthic zone Sea floor is a thick blanket of mud made up of sediment. Sea floor at depths below 1000 m, abyssal zone, has about twice the area of all the land on earth. Relatively recent discoveries have found high diversity of marine life living on sea floor near volcanic vents. chemosynthesis Marine Ecosystems:  Marine Ecosystems Freshwater Habitats:  Freshwater Habitats Inland lakes cover about 1.8% of the earth’s surface, and running water about 0.3%. Ponds and lakes photosynthetic organisms limited to upper photic zone; heterotrophic organisms occur in lower disphotic and aphotic zones littoral zone - shallow area along shore limnetic zone - surface water away from shore profundal zone - below light penetration Zones in Ponds and Lakes:  Zones in Ponds and Lakes Freshwater Habitats:  Freshwater Habitats In summer, warmer water forms layer over cooler water, forming an abrupt thermocline. In autumn, surface water temperature drops until it reaches temperature of cooler water underneath. upper and lower layers mix fall overturn Fresh Water Stratification:  Fresh Water Stratification Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems:  Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems Lakes divided into two categories: eutrophic - rich in nutrients and organic matter oligotrophic - poor in nutrients and organic matter often deeper than eutrophic lakes, and very susceptible to chemical pollutants cultural eutrophication Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems:  Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems Wetlands support a wide variety organisms. play key ecological role by providing storage basins that moderate flooding many being disrupted by human activities Human Activity and Biosphere Stress:  Human Activity and Biosphere Stress Pollution Widespread modern agriculture introduces large amounts of chemicals into the global ecosystem. Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT) caused severe environmental problems due to biological magnification. eggshell thinning in predatory bird species Biological Magnification of DDT:  Biological Magnification of DDT Acid Precipitation:  Acid Precipitation Sulfur introduced into the upper atmosphere combines with water vapor to produce sulfuric acid. Natural rain water rarely has a pH lower than 5.6, but northeastern US has experienced rain with pH as low as 3.8. aquatic habitats, groundwater, and forests are all damaged solution is capturing emissions difficult and expensive Rainwater pH:  Rainwater pH Destruction of the Tropical Forests:  Destruction of the Tropical Forests More than half world’s population lives in the tropics, and the percentage is increasing. In mid -1990’s, only about half of original extent of tropical rainforests existed in an undisturbed form. At current rates of clearing, all tropical rainforests will be gone in 30 years. loss of largely unknown levels of biodiversity as well as ecological functioning The Ozone Hole:  The Ozone Hole Ozone thinning was detected over Antarctica in 1975. Major cause of depletion is chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Stratospheric ozone protects life from ultraviolet rays. 1% drop in atmospheric ozone is estimated to lead to a 6% increase in skin cancers. Antarctica Ozone Hole:  Antarctica Ozone Hole Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming:  Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming Carbon dioxide and other gases trap longer wavelength infrared light, heat, radiating from the surface of the earth. greenhouse effect Roughly seven times as much carbon dioxide is locked up in fossil fuels as currently exists in the atmosphere. Estimated increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide would raise average global temperature 1.5-4.5o C by 2035. Effects of Global Warming:  Effects of Global Warming Ecosystems prehistoric climate change Global temperatures changed as much as 10o C between extremes. range shifts in contemporary species life cycle changes Species dispersal ability reproduction cues temperature-sensitive sex determination Effects of Global Warming:  Effects of Global Warming Humans rising sea levels climatic effects extreme events agriculture increased drought frequency reduced crop yields human health loss of safe drinking water mosquito-borne diseases Summary:  Summary The Sun and Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation and Climate Major Biomes Patterns of Ocean Circulation Life in the Oceans Marine Ecosystems Freshwater Habitats Productivity of Freshwater Ecosystems Human Activity and Biosphere Stress Global Warming

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