Chapter 4 - Texas Government

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Published on February 24, 2014

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Government and Politics in the Lone Star State: Theory and Practice L. Tucker Gibson, Jr. and Clay Robison Prepared by Darrial Reynolds Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 4: Interest Groups and Political Power in Texas Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Are Interest Groups?  Who Joins Groups? 75 percent of Americans belong to an organization, and 50 percent belong to two or more organizations.  Education, income, and occupation have an impact on who joins groups.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Are Interest Groups?  Why Do People Join Interest Groups? Specific economic benefits  Social-psychological benefits  Sense of purpose and satisfaction  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Group Theory  Pluralism  and Democratic Theory Pluralism Characteristics Groups are the primary political actors.  Politics is organized around group interaction.     Conflict over limited resources Behavior of groups limited by competition Public policy is the resolution of conflict No group can dominate the process.  Leaders are guided by democratic values.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Group Theory  The  Elitist Alternative Characteristics  Power is held by a few individuals.      Derived from positions in large social institutions Linked by networks of interlocking memberships Elites determine values, interests, and rules of the game Policy decisions reflect the interests of dominant institutions Elites in Texas   1938–1957 governed by a conservative establishment Arose as a response to liberal New Deal policies Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Group Theory  Hyperpluralism, Policy Subsystems, and Single-Issue Interest Groups Hyperpluralism occurs when government responds to as many groups as possible.  Policy subsystems represent interaction among interest groups, administrative agencies, and legislative committees.  Single-issue groups refuse to compromise, block policy changes, and cause policy gridlock.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Resources of Interest Groups  Seven key resources impact the political power and influence of interest groups. Size  Cohesiveness  Level of mobilization  Geographic distribution  Financial resources  Reputation and accuracy of information  Leadership and staff  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Discussion Question  Resources  of Interest Groups Why do you think that some types of interest groups will be more successful in Texas politics than others? Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Dominant Interest Groups in Texas  Business Associations, broad-based and/or trade  Individual companies and their lobbyists  Coalitions formed around a single issue   Professional  Groups Texas Medical Association  Education  Colleges and universities and associations representing teachers, administrators, and school districts Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Dominant Interest Groups in Texas  Public Interest Groups Represent consumer and environmental interests  Promote better ethical standards in government   Minorities MALDEF  LULAC  NAACP  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Dominant Interest Groups in Texas  Labor Communications Workers of America  Texas Federation of Teachers  United Auto Workers   Local Governments Texas Municipal League  Texas Association of Counties  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Dominant Interest Groups in Texas  Agricultural Groups Texas Farm Bureau  Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association   Religious Groups Religious Right combined anticommunism, antilabor, antiliberal, and anti–civil rights  Forerunners of today’s Christian Right within the Republican Party  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Who Are the Lobbyists?  Characteristics of Lobbyists Represent a diversity of interests  May be paid or volunteer  Must register with the Texas Ethics Commission  Include more men than women  Have an understanding of the policy process and points of access within it  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Groups and the Policymaking Process  Indirect  Lobbying Electoral Activities Secure election of accessible public officials  Campaign contributions  Organizational support  Public endorsements  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Groups and the Policymaking Process  Indirect  Lobbying Public Opinion Shapes public opinion  Attempts to mold, shape, and mobilize public opinion on issues of concern to the group  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Groups and the Policymaking Process  Indirect  Lobbying Protests and Marches Bring issues to the attention of the public and elected officials  Attempt to dramatize issues and provoke sympathy for a group’s position  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Interest Groups and the Policymaking Process  Direct  Lobbying Communicates information and policy preferences to policymakers directly Drafting Legislation  Plan and Implement a Legislative Strategy  Personal Contacts and Communications  Testifying at Hearings  Coalitions of Interest Groups  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

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