Chapter 4: Revolutionary America, 1764-1783

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Published on April 11, 2014

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Chapter 4: Revolutionary America, 1764-1783

1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER Revolutionary America Change and Transformation,1764–1783 4 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States

2 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Revolutionary America I. Tightening the Reins of Empire II. Patriots versus Loyalists III. America at War IV. The Radicalism of the American Revolution CHANGE AND TRANSFORMATION, 1764–1783 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Tightening the Reins of Empire A. Taxation without Representation B. The Stamp Act Crisis C. An Assault on Liberty D. The Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress E. Lexington, Concord, and Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Taxation without Representation Why is the scale in the cartoon, The Great Financier, out of balance? 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States

6 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Envisioning Evidence Which parts of the British empire were most heavily taxed? A COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PER CAPITA TAX RATES IN BRITAIN AND THE COLONIES IN 1765 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Stamp Act Crisis How did colonists react to the Stamp Act? 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Stamp Act Crisis Stamp Act – Legislation that required colonists to purchase special stamps and place them on all legal documents – Newspapers and playing cards had to be printed on special stamped paper. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States

10 Visions of America, A History of the United States

An Assault on Liberty How did nonimportation transform women’s political role in the colonies? How does Revere stage the events of the Boston Massacre to evoke sympathy for the colonists’ cause? 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States

An Assault on Liberty Nonimportation Movement – A boycott against the purchase of any imported British goods 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States

13 Visions of America, A History of the United States

14 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress Why did British policy seem to strike at the essence of colonists’ liberty? What is the symbolic significance of Lord Chief Justice Mansfield’s actions in this political cartoon? 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress Intolerable Acts – Legislation passed by Parliament to punish Bostonians for the Boston Tea Party – Closed the Port of Boston – Annulled the Massachusetts colonial charter – Dissolved or severely restricted that colony’s political institutions – Allowed British officials charged with capital crimes to be tried outside the colonies 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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19 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Lexington, Concord, and Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation What was the impact of Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation on southern colonists? Why did British regulars choose Concord as their military objective? 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Lexington, Concord, and Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation – Official announcement issued by Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia that offered freedom to any slave who joined the British forces in putting down the American rebellion 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Patriots versus Loyalists A. The Battle of Bunker Hill B. Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence C. The Plight of the Loyalists 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Battle of Bunker Hill What does The Political Cartoon for the Year 1775 reveal about the nature of relations between the colonies and Britain? 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States

24 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Images as History How did Trumbull craft his painting so it would appeal to both an American and British audience? TRUMBULL’S THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL The British officer preventing a soldier from bayoneting the dying Warren highlights virtue and honor. General Warren’s pose evokes the image of Jesus being cradled in the arms of Mary. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Images as History What does Trumbull’s portrayal of African Americans tell us about his views and those of his likely audiences? TRUMBULL’S THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN AT THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL Rather than portray an African American as heroic, Warren marginalizes this figure, placing him in the shadow of a white officer at the end of the canvas. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence What arguments did Paine’s Common Sense present? What audiences did the Declaration of Independence address? 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence Common Sense – Thomas Paine’s influential pamphlet that forcefully argued for American independence, attacked the institution of monarchy, and defended a democratic theory of representative government 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence – A public defense of America’s decision to declare independence from Britain that was to be printed and sent to the individual states – On July 4, 1776, Congress approved the final text of the Declaration of Independence. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States

30 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Plight of the Loyalists How did the metaphor of dismemberment influence Loyalist thought? 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Plight of the Loyalists Patriots – Colonists who supported American independence Loyalists – Colonists who remained loyal to the king and Britain 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States

33 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences • Joseph Galloway, an aristocrat of Philadelphia, became a Loyalist when the war broke out. • After Galloway fled for New York, the government of Pennsylvania confiscated all his property. • Galloway’s wife, Grace Growden Galloway, had been wealthy before their marriage and was determined to keep her family’s property. A LOYALIST WIFE’S DILEMMA 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences Choices Regarding a Loyalist’s Wife’s Property A LOYALIST WIFE’S DILEMMA 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States Follow her husband into exile, abandoning her property Follow her husband into exile but fight an uphill legal battle from afar to protect her property Stay in Philadelphia and fight a difficult legal battle to protect her property

Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • Grace Growden Galloway chose to stay at her home in Philadelphia. • Galloway was eventually evicted from her home. • Her former friends, all Patriots, shunned her and she died alone in 1781. • Galloway was successful in passing her property on to her descendants. What does Martin v. Commonwealth reveal about women’s roles in Revolutionary America? A LOYALIST WIFE’S DILEMMA 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •What does Grace Growden Galloway’s plight reveal about the situation of Loyalists during the American Revolution? A LOYALIST WIFE’S DILEMMA 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States

America at War A. The War in the North B. The Southern Campaigns and Final Victory at Yorktown 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The War in the North Why did Washington have Paine’s The American Crisis read to the troops before he crossed the Delaware to attack British and German mercenaries? How does Peale’s painting of Washington differ from Trumbull’s The Death of General Warren? 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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41 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Southern Campaigns and Final Victory at Yorktown What role did the French navy play in the American victory at Yorktown? What was the Treaty of Paris? 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Southern Campaigns and Final Victory at Yorktown Treaty of Paris (1783) – Treaty between the newly created United States of America and Britain that officially ended the war between the two and formally recognized American independence 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States

44 Visions of America, A History of the United States

45 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Radicalism of the American Revolution A. Popular Politics in the Revolutionary Era B. Constitutional Experiments: Testing the Limits of Democracy C. African Americans Struggle for Freedom D. The American Revolution in Indian Country E. Liberty’s Daughters: Women and the Revolutionary Movement 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Popular Politics in the Revolutionary Era Who were the Regulators? 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Constitutional Experiments: Testing the Limits of Democracy What made Pennsylvania’s Constitution so radical for its day? Why did the traditional Whig view of representation oppose democracy? 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States

49 Visions of America, A History of the United States

African Americans Struggle for Freedom What was the impact of the American Revolution on the institution of slavery? 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The American Revolution in Indian Country Why did so many Native Americans side with the British during the American Revolution? 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States

52 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Liberty’s Daughters: Women and the Revolutionary Movement Was Hannah Corbin’s argument for women’s suffrage consistent with Whig theory? 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States

54 Visions of America, A History of the United States

55 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Competing Visions Was Abigail Adams’s demand for women’s rights consistent with the Revolution’s ideals? REMEMBER THE LADIES “Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the husbands. Remember all men would be tyrants if they could. . . . [We ladies] will not hold ourselves bound by any laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.” —Abigail Adams “Your letter was the first intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerful than all the rest were grown discontented.— This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy, I wont blot it out. Depend upon it, We know better than to repeal our masculine systems.” —John Adams 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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