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Chapter 3 - Texas Government

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Information about Chapter 3 - Texas Government
Education

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: twr1028

Source: slideshare.net

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Government and Politics in the Lone Star State: Theory and Practice L. Tucker Gibson, Jr. and Clay Robison Prepared by Darrial Reynolds Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3: Texas Government and Politics in the Federal System Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Structuring Regional and National Interests  Over 89,000 governmental units are in the United States, with over 500,000 elected officials.  Texas has 254 counties, 1,209 municipalities, and 3,372 school and other special districts.  Three ways to organize a nation Unitary  Confederation  Federalism  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Discussion Question  Choosing a Framework for Allocating Authority and Responsibility What are the strengths and weaknesses of a unitary government?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of a confederation?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of a federal system (federalism)?  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Defining Federalism  Federal-State Relationships from a Constitutional Perspective  Vertical Federalism Article I, Section 8, Paragraphs 1–17  Article I, Section 8, Paragraph 18  Article IV (constitutional guarantees to the states)  Supremacy Clause of Article VI  Powers denied to the levels of government  Tenth Amendment (reserved powers)  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Defining Federalism  Relationships  among the States Horizontal Federalism Full Faith and Credit  Privileges and Immunities  Extradition   Interstate compacts deal with issues of mutual concern. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Metaphors for Federalism  Metaphors  for Federalism Dual Federalism Federal, state, and local government function independently of each other.  Layer-cake theory   Cooperative Federalism Governments coordinate, collaborate, and cooperate to meet shared goals and objectives.  Marble-cake, or picket-fence theory  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  State-Centered and Dual Federalism States take primary responsibility for domestic policy.  Adversarial relationship between the states and the national government on some issues  State and federal powers demarcated through court cases and statutory laws  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  Cooperative  Federalism Expanded federal role in domestic policy New Deal policies  Use of commerce and national supremacy clauses   Federal funding used to shape and implement domestic policies  Categorical Grants-in-Aid   Project grant Formula grant Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  Centralized Federalism Kennedy and Johnson administrations  Referred to as coercive or regulatory federalism  Programs bypassed states and gave funding directly to local governments.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism The Nixon Years (1969–1974)  Nixon’s New Federalism    Consolidate categorical grants into block grants Revenue sharing Federal spending and regulatory powers actually increased. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism The Ford (1974–1977) and Carter (1977– 1981) Years President Ford expanded revenue sharing and block grant usage.  President Carter redirected money to local governments through urban development initiatives.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism The Reagan (1981–1989) and Bush I (1989– 1993) Years  Ronald Reagan   Congressional mandates and preemptions continued. George H. W. Bush    Clean Air Act amendments Americans with Disabilities Act Education of the Handicapped Act amendments Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism The Clinton (1993–2001) Years Deficit reduction  “Devolution Revolution”       Unfunded Mandates Reform Act Welfare reform (1996) Motor-Voter Law of 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 Defense of Marriage Act (1996) Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism The Bush II Years (2001–2009) Centralization continued in the post-9/11 era.  Increased federal role in domestic security      Homeland Security Department USA Patriot Act Standardization of state driver’s licenses No Child Left Behind Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The  Multiple Phases of New Federalism Obama (2009– ) Years  Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010    Twenty-six states (including Texas) objected to expanding Medicaid and requiring all Americans to get health insurance. The law required the states to create health exchanges to assist individuals in shopping for insurance coverage. The case has not been decided yet, but states argued that the law was an unconstitutional intrusion into state authority. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Changing Patterns in Federal Relationships  The Role of the U.S. Supreme Court in Defining Federalism  Federal courts define power, authority, and jurisdiction in the federal system.  Conservative courts expected to promote a pro–states’ rights viewpoint.  No consistent pro-state trend in recent court decisions Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Impact of Federalism on State Finances  Federal funds were $72.6 billion (39%) of the $187.5 billion 2010–2011 state budget. Health and human services received 58 percent of all federal funds allocated to Texas.  Business and economic development programs received 16 percent and education programs received 19 percent.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Reactions to the Expanded Role of the Federal Government  Americans Sometimes Resist or Object to Conditions of Federal Funds Stipulations of a grant may require an action in a totally different area of public policy.  People may develop negative attitudes toward social welfare programs.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  Maquiladoras Created by Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (1964)  Created twin plants  Reduced tariffs, transferred technology, and created jobs on both sides of the border  Spurred population growth along the border region  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Treaty among the United States, Mexico, and Canada to reduce tariffs and increase trade  Concerns about NAFTA  Low labor and capital costs in Mexico will threaten U.S. markets as more jobs move to Mexico.  Safety problems related to highways and Mexican trucks  It will compound air and water pollution problems.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  Trade Patterns between Texas and Mexico  United States and Texas profit from Mexico’s prosperity.   Imports from Mexico make it our third largest trading partner. Laredo has become the nation’s largest inland port. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  Illegal Immigration In 2011, 11.5 million folks were in the United States illegally.  Federal Government Laws and Policies   Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986   Made it illegal for U.S. firms to hire illegal immigrants Increased penalties for smuggling illegal immigrants and using fraudulent documents and made it easier to detain and deport illegal immigrants Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  Illegal Immigration In 2011, 1.8 million folks were in Texas illegally.  State Actions  Penalties for companies that hire illegal immigrants, and restrictions on immigrants’ access to higher education, public services, and driver’s licenses  In 2011, the Texas legislature required that people prove U.S. citizenship or legal residence in order to obtain or renew a driver’s license.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  Border  Drug Violence Mexico’s ability to fight the drug problem Increase in drug-related violence  Alleged collusion between high-ranking Mexican officials and drug smugglers  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transnational Regionalism  Common Borders, Common Problems Political corruption in Mexico  Drug-related violence  Human rights violations  Water disputes  Health and environmental issues  Binational families  Colonias  Copyright, patent, and insurance issues  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

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