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Chapter 3 Slides

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Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Dolorada

Source: authorstream.com

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CHAPTER # 3:  CHAPTER # 3 Industrial Activity and The Environment Air Pollution:  Air Pollution Contaminants may be considered any materials other than the permanent gases seen in air Pollutant is any contaminant derived from mankind’s activity Contaminants may or may not have adverse health effects Air Contaminants/Pollutants:  Air Contaminants/Pollutants Pollutants are legitimate concerns as they deal with air quality, whereas contaminants may be accepted as a part of the natural world in which we live Airsheds:  Airsheds analogous to watersheds the land area that contributes to a region’s air - and the things found in the air far less distinct than watersheds and very large in size do not conform to political boundaries unless a regional approach is taken Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere:  Layers of Earth’s Atmosphere Global Wind Patterns:  Global Wind Patterns Composition of the Atmosphere:  Composition of the Atmosphere Air Pollutants:  Air Pollutants Carbon monoxide colorless, odorless, non-irritating poison attaches to hemoglobin; reduces oxygen carrying capacity results in headaches, drowsiness and asphyxiation Hydrocarbons denotes a large group of volatile organic compounds some are carcinogens, poison etc. Air Pollutants (cont.):  Air Pollutants (cont.) Sulfur Dioxide colorless corrosive gas respiratory irritant and poison can result in H2SO4 Particulates small pieces of solid or liquid materials dispersed in the atmosphere 0.005-100 um reduction in visibility, respiratory problems Air Pollutants (cont.):  Air Pollutants (cont.) Nitrogen Oxides critical component for smog formation compounds acid precipitation problems Photochemical Oxidants products of secondary atmospheric reactions driven by solar energy e.g., O3, PAN, acrolein strong oxidants, eye irritant etc. Air Pollutants (cont.):  Air Pollutants (cont.) Lead released as metal fumes or suspended particles major source was leaded gasoline Carbon Dioxide generally considered non-toxic and innocuous not listed as air pollutant increasing concentrations have been related to global warming Air Pollutants (cont.):  Air Pollutants (cont.) Air Pollutants (cont.):  Air Pollutants (cont.) Criteria Pollutants are those for which federal concentration limits have been set as the dividing line between acceptable air quality and poor air quality CAA 1970 designated seven major pollutants as conventional or criteria pollutants includes, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, particulates, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and lead Maximum ambient air standards have been set Non-criteria defined in different legislations other than designated contaminants and are toxic or hazardous Comparisons:  Comparisons Few (7) not bioaccumulated lung is primary target (except CO) health effects readily available latent time range from minutes to months Numerous may bioaccumulate many target organs dose-response data rarely available long latent periods Criteria Pollutants Hazardous Air Pollutants SMOG:  SMOG The term “smog” comes from a combination of the words “smoke” and “fog” Made up of photochemical oxidant gases Interaction between nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight Acid Rain:  Acid Rain Rain that is more acidic than normal because it contains sulfuric acid or nitric acid result of SOx, NOx, acidic particulates in air involves all forms of acid deposition, even if rain is not involved Coal Production in US:  Coal Production in US SO2 and NOx Emissions in US:  SO2 and NOx Emissions in US Global Warming:  Global Warming Pollutants from a small area can accumulate and spread in the upper atmosphere and affect entire earth’s weather increase in CO2 is resulting in increase of earth’s temperature can result in melting of ice caps, coastal flooding, shift in weather patterns, etc. Illustration of Some of Many Interactions That Control The Global Climate:  Illustration of Some of Many Interactions That Control The Global Climate Atmospheric CO2:  Atmospheric CO2 What is a Green House?:  What is a Green House? Greenhouses are much warmer inside than the air is outside because the glass is transparent to light and allows short-wavelength light to pass through and heat the contents of the greenhouse. It also reflects back the longer wavelength heat radiating within the greenhouse, thus preventing if from passing back out. Greenhouse Effect In A Greenhouse:  Greenhouse Effect In A Greenhouse What is Green House Effect?:  What is Green House Effect? In a glass greenhouse, heat builds up and gets trapped due to presence of carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases in the upper atmosphere. CO2 is analogous to glass. Earth’s surface analogous to floor which radiates back absorbed energy as longer wave infrared heat. Green House Effect:  Green House Effect Does Greenhouse effect cause warming of the earth’s surface? YES!, for without a greenhouse effect due to gases in the atmosphere, the average temperature of the earth’s surface would be 00F. Earth’s surface temperature is about 600F due to greenhouse effect. The Greenhouse Effect:  The Greenhouse Effect Effects of Major Greenhouse Gases on Global Warming:  Effects of Major Greenhouse Gases on Global Warming Percent contribution Gas to global warming Carbon dioxide 57 Chlorofluorocarbons 25 Methane 12 Nitrous oxides 6 Greenhouse Effect: Some Questions!:  Greenhouse Effect: Some Questions! What is the effect of anthropogenic gases? What is the contribution to global climate change? Are all the effects bad? Concentrations And Lifetimes of Greenhouse Gases:  Concentrations And Lifetimes of Greenhouse Gases What Can We Do?:  What Can We Do? Reduce World’s Population? Reduce or maintain current levels of CO2 in the atmosphere Contribution of CO2 Toward Global Warming:  Contribution of CO2 Toward Global Warming Activity Percent contribution Energy use 49 Industrial processes ` 24 Deforestation 14 Agriculture 13 Ozone Depletion:  Ozone Depletion Stratospheric Ozone absorbs harmful ultraviolet (<340nm) radiation from the Sun 1% loss of ozone = 2% increase in UV radiation = 106 extra cancers ozone hole = 7.7 million sq. miles CFCs & HCFCs are the primary causes Chlorine Content in Stratosphere:  Chlorine Content in Stratosphere Ozone: What’s Being Done?:  Ozone: What’s Being Done? Montreal Protocol complete phase-out of CFCs by 2000 critical need to come up with inexpensive non-halogenated coolants if everyone abides, ozone loss should peak between 2001 and 2005 ozone levels should return to normal Solid Wastes:  Solid Wastes US generates 210 million tonnes of MSW 3 billion tonnes of mining wastes 500 million tonnes of agricultural wastes EPA Solid Waste definition any discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi-liquid, or contaminated gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities (all figures are per year) Major Sources of Solid Wastes in the U.S.:  Major Sources of Solid Wastes in the U.S. Total Solid Waste Production in the U.S.:  Total Solid Waste Production in the U.S. Fate of Solid Wastes:  Fate of Solid Wastes Municipal Solid Waste:  Municipal Solid Waste consists of residual wastes and bulky wastes such as furniture, commercial and institutional wastes, street refuse, dead animals, abandoned vehicles, etc.. 1.4 - 4.5 kg/cap-day in UK and European countries, this number is reduced in half composition depends upon many factors Refuse Composition (1990):  Refuse Composition (1990) Constituent Composition (%) Cinders 50 Ash 12 Dirt and dust 20 Paper, straw, vegetable refuse 13 Miscellaneous 5 (tins, 0.7%; metal, 0.2%; bottles, 1.5%) Current Composition:  Current Composition MSW: What’s Being Done?:  MSW: What’s Being Done? disposal of yard wastes in landfills banned instituting solid waste recycling programs developing new technologies which can economically and effectively use all the recyclable and collected material developing better packaging encouraging use of readily recyclable materials Composition of MSW by Country:  Composition of MSW by Country Industrial Wastes:  Industrial Wastes process wastes remaining after manufacturing of a product commercial wastes from office activities, cafeterias, labs, etc. waste water sludges created during wastewater treatment industrial solid wastes handled more or less the same as MSW Other Wastes:  Other Wastes Sewage Sludges sludges left over after treatment of wastewater Agricultural Wastes crop residues manure from animal feeding facilities Mining Wastes overburden materials and mine tailings current law requires reclamation of mining area, which is essential and beneficial but very costly Sanitary Landfills:  Sanitary Landfills approximately 61% of solid wastes go to sanitary landfills sanitary landfills are not open dumps, but rather are engineered systems waste is deposited in compacted layers and covered with earth at the end of each day have impermeable liner, leachate and gas collection systems Landfills In The U.S.:  Landfills In The U.S. Incineration:  Incineration burns wastes, though usually not completely residual is about 10-20% of original material can cause odors, soot and other air pollutants may emit dioxins and furans, which are highly toxic residue can be much more concentrated in trace metals, etc. and can create more difficulties for disposal can be used for cogeneration of energy Incineration of MSW :  Incineration of MSW Composting:  Composting aerobic biological process operated under elevated temperatures microorganisms decompose organic carbon/wastes to CO2, water and humus resulting humus can be used as manure, soil reconditioner, etc. sometimes costs can be high and compost may be contaminated with unwanted materials Resource Recovery:  Resource Recovery can involve fairly simple methods like manual sorting very complex automated material sorting and recovery facilities reduces amount of disposable waste to about 1/3 Schematic of a Typical Resource Recovery Facility:  Schematic of a Typical Resource Recovery Facility Potential Recovery of MSW Components:  Potential Recovery of MSW Components Impact of Recycling on Newsprint Prices:  Impact of Recycling on Newsprint Prices Recycling of MSW in the U.S.:  Recycling of MSW in the U.S. Recycling of MSW in the U.S. (cont.):  Recycling of MSW in the U.S. (cont.) MSW Management:  MSW Management Conservation:  Conservation best way to reduce waste is to reduce waste generation or conservation includes reducing packaging, substituting old for new, making products more recyclable Hazardous Wastes:  Hazardous Wastes RCRA definition: cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or pose a substantial present or potential future hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise mismanaged Hazardous Wastes (cont.):  Hazardous Wastes (cont.) legally, a subset of solid wastes has one of the following four characteristics Ignitability Reactivity Corrosivity Toxicity 700 million tonnes per year (hazardous) 11 billion tonnes per year (by other definitions of hazardous) Largest Producers of Hazardous Wastes, 1990:  Largest Producers of Hazardous Wastes, 1990 Superfund Sites:  Superfund Sites abandoned disposal sites which are highly dangerous to the environment and have passed a point scoring system of Federal government Love Canal Times Beach Common Contaminants At Superfund Sites:  Common Contaminants At Superfund Sites RCRA Sites:  RCRA Sites Current disposal sites covers problems caused by present working industrial wastes Water Pollution:  Water Pollution NPDES regulates surface disposal 90% of total water used by industries is used for cooling; care should be taken not to contaminate this cooling water two case studies that bring out ill effects of water pollution: Minimata Disease The Kepone Incident Minimata Disease:  Minimata Disease Time: 1950s Location: small village of Minimata, Japan Killed/Injured: 100+/thousands Cause: mercury poisoning Why: high conc. of mercury in fish tissues From where: mercury laden wastes from Chisso Chemical Plant into Minimata Bay Repair: stop all inputs, dredge up all mercury contaminated sediment The Kepone Incident:  The Kepone Incident Time: 1975 Location: Hopewell, Virginia Who Was Affected and How?: many workers poisoned; reported tremors, chest pains, and other problems Cause: Kepone, a very toxic synthetic chlorinated insecticide Why: high conc. in fish tissues, air, soil, and well water From where: process wastes discharged into the James River Repair: shutdown of plant, banning of fishing; clean up would have costed > $1 billion Future: Still present and will remain there for thousands of years Kepone Energy Use:  Energy Use History Energy Consumption 95% comes from fossil fuels renewable sources contribute only 2.5% remaining 2.5% comes from nuclear plants developed countries: 20% population consumes 78% natural gas, 65% oil, 50% coal US and Canada: 5% population; 25% of total energy usage US/India: 300 GJ/cap-year vs. <one barrel/cap-year Wood And Coal Usage:  Wood And Coal Usage Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption:  Worldwide Commercial Energy Consumption World Resources Institute, 1992 Year 1989 Per Capita Energy Use And GNP:  Per Capita Energy Use And GNP World Resources Institute, 1990 Energy Usage In US:  Energy Usage In US US Department of Energy, 1995 Changes in US Energy Consumption Cunningham and Saigo, 1995 Energy Flow In The U.S., 1995:  Energy Flow In The U.S., 1995 (US Department of Energy, 1996) Energy Sources:  Energy Sources Coal Flow In The U.S., 1995:  Coal Flow In The U.S., 1995 (US Department of Energy, 1996) units: million tons World Proven Oil Reserves, 1991:  World Proven Oil Reserves, 1991 (World Resources Institute, 1991) Petroleum Flow in the U.S., 1995:  Petroleum Flow in the U.S., 1995 (US Department of Energy, 1996) units: millions barrels per day Natural Gas Reserves, 1990:  Natural Gas Reserves, 1990 World Resources Institute, 1990 Nuclear Reactors:  Nuclear Reactors Boiling Water Reactors water used to moderate the nuclear reaction steam formed in the reactor is used to run a turbine steam contains radioactive materials and must be treated Pressurized Water Reactor water pumped past the nuclear core rods water gets heated to 3170C at 2235 psi pumped to steam generator where it heats a separate water line producing steam which in turn runs a turbine generator pressurized steam may be radioactive and is recycled to the reactor turbine running steam is non-radioactive Nuclear Power Plants In The US:  Nuclear Power Plants In The US (US Department of Energy, 1995) Renewable Energy Sources:  Renewable Energy Sources Water Power Geothermal Power Wind Power Solar Power Biomass Electricity Flow In The U.S., 1994:  Electricity Flow In The U.S., 1994 (US Department of Energy, 1996) Energy Conservation:  Energy Conservation Earth’s Structure:  Earth’s Structure composed of many layers Core: dense, intensely hot molten metal, 4,000 km in diameter Mantle: surrounds core, layer of pliable rock, extends to 2900 km below earth’s crust Crust: outermost layer, floats on mantle Earth’s Composition:  Earth’s Composition Recoverable Resources:  Recoverable Resources Proven Resources resources that have been thoroughly mapped and are economical to recover at current prices and technology Known Resources located but not completely mapped may or may not be economical at present Undiscovered Resources only speculative or inferred Recoverable Resources (cont.):  Recoverable Resources (cont.) Recoverable Resources accessible with current technology not economically recoverable in foreseeable future Non-Recoverable Resources so diffuse or remote that they are not ever likely to be technologically accessible Only 0.01% of all minerals are in upper one kilometer of earth’s crust and economically recoverable Categories of Natural Resources:  Categories of Natural Resources Cunningham and Saigo, 1995 World Consumption of Mineral Resources:  World Consumption of Mineral Resources Major World Mineral Sources:  Major World Mineral Sources Statistical Abstract of the US, 1992 Mineral Composition :  Mineral Composition Kupchella and Hyland, 1986

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