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Chapter 3 Discourse&Contextual

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Information about Chapter 3 Discourse&Contextual
Education

Published on October 10, 2008

Author: salina2309

Source: slideshare.net

Description

explanation on the functions and uses of discourse markers and contextual clues. Included some examples and useful tips.
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Reading Skills

"Please consider the following differences" Purpose Students read to learn and to gain what they wanted know. Business Writers read to make things happen.

Purpose

Students read to learn and to gain what they wanted know.

Business Writers read to make things happen.

"Please consider the following differences" Genre Students write exams, essays, journals, term papers, oral reports, etc. Business Writers write memos, letters, proposals, reports, performance evaluations, business plans, marketing plans, audit reports, sales presentations, manuals, contracts.

Genre

Students write exams, essays, journals, term papers, oral reports, etc.

Business Writers write memos, letters, proposals, reports, performance evaluations, business plans, marketing plans, audit reports, sales presentations, manuals, contracts.

Content Students include any points that help them develop their thesis. Business Writers include only what their audiences need to know and omit the rest.

Content

Students include any points that help them develop their thesis.

Business Writers include only what their audiences need to know and omit the rest.

Style Students write complex sentences and lengthy paragraphs to develop the complexity of their ideas. Business Writers typically write shorter, simpler sentences and include much less paragraph development if they use paragraphs at all.

Style

Students write complex sentences and lengthy paragraphs to develop the complexity of their ideas.

Business Writers typically write shorter, simpler sentences and include much less paragraph development if they use paragraphs at all.

DISCOURSE MARKERS Words and phrases that help to develop ideas and relate them to one another These kinds of words and phrases are often called discourse markers Most of discourse markers are formal and used when speaking in a formal context or when presenting complicated information in writing

Words and phrases that help to develop ideas and relate them to one another

These kinds of words and phrases are often called discourse markers

Most of discourse markers are formal and used when speaking in a formal context or when presenting complicated information in writing

Examples Focus : as far as ... is concerned, speaking of which Clarification : I mean, actually Contrast : on the other hand, mind you, whereas Dismissal of previous discourse : anyway, whatever Change of subject : whatever, by the way, ok Consequence : so, then, as a result

Focus : as far as ... is concerned, speaking of which

Clarification : I mean, actually

Contrast : on the other hand, mind you, whereas

Dismissal of previous discourse : anyway, whatever

Change of subject : whatever, by the way, ok

Consequence : so, then, as a result

More Examples.. As far as I am concerned, we should continue to develop our resources. Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip. However , he changed his mind last week. Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom thinks we still need to wait. Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. In addition to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months.

As far as I am concerned, we should continue to develop our resources.

Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip. However , he changed his mind last week.

Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom thinks we still need to wait.

Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. In addition to these costs, our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months.

Functions and uses of discourse markers To indicate a change of subject Regarding our efforts to improve the local economy, we have made ...

To indicate a change of subject

Regarding our efforts to improve the local economy, we have made ...

Functions and uses of discourse markers To give expression to two ideas which contrast but do not contradict each other Football is popular in England, while in Australia they prefer cricket.

To give expression to two ideas which contrast but do not contradict each other

Football is popular in England, while in Australia they prefer cricket.

Functions and uses of discourse markers To present two contrasting ideas Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health. Nonetheless , 40% of the population smokes.

To present two contrasting ideas

Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health. Nonetheless , 40% of the population smokes.

To add information to what has been said I assured him that I would come to his presentation. Furthermore , I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce. Functions and uses of discourse markers

To add information to what has been said

I assured him that I would come to his presentation. Furthermore , I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce.

Try this!

Choose the correct word for each sentence - each is only used once. I had a terrible day at work and lost my umbrella too. I spoke to that nice guy who works in the coffee shop at last! 2. Television turns people into lazy couch potatoes. , there are some educational programmes on. moreover on the other hand at least however besides firstly whereas then actually though

I had a terrible day at work and lost my umbrella too. I spoke to that nice guy who works in the coffee shop at last!

2. Television turns people into lazy couch potatoes. , there are some educational programmes on.

Choose the correct word for each sentence - each is only used once. , I would like to welcome you all to the conference today. 4. the film was a little boring, we still had a nice evening out. moreover on the other hand at least however besides firstly whereas then actually though

, I would like to welcome you all to the conference today.

4. the film was a little boring, we still had a nice evening out.

Choose the correct word for each sentence - each is only used once. 5. I've always known Caroline as a mean person. , she lent me $10 yesterday without me having to ask twice! 6. I got up at 9 o'clock yesterday and had a cold shower. , I had breakfast and left for work. moreover on the other hand at least however besides firstly whereas then actually though

5. I've always known Caroline as a mean person. , she lent me $10 yesterday without me having to ask twice!

6. I got up at 9 o'clock yesterday and had a cold shower. , I had breakfast and left for work.

Choose the correct word for each sentence - each is only used once. 7. My brother works in a large office I work on my own at home. 8. Why do you think I don't want to go out tonight. , I would be delighted to get out of the house. moreover on the other hand at least however besides firstly whereas then actually though

7. My brother works in a large office I work on my own at home.

8. Why do you think I don't want to go out tonight. , I would be delighted to get out of the house.

Choose the correct word for each sentence - each is only used once. 9. You should go to university as it gives you a chance to meet so many new people. , it gives you the chance to get important qualifications and get a better job. 10. I don't want to go to the football game. Football bores me and I don't want to pay $40 for a ticket. , look at the weather! All that rain! moreover on the other hand at least however besides firstly whereas then actually though

9. You should go to university as it gives you a chance to meet so many new people. , it gives you the chance to get important qualifications and get a better job.

10. I don't want to go to the football game. Football bores me and I don't want to pay $40 for a ticket. , look at the weather! All that rain!

CONTEXTUAL CLUES

"Tom decided that he desperately needed the glockum if he were to solve the problem" Make logical guesses about the meaning of the unknown words in the following paragraph.

What is Contextual Clues? When you try to guess the meaning of an unknown word, you use the text surrounding the word – the context

When you try to guess the meaning of an unknown word, you use the text surrounding the word – the context

Reading Clues Deduction - What does the sentence concern? Which words does the unknown word seem to relate to?

Deduction - What does the sentence concern? Which words does the unknown word seem to relate to?

Reading Clues Part of Speech - Which part of speech is the unknown word? Is it a verb, noun, preposition, adjective, time expression or something else?

Part of Speech - Which part of speech is the unknown word? Is it a verb, noun, preposition, adjective, time expression or something else?

Reading Clues Chunking - What do the words around the unknown word(s) mean? How could the unknown word(s) relate to those words? - This is basically deduction on a more local level.

Chunking - What do the words around the unknown word(s) mean? How could the unknown word(s) relate to those words? - This is basically deduction on a more local level.

Reading Clues Vocabulary Activation - When quickly skimming through the text, what does the text seem to concern? Does the layout (design) of the text give any clues? Does the publication or type of book give any clues to what the text might be about? Which words can you think of that belong to this vocabulary category?

Vocabulary Activation - When quickly skimming through the text, what does the text seem to concern? Does the layout (design) of the text give any clues? Does the publication or type of book give any clues to what the text might be about? Which words can you think of that belong to this vocabulary category?

Example 1 Try to guess the meaning of gargantuan in this sentence. Some of the trees in Redwood National Park are truly gargantuan, and in fact they are the tallest tree in the world. ‘ very large’

Try to guess the meaning of gargantuan in this sentence.

Some of the trees in Redwood National Park are truly gargantuan, and in fact they are the tallest tree in the world.

‘ very large’

Example 2 Do you know the meaning of the word misogynist? A misogynist is

Do you know the meaning of the word misogynist?

A misogynist is

A misogynist is Mary realized that Mr Ashman was a misogynist soon after she started working as his assistant. It is difficult for a woman to work for a misogynist. She is never sure if his criticism is based on her work or on the fact that she is a woman. Mary knew that no woman would ever get a top-level job in a company run by a misogynist.

Mary realized that Mr Ashman was a misogynist soon after she started working as his assistant.

It is difficult for a woman to work for a misogynist. She is never sure if his criticism is based on her work or on the fact that she is a woman.

Mary knew that no woman would ever get a top-level job in a company run by a misogynist.

A misogynist is a man may sometimes criticize a woman just because she is a woman may not be fair to women A misogynist is someone who dislikes women.

a man

may sometimes criticize a woman just because she is a woman

may not be fair to women

A misogynist is someone who dislikes women.

CONTEXTUAL CLUES Jack quickly entered the didot and cleaned the various misturaes he had been using to repair the wuipit. He had often thought that this job was extremely yulling. However, he had to admit that this time things seemed to be a bit easier. When he finished, he put on his redick and went back to the study to relax. He took out his favourite pipe and settled into the beautiful new pogtry. What a fantastic schnappy he had made when he had bought the pogtry. Only 300 yagmas!

Jack quickly entered the didot and cleaned the various misturaes he had been using to repair the wuipit. He had often thought that this job was extremely yulling. However, he had to admit that this time things seemed to be a bit easier. When he finished, he put on his redick and went back to the study to relax. He took out his favourite pipe and settled into the beautiful new pogtry. What a fantastic schnappy he had made when he had bought the pogtry. Only 300 yagmas!

What could a 'didot' be? What part of speech is 'misturaes'? If Jack used the 'misturaes' to repair the 'wuipit' what do you think the 'mistraes' must be? What could 'yulling' mean? - What part of speech is often used with an ending '-ing '?

What could a 'didot' be?

What part of speech is 'misturaes'?

If Jack used the 'misturaes' to repair the 'wuipit' what do you think the 'mistraes' must be?

What could 'yulling' mean? - What part of speech is often used with an ending '-ing '?

Which synonym could be used for 'yulling'? What type of things do you put on? Based on the above question, what kind of thing must a 'redick' be? Is a 'pogtry' used inside or outside? Which words let you know that the 'pogtry' was cheap?

Which synonym could be used for 'yulling'?

What type of things do you put on?

Based on the above question, what kind of thing must a 'redick' be?

Is a 'pogtry' used inside or outside?

Which words let you know that the 'pogtry' was cheap?

THANK YOU..

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