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Chapter 3 Birth Of Civilisations

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Information about Chapter 3 Birth Of Civilisations

Published on July 8, 2008

Author: donaldleo

Source: slideshare.net

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chp 3 birth of civilisations
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Chapter Three Birth of Civilisations Chapter 3 Slide 1

Learning Objectives What are ‘civilisations’, ‘kingdoms’ and ‘empires’? What were the factors that led to the rise of civilisations? What are the features of a civilisation? Chapter 3 Slide 2

What are ‘civilisations’, ‘kingdoms’ and ‘empires’?

What were the factors that led to the rise of civilisations?

What are the features of a civilisation?

This picture shows how people lived thousands of years ago. How are their lives different from ours? Chapter 3 Slide 3

How civilisations began… Chapter 3 Slide 4

Early people roamed around to hunt for animals and gather food. Chapter 3 Slide 5

Later, people began to live in small groups after learning how to grow crops and rear animals. When these groups of people come together and develop a way of life, they are said to share the same culture . Chapter 3 Slide 6

When a culture has developed over a long time and becomes advanced, we call it a civilisation . Chapter 3 Slide 7

RECAP!! What is a civilisation? From the Latin word civilis Has to do with people who live in cities People sharing a common culture Chapter 3 Slide 8

From the Latin word civilis

Has to do with people who live in cities

People sharing a common culture

Cradle of Civilisation The cradle of a civilisation refers to the place where a civilisation first began . What do you think were the conditions that led to the rise of civilisations? Chapter 3 Slide 9

What Is a Kingdom? Chapter 3 Slide 10 Ordinary people and lands Chiefs Kings

What Is an Empire? Chapter 3 Slide 11 Emperor Ordinary people and lands Kings Chiefs

RECAP!! What is the difference between a kingdom and an empire? Chapter 3 Slide 12

Civilisation in India Origins Features Decline Arrival of the Aryans The Indus Valley Civilisation Chapter 3 Slide 13

Origins

Features

Decline

Arrival of the Aryans

Origins Began around 3000 BCE Dravidians settled in the Indus plains Built cities e.g. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Chapter 3 Slide 14 A map showing the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation

Began around 3000 BCE

Dravidians settled in the Indus plains

Built cities e.g. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro

What were the features of the Indus Valley Civilisation? Chapter 3 Slide 15

Government Architectural evidence — well-planned streets, a drainage system, public buildings and a citadel Chapter 3 Slide 16 The ruins of a street in Mohenjo-daro

Variety of Occupations Chapter 3 Slide 17 Farmers, craftsmen and traders King-priests who conducted religious ceremonies

Farmers, craftsmen and traders

King-priests who conducted religious

ceremonies

Indus seals–probably used by traders for identifying goods Writing Chapter 3 Slide 18 Not deciphered yet A seal depicting a bull

Indus seals–probably used by traders for identifying goods

Not deciphered yet

Why Did the Indus Valley Civilisation Decline? Invasion by another people — the Aryans Chapter 3 Slide 19 Probable causes : Severe floods killed many and forced others to leave

Invasion by another people

— the Aryans

Severe floods killed many

and forced others to leave

The Aryans Nomads, came from the western part of Asia Entered India in small groups, fought with Dravidians, but settled down Gradually moved eastwards into Ganges valley Cultures of Dravidians and Aryans gradually mixed, as seen in Hinduism Chapter 3 Slide 20 Movement of Aryans into Ganges Valley

Nomads, came from the western part of Asia

Entered India in

small groups, fought with Dravidians, but

settled down

Gradually moved

eastwards into Ganges valley

Cultures of Dravidians and Aryans gradually mixed, as seen in Hinduism

Civilisation in China Origins Features Decline Chapter 3 Slide 21 The Shang dynasty A map showing the extent of the Shang dynasty

Origins

Features

Decline

Longshan (2200 BCE) People reared animals and farmed Lived in walled communities Made pottery from potters’ wheels Yangshao (3000 BCE) People hunted, reared animals and farmed Chapter 3 Slide 22 The Yangshao and Longshan villages Origins

Longshan (2200 BCE)

People reared

animals and farmed

Lived in walled communities

Made pottery from potters’ wheels

Yangshao (3000 BCE)

People

hunted,

reared

animals

and farmed

What were the features of the Shang Civilisation? Chapter 3 Slide 23

Ruled by kings from same family line Government Chapter 3 Slide 24 Lived in capital city,ruled surrounding villages and smaller cities Temples, palaces storehouses in capital city Picture of the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) of the Shang dynasty

Ruled by kings from

same family line

Lived in capital

city,ruled surrounding

villages and smaller

cities

Temples, palaces

storehouses in capital city

Merchants Craftsmen Priests Farmers Chapter 3 Slide 25 Variety of Occupations

Merchants

Craftsmen

Priests

Farmers

Pictograms Found on oracle bones Over 3 000 characters The basis of modern Chinese script Chapter 3 Slide 26 Writing

Pictograms

Found on oracle bones

Over 3 000 characters

The basis of modern

Chinese script

End of the Shang Dynasty Chapter 3 Slide 27 Last Shang king assassinated in 1100 BCE Successive dynasties 1644–1912 CE Qin 1368–1644 CE Ming 1279–1368 CE Yuan 960–1279 CE Song 618–907 CE Tang 581–617 CE Sui 202 BCE–220 CE Han 221–206 BCE Qin 1027–221 BCE Eastern Zhou 1523–1027 BCE Western Zhou

Civilisations in Southeast Asia Growth Features Chapter 3 Slide 28 A map of Southeast Asia

Growth

Features

Consists of present-day Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar Rivers that flow through these areas include the Irrawady River and the Mekong River Mainland Southeast Asia Chapter 3 Slide 29

Consists of present-day Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar

Rivers that flow through these areas include the Irrawady River and the Mekong River

Island Southeast Asia Made up of thousands of islands separated by seas Much of it is now made up by present-day Indonesia and Philippines Chapter 3 Slide 30 An illustration of an Illanun pirate boat. Piracy was common in island Southeast Asia.

Made up of thousands of islands

separated by seas

Much of it is now made up by

present-day Indonesia and Philippines

Birth of Civilisations Began around 6000 BCE in villages near rivers and seas People were hunters and fishermen By 200 BCE, Indian and Chinese traders came to Southeast Asia and the villages served as resting points. Some grew into port cities, e.g. Oc-eo Chapter 3 Slide 31

Began around 6000 BCE in villages

near rivers and seas

People were hunters and fishermen

By 200 BCE, Indian and Chinese traders

came to Southeast Asia and the

villages served as resting points.

Some grew into port cities, e.g. Oc-eo

Oc-eo (1st–6th century CE) First major port city Capital of Funan Grew because of trade and its strategic location Became less important with the rise of Palembang Chapter 3 Slide 32 The extent of Funan

First major port city

Capital of Funan

Grew because of trade

and its strategic location

Became less important

with the rise of Palembang

Palembang (7th–13th century CE) Located in present-day Sumatra Capital of Srivijaya Grew because of trade and its strategic location Chapter 3 Slide 33 Declined in importance after 13th century CE, when traders went directly to East Java to trade The extent of Srivijaya

Located in present-day Sumatra

Capital of Srivijaya

Grew because of trade and its strategic location

Declined in importance

after 13th century CE,

when traders went directly

to East Java to trade

What were the features of Southeast Asian civilisations? Chapter 3 Slide 34

What were the features of Southeast Asian civilisations?

Government Ruled by kings Assisted by officials Chapter 3 Slide 35 A Malay sultan (king)

Ruled by kings

Assisted by officials

Variety of Occupations Traders Farmers Priests Craftsmen Officials Chapter 3 Slide 36 A 15th century tin coin used by traders in Melaka

Traders

Farmers

Priests

Craftsmen

Officials

Writing Chapter 3 Slide 37 Adopted Sanskrit from traders Sanskrit poems from India. Southeast Asian rulers and officials adopted this script for records. Developed own scripts, e.g. Jawi The Jawi alphabet

Adopted Sanskrit

from traders

Developed own

scripts, e.g. Jawi

Cosmopolitan Various cultures and religions Chapter 3 Slide 38 Kampong Kling mosque, Melaka Buddhist temple in Pagan, Myanmar Angkor Wat in Angkor, Cambodia

Some Powerful Southeast Asian Kingdoms  Funan (1st–6th century CE)  Srivijaya (7th–13th century CE)  Majapahit (800–1432 CE)  Melaka (1403–1511 CE) Chapter 3 Slide 39

Learning Outcomes A ‘civilisation’ is... A ‘kingdom’ is... An 'empire' is... 2.  The factors that led to the rise of civilisations were... 3.  The features of a civilisation are... Chapter 3 Slide 40

A ‘civilisation’ is...

A ‘kingdom’ is...

An 'empire' is...

2.  The factors that led to the rise of civilisations were...

3.  The features of a civilisation are...

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