Chapter 26 WWII Power Point

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Information about Chapter 26 WWII Power Point

Published on May 4, 2008

Author: cuevasl

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Survey of WWII. Lots of pictures and links to outside sources

Chapter 26 1939-1945 World War II

Section 1 Road to War

Road to War

“He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world, where eternal struggle is the law of life, has no right to exist.” Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Adolf Hitler

“He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world, where eternal struggle is the law of life, has no right to exist.”

Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

Adolf Hitler

The Rise of Dictators Ruthless people rose to power in the 1920’s and 1930’s Some Europeans resented terms of Treaty of Versailles Germans had to take full responsibility of WWI Pay billions of dollars in reparation to allies Disarm completely Give up all overseas colonies and some territory in Europe Carved up Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires to create several European countries (borders were later disputed) League of Nations was part of the Treaty

Ruthless people rose to power in the 1920’s and 1930’s

Some Europeans resented terms of Treaty of Versailles

Germans had to take full responsibility of WWI

Pay billions of dollars in reparation to allies

Disarm completely

Give up all overseas colonies and some territory in Europe

Carved up Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires to create several European countries (borders were later disputed)

League of Nations was part of the Treaty

The Players Germany – Italy – Japan- Soviet Union – United States –

Germany –

Italy –

Japan-

Soviet Union –

United States –

Germany – Adolf Hitler -Nazism

Italy – Benito Mussolini -Fascism

Japan- Emperor Hirohito- Constitutional Monarchy

Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin –Communism

United States – Franklin D. Roosevelt -Democracy

Introduction Depression broke out in Europe in 1930 Coincided with the depression in the USA People were frustrated and angry Hitler promised a better future Once in power, he became a dictator One who controls their nation by force

Depression broke out in Europe in 1930

Coincided with the depression in the USA

People were frustrated and angry

Hitler promised a better future

Once in power, he became a dictator

One who controls their nation by force

Adolf Hitler

Germany During the depression millions lost their jobs Economy was on the edge of collapse Germans rallied around Hitler Gained popularity by exploiting people’s concerns about inflation and unemployment and Versailles Treaty 1921 became chairman of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, aka the Nazi Party.

During the depression millions lost their jobs

Economy was on the edge of collapse

Germans rallied around Hitler

Gained popularity by exploiting people’s concerns about inflation and unemployment and Versailles Treaty

1921 became chairman of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, aka the Nazi Party.

 

Hitler's Rise to Power

Hitler's Rise to Power

Germany Continued Hitler was openly racist. Portrayed Germans as: Superior to all Blamed Jews for Germanys problems Anti-Semitism: hatred of the Jews 1933 became Chancellor of Germany, ended all democracy

Hitler was openly racist. Portrayed Germans as:

Superior to all

Blamed Jews for Germanys problems

Anti-Semitism: hatred of the Jews

1933 became Chancellor of Germany, ended all democracy

Established totalitarian rule A single party and its leader suppress all opposition and control all aspects of people’s lives Believed Germans had a right to expand its territory, needed lebensraum - living space Rebuilt Germany’s military- going against the treaty Made an alliance with Italy to support his expansion plans

Established totalitarian rule

A single party and its leader suppress all opposition and control all aspects of people’s lives

Believed Germans had a right to expand its territory, needed lebensraum - living space

Rebuilt Germany’s military- going against the treaty

Made an alliance with Italy to support his expansion plans

Benito Mussolini

Italy Benito Mussolini Appealed to those who felt they had not won enough from the Treaty of Versailles Made fascism popular in Italy Extreme nationalism and racism His fascist party became so strong he forced the king of Italy to declare him ruler of the government

Benito Mussolini

Appealed to those who felt they had not won enough from the Treaty of Versailles

Made fascism popular in Italy

Extreme nationalism and racism

His fascist party became so strong he forced the king of Italy to declare him ruler of the government

He banned all political parties but fascism Ended all democratic rule, no civil liberties or free press Children were enrolled in military organizations, taught loyalty to regime Began attacking and annexing neighboring lands, Ethiopia, Albania…withdrew from the League of Nations

He banned all political parties but fascism

Ended all democratic rule, no civil liberties or free press

Children were enrolled in military organizations, taught loyalty to regime

Began attacking and annexing neighboring lands, Ethiopia, Albania…withdrew from the League of Nations

Brief biography on Mussolini

Brief biography on Mussolini

Emperor Hirohito

Japan Japanese grew frustrated during the depression Military leaders rose to power in the 1930’s These leaders thought they could solve Japan’s problems by expanding their power into Asia 1931 attacked Manchuria, China League condemned the act, but took no action Slowly took over most of China 1940 signed a pact of alliance with Germany and Italy to form the “Axis”

Japanese grew frustrated during the depression

Military leaders rose to power in the 1930’s

These leaders thought they could solve Japan’s problems by expanding their power into Asia

1931 attacked Manchuria, China

League condemned the act, but took no action

Slowly took over most of China

1940 signed a pact of alliance with Germany and Italy to form the “Axis”

Japan invades China

Japan invades

China

Joseph Stalin

Soviet Union Late 1920’s Joseph Stalin rose to power Communist leader Demanded complete obedience from his people Got his through force Executed rivals and those thousands suspected of supporting his rivals Sent millions to Russian labor camps Reorganized nations economy, forcing millions to work on government owned farms

Late 1920’s Joseph Stalin rose to power

Communist leader

Demanded complete obedience from his people

Got his through force

Executed rivals and those thousands suspected of supporting his rivals

Sent millions to Russian labor camps

Reorganized nations economy, forcing millions to work on government owned farms

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin

Franklin D. Roosevelt

The United States of America Most Americans wanted to avoid involvement in foreign affairs Congress passed Neutrality Acts between 1935 and 1937 Banned the sale of weapons to nations at war Restricted trade to nations on a cash only basis (WWI debt from European countries remained unpaid)

Most Americans wanted to avoid involvement in foreign affairs

Congress passed Neutrality Acts between 1935 and 1937

Banned the sale of weapons to nations at war

Restricted trade to nations on a cash only basis (WWI debt from European countries remained unpaid)

 

Words of Roosevelt

Words of Roosevelt

Hitler Begins Rhineland March 1936 Begins march (locate on your maps) German territory west of the Rhine River Considered a neutral zone by the treaty German soldiers prohibited in area France and Britain protested, but did nothing else

Rhineland

March 1936 Begins march (locate on your maps)

German territory west of the Rhine River

Considered a neutral zone by the treaty

German soldiers prohibited in area

France and Britain protested, but did nothing else

Rhineland Invasion

Austria German speaking nation Hitler insisted it be united with Germany 1938 annexed it

Austria

German speaking nation

Hitler insisted it be united with Germany

1938 annexed it

 

Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia) Many German speaking people lived here Falsely claimed these people were being persecuted, Czechs did not want to be annexed; Britain & France sought peaceful solution Leaders of Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain met in Munich

Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia)

Many German speaking people lived here

Falsely claimed these people were being persecuted,

Czechs did not want to be annexed; Britain & France sought peaceful solution

Leaders of Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain met in Munich

Sudetenland

The Munich Pact Czechs did not want to be annexed; Britain & France sought peaceful solution Leaders of Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain met in Munich France and Britain wanted to avoid war Let Germany have the Sudetenland; appeasement

Czechs did not want to be annexed; Britain & France sought peaceful solution

Leaders of Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain met in Munich

France and Britain wanted to avoid war

Let Germany have the Sudetenland; appeasement

The Munich Pact In return, Germany could not expand farther. Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister, cheered March, 1939, Germany invaded Czechoslovakia World is realizing Hitler cannot be trusted

In return, Germany could not expand farther.

Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister, cheered

March, 1939, Germany invaded Czechoslovakia

World is realizing Hitler cannot be trusted

Munich Pact

All Smiles…..for a little while

Nazi-Soviet Pact Germany making plans to invade Poland Poland bordered Russia Hitler did not want to anger Stalin, yet. Both signed Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact- August 1939 2 leaders pledged not to attack each other Agreed to divide Poland Pact shocked the world

Germany making plans to invade Poland

Poland bordered Russia

Hitler did not want to anger Stalin, yet.

Both signed Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact- August 1939

2 leaders pledged not to attack each other

Agreed to divide Poland

Pact shocked the world

Nazi-Soviet Pact

A short lived celebration …

Let’s add it all up…

 

What do you know? Identify the leader with their country Adolf Hitler Franklin D. Roosevelt Benito Mussolini Joseph Stalin

Identify the leader with their country

Adolf Hitler

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Benito Mussolini

Joseph Stalin

Identify the political philosophy with the leader Fascism Communism Democracy Nazism Constitutional Monarchy

Identify the political philosophy with the leader

Fascism

Communism

Democracy

Nazism

Constitutional Monarchy

What goals did the leaders of Germany, Italy and Japan have in common for their respective countries?

What goals did the leaders of Germany, Italy and Japan have in common for their respective countries?

Section 2 War Begins

War Begins

“We are determined to keep out of war, yet we cannot insure ourselves against the disastrous effects of war and the dangers of involvement.” –Franklin Roosevelt, 1937 2 years later Europe was at war again 2 years after that Pearl Harbor was attacked, America at war again

“We are determined to keep out of war, yet we cannot insure ourselves against the disastrous effects of war and the dangers of involvement.” –Franklin Roosevelt, 1937

2 years later Europe was at war again

2 years after that Pearl Harbor was attacked, America at war again

War in Europe Hitler sends Troops to Poland Great Britain & France declare War on Germany 9-1-39 9-3-39

 

The Attack Swift and Fierce Planes bombed Machine guns got their targets Tanks blasted holes in Polish defenses Thousands of German soldiers crossed into Poland

Swift and Fierce

Planes bombed

Machine guns got their targets

Tanks blasted holes in Polish defenses

Thousands of German soldiers crossed into Poland

 

Blitzkrieg Lightning War The German offensive way of fighting Moving in quickly, forcefully, from all sides

Lightning War

The German offensive way of fighting

Moving in quickly, forcefully, from all sides

Soviets Expand Soviets moved in and divided Poland Baltic republics forced to accept Soviet military Bases Finland fought against Soviets Eventually had to surrender Finland

Soviets moved in and divided Poland

Baltic republics forced to accept Soviet military Bases

Finland fought

against Soviets

Eventually had to

surrender

The War Expands Through the winter, Western front quiet British & French settle in on Maginot Line Steel and concrete bunkers on German Line

Through the winter, Western front quiet

British & French settle in on Maginot Line

Steel and concrete bunkers on German Line

Maginot Line Maginot Line

 

Maginot Line Cutaway

Springtime didn’t bring flowers, but bombs Hitler attacked Denmark and Norway 1 month later he attacked Netherlands and Belgium

Springtime didn’t bring flowers, but bombs

Hitler attacked Denmark and Norway

1 month later he attacked Netherlands and Belgium

 

The Cry for Help! Netherlands and Belgium ask for help from Great Britain and France (The Allies) Both countries were defeated Allied troops retreat to port of Dunkirk on the northwest corner of France on the English Channel

Netherlands and Belgium ask for help from Great Britain and France (The Allies)

Both countries were defeated

Allied troops retreat to port of Dunkirk on the northwest corner of France on the English Channel

Battle of Dunkirk Allied troops are trapped between German troops and French coast 800 British ships; warships, ferries, fishing boats set out to rescue the troops Crossed the English Channel over and over Evacuated 300,000 French & British troops

Allied troops are trapped between German troops and French coast

800 British ships; warships, ferries, fishing boats set out to rescue the troops

Crossed the English Channel over and over

Evacuated 300,000 French & British troops

Germans continue on into France Italy decides to join in with Germany Begins attacking France from the southeast June 14, 1940 Germany marches and takes Paris by using Blitzkrieg. France surrenders 1 week later

Germans continue on into France

Italy decides to join in with Germany

Begins attacking France from the southeast

June 14, 1940 Germany marches and takes Paris by using Blitzkrieg.

France surrenders 1 week later

One superpower down, one to go for Hitler August-1940 Hitler bombed British shipyards, industries, cities. Killed civilians by destroying entire neighborhoods in London Wanted to break morale before complete invasion

August-1940

Hitler bombed British shipyards, industries, cities.

Killed civilians by destroying entire neighborhoods in London

Wanted to break morale before complete invasion

The Battle of Britain Prime Minister of England when asked to surrender “ We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender.”-Winston Churchill, 1940

Prime Minister of England when asked to surrender

“ We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall never surrender.”-Winston Churchill,

1940

Brits continue to fight through October Germans never gain air control over them British Royal Air force ( RAF) cause heavy damage to German Air Force Hitler calls off invasion and sets his sights elsewhere

Brits continue to fight through October

Germans never gain air control over them

British Royal Air force ( RAF) cause heavy damage to German Air Force

Hitler calls off invasion and sets his sights elsewhere

The Eastern Turn Hitler is frustrated about Britain One of his biggest dreams is to DESTROY THE SOVIET UNION Launches attack June, 1941 Only takes months to move into Soviet Territory We will revisit this later !!!!!!!

Hitler is frustrated about Britain

One of his biggest dreams is to

DESTROY THE SOVIET UNION

Launches attack June, 1941

Only takes months to move into Soviet Territory

We will revisit this later !!!!!!!

Here We Go Again, America and the War America watches, sympathizing with Allies Determined not to enter war Isolationist form the America First Committee Thought we should mind our own business Charles Lindbergh Henry Ford

America watches, sympathizing with Allies

Determined not to enter war

Isolationist form the America First Committee

Thought we should mind our own business

Charles Lindbergh

Henry Ford

FDR Prepares the Nation Vowed to remain neutral, but took steps to prepare for war; as follows 1938 – Congress votes to strengthen Navy 1939 – Passed a new Neutrality Act Could sell weapons on a “cash and carry” basis 1940 – signed the Selective Training and Service Act – a.k.a. THE DRAFT 1 st peacetime draft in US history Applied to men ages 21 through 35

Vowed to remain neutral, but took steps to prepare for war; as follows

1938 – Congress votes to strengthen Navy

1939 – Passed a new Neutrality Act

Could sell weapons on a “cash and carry” basis

1940 – signed the Selective Training and Service Act – a.k.a. THE DRAFT

1 st peacetime draft in US history

Applied to men ages 21 through 35

Election Time in America Roosevelt runs for a 3 rd term Republican opponent, Wendell Willkie Roosevelt promised “ Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.” Easy victory

Roosevelt runs for a 3 rd term

Republican opponent, Wendell Willkie

Roosevelt promised

“ Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.”

Easy victory

Lend-Lease Act Roosevelt begins supporting Allies openly March, 1941 Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act Allowed America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies that were “ vital to the defense of the USA.” Britain, almost broke, was the 1 st in line Isolationist disapproved the act Said it would increase US involvement in war

Roosevelt begins supporting Allies openly

March, 1941 Congress passes the Lend-Lease Act

Allowed America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies that were “ vital to the defense of the USA.”

Britain, almost broke, was the 1 st in line

Isolationist disapproved the act

Said it would increase US involvement in war

America lends a helping hand British supply ships enroute from USA were being sunk by German Subs April, 1941- American ships began escorting British merchant ships across the Atlantic Roosevelt issued “shoot on sight” order for American destroyers being shot upon by German and Italian ships

British supply ships enroute from USA were being sunk by German Subs

April, 1941- American ships began escorting British merchant ships across the Atlantic

Roosevelt issued “shoot on sight” order for American destroyers being shot upon by German and Italian ships

Atlantic Charter August, 1941 FDR & Churchill met and drew up the Atlantic Charter Goals for the world after “the final destruction of Nazi Tyranny” Every nation free to choose their own type of government & live free from “fear and want” Urged disarmament (giving up weapons) Creating a permanent system of general security

August, 1941

FDR & Churchill met and drew up the Atlantic Charter

Goals for the world after “the final destruction of Nazi Tyranny”

Every nation free to choose their own type of government & live free from “fear and want”

Urged disarmament (giving up weapons)

Creating a permanent system of general security

The Japanese Threat 1930’s seized much of China Seized French colony of Indochina Planned to take Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, American Territory of the Philippines Wanted their rubber and oil

1930’s seized much of China

Seized French colony of Indochina

Planned to take Dutch East Indies, British Malaya, American Territory of the Philippines

Wanted their rubber and oil

 

 

America Responds to Japan Money Talks FDR freezes all Japanese assets in US banks Stops sale of oil, gas and natural resources Japan is outraged September, 1941 General Hideki Tojo becomes Prime Minister of Japan Confident in Japan, begins planning attack on America

Money Talks

FDR freezes all Japanese assets in US banks

Stops sale of oil, gas and natural resources

Japan is outraged

September, 1941 General Hideki Tojo becomes Prime Minister of Japan

Confident in Japan, begins planning attack on America

Pearl Harbor, Hawaii December 7, 1941 at 7:55 a.m. Japanese warplanes attack Military base “I was on the deck of my flagship and saw the first enemy bomb fall . . . Plumes over one hundred feet high went up from bombs that hit close alongside of battleships.” –Rear Admiral William R. Furlong

December 7, 1941 at 7:55 a.m.

Japanese warplanes attack Military base

“I was on the deck of my flagship and saw the first enemy bomb fall . . . Plumes over one hundred feet high went up from bombs that hit close alongside of battleships.” –Rear Admiral William R. Furlong

Damage Report Destroyed 8 battleships 3 cruisers 4 other vessels Hundreds of planes (on the ground) More than 2400 soldiers, sailors, civilians killed 3 aircraft carriers were out at sea and saved

Destroyed 8 battleships

3 cruisers

4 other vessels

Hundreds of planes (on the ground)

More than 2400 soldiers, sailors, civilians killed

3 aircraft carriers were out at sea and saved

http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112601/archive/archive_frameset.html http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112601/archive/archive_frameset.html

http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm

Now where does America Stand? YOU TELL ME What did the bombing of Pearl Harbor do to the spirit of the American people? What does this picture tell you?

YOU TELL ME

What did the bombing of Pearl Harbor do to the spirit of the American people?

What does this picture tell you?

 

The President’s Address to the Nation http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm

http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/fdrpearlharbor.htm

War is Declared December 8, FDR asks Congress for a declaration of war-approved War is declared on Japan December 11, 1941 Germany, Italy declare war on America America joins the Allied nations including Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union vs. the Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan WWII is now fully involved

December 8, FDR asks Congress for a declaration of war-approved

War is declared on Japan

December 11, 1941 Germany, Italy declare war on America

America joins the Allied nations including Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union vs. the Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan

WWII is now fully involved

Section 3 ON THE HOMEFRONT

ON THE HOMEFRONT

AMERICA PREPARES Pearl Harbor was a rally cry for America Brought people together as a nation Remember, people didn’t want another war That was then, this is now

Pearl Harbor was a rally cry for America

Brought people together as a nation

Remember, people didn’t want another war

That was then, this is now

Raising an Army Draft was occurring before Pearl Harbor attack-Selective Service Act 1940-41 15 Million Americans joined the service Drafted or volunteered 1 st time large #’s of women served

Draft was occurring before Pearl Harbor attack-Selective Service Act 1940-41

15 Million Americans joined the service

Drafted or volunteered

1 st time large #’s of women served

Women in the Military WAC’s (Women’s Army Corp) 350,000 WAVES (Women’s Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy) Also women in other branches of the service Did not fight in combat Clerical, nursing, but important roles

WAC’s (Women’s Army Corp) 350,000

WAVES (Women’s Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy)

Also women in other branches of the service

Did not fight in combat

Clerical, nursing, but important roles

Johnny needs a new gun! Nations economy changed in order to supply the demands of the war effort Nation had to mobilize Military and civilian preparation for war War Production Board Supervised conversion of industry to war production Made trucks and tanks instead of cars

Nations economy changed in order to supply the demands of the war effort

Nation had to mobilize

Military and civilian preparation for war

War Production Board

Supervised conversion of industry to war production

Made trucks and tanks instead of cars

Office of Price Administration Limits on consumer prices and rent Keep inflation down National War Labor Board Resolved labor disputes that might slow war production down. (no fighting here, while we have fighting over there!) Office of War Mobilization Watch dog of all the agencies. Make sure everyone and everything runs smoothly

Office of Price Administration

Limits on consumer prices and rent

Keep inflation down

National War Labor Board

Resolved labor disputes that might slow war production down. (no fighting here, while we have fighting over there!)

Office of War Mobilization

Watch dog of all the agencies.

Make sure everyone and everything runs smoothly

Who’s Gonna Pay? 1941 to end America pays $320 Billion 10X more than WW1 Most raised through taxes Revenue Act of 1942 Raised corporate tax Required most Americans to pay taxes Government –withholding taxes from paychecks- still today

1941 to end America pays $320 Billion

10X more than WW1

Most raised through taxes

Revenue Act of 1942

Raised corporate tax

Required most Americans to pay taxes

Government –withholding taxes from paychecks- still today

War Bonds Average American Worker $2000 a year 85.3 cents per hour Once war kicks in $40/week Most workers though were not average .40 hr or $16 wk All were asked to buy war bonds Buy an “e” bond for 75% face value/10yr return Movie stars, celebrities etc. encouraged people

Average American Worker

$2000 a year

85.3 cents per hour

Once war kicks in $40/week

Most workers though were not average

.40 hr or $16 wk

All were asked to buy war bonds

Buy an “e” bond for 75% face value/10yr return

Movie stars, celebrities etc. encouraged people

Wartime America War is costly but also prosperous Industry soared 70,000 ships built 100,000 tanks & planes Millions of guns Built fast-cargo ship built in 17 days Out of depression

War is costly but also prosperous

Industry soared

70,000 ships built

100,000 tanks & planes

Millions of guns

Built fast-cargo ship built in 17 days

Out of depression

Sacrifices to be made Biggest – loved ones going overseas Dreaded receiving the “telegram” Industry concentrating on war goods Consumer goods came 2 nd Automakers stopped making new cars No silk stockings for women-nylon for parachutes Ration coupon books Gas, tires, sugar, meat, shoes No coupon-no item

Biggest – loved ones going overseas

Dreaded receiving the “telegram”

Industry concentrating on war goods

Consumer goods came 2 nd

Automakers stopped making new cars

No silk stockings for women-nylon for parachutes

Ration coupon books

Gas, tires, sugar, meat, shoes

No coupon-no item

Lending a helping from home Planted “victory gardens” for veggie shortage Kids collected scrap metal for industry Joined in civil defense-protective measures in case of attack Volunteer spotters Coastal cities enforced blackouts/no beacons Office of War Information Promoted patriotism Broadcasted war messages all over the world

Planted “victory gardens” for veggie shortage

Kids collected scrap metal for industry

Joined in civil defense-protective measures in case of attack

Volunteer spotters

Coastal cities enforced blackouts/no beacons

Office of War Information

Promoted patriotism

Broadcasted war messages all over the world

Women and Minorities War brought opportunity for new jobs and new roles Some brought unfair treatment Women took over men’s factory jobs Welders, riveters etc. Still earned less then men, go figure! Lost jobs when war ended Changed opinion about women in workforce

War brought opportunity for new jobs and new roles

Some brought unfair treatment

Women took over men’s factory jobs

Welders, riveters etc.

Still earned less then men, go figure!

Lost jobs when war ended

Changed opinion about women in workforce

 

African Americans During the War 700,000 served during the war 1 st most were given low level jobs Segregated units Gradually assigned to integrated units 1942 army trained whites/African Americans in officer candidate school Allowed to take combat jobs

700,000 served during the war

1 st most were given low level jobs

Segregated units

Gradually assigned to integrated units

1942 army trained whites/African Americans in officer candidate school

Allowed to take combat jobs

Tuskegee Airmen 332 nd Fighter Group Shot down more than 200 enemy planes Benjamin Davis Jr. – 1 st African American General in USAF, his father, Davis Sr. 1 st General in Army

332 nd Fighter Group

Shot down more than 200 enemy planes

Benjamin Davis Jr. – 1 st African American General in USAF, his father, Davis Sr. 1 st General in Army

 

 

African Americans at home A. Phillip Randolph- labor leader -demanded government ban discrimination in defense industries Planned a huge rally; Pres asked him to stop Pres established “Fair Employment Practices Commission” Combat discrimination in industries that held government contracts

A. Phillip Randolph- labor leader

-demanded government ban discrimination in defense industries

Planned a huge rally; Pres asked him to stop

Pres established “Fair Employment Practices Commission”

Combat discrimination in industries that held government contracts

“…there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in the defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin. President Roosevelt

“…there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in the defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin. President Roosevelt

Population Shift African Americans started moving North and West for work Racial tensions erupted in violence/death African American poet Langston Hughes “ Yet you say we’re fightin’ for democracy. Then why don’t democracy include me?”

African Americans started moving North and West for work

Racial tensions erupted in violence/death

African American poet Langston Hughes

“ Yet you say we’re fightin’ for democracy.

Then why don’t democracy include me?”

Native Americans Thousands served in armed forces Ira Hayes-hero in Battle for Iwo Jima Used Navajo language as code

Thousands served in armed forces

Ira Hayes-hero in Battle for Iwo Jima

Used Navajo language as code

 

Hispanic Americans 500,000 served in armed forces 17 received Congressional Medal of Honor Mercedes Cubria – Cuba 1 st Hispanic female officer in WAC Horacio Rivero-Puerto Rico 1 st Hispanic 4 star admiral Bracero program- stimulated emigration from Mexico to recruit farm and RR workers

500,000 served in armed forces

17 received Congressional Medal of Honor

Mercedes Cubria – Cuba

1 st Hispanic female officer in WAC

Horacio Rivero-Puerto Rico

1 st Hispanic 4 star admiral

Bracero program- stimulated emigration from Mexico to recruit farm and RR workers

Japanese Americans Feared and hated by other Americans 2/3 were Nisei US born citizens Many questioned their loyalty Relocated 100,000 West coast Japanese to internment camps in desert Harsh and uncomfortable

Feared and hated by other Americans

2/3 were Nisei

US born citizens

Many questioned their loyalty

Relocated

100,000 West coast Japanese to internment camps in desert

Harsh and uncomfortable

QUESTION Do you think the United States was justified in sending Japanese Americans to internment camps? What two ways did the US finance the war effort. How did wartime industrial production help the American economy recover from the depression?

Do you think the United States was justified in sending Japanese Americans to internment camps?

What two ways did the US finance the war effort.

How did wartime industrial production help the American economy recover from the depression?

Many stayed 3 years Leave possessions/business behind Homes sold at loss or abandoned 1988 Congress issued formal apology $20,000 per person token

Many stayed 3 years

Leave possessions/business behind

Homes sold at loss or abandoned

1988 Congress issued formal apology

$20,000 per person token

 

Section 4 War in Europe and Africa

War in Europe and Africa

The Allies United States- Jan 1942 Britain Soviet Union 23 other nations 1 st stop – Adolf Hitler

United States- Jan 1942

Britain

Soviet Union

23 other nations

1 st stop – Adolf Hitler

North African Campaign German occupied much of Europe & Africa Churchill, FDR look to Africa Axis forces led by Erwin Rommel Desert Fox Nov 1942- El Alamein in Egypt Foiled Suez Canal

German occupied much of Europe & Africa

Churchill, FDR look to Africa

Axis forces led by Erwin Rommel

Desert Fox

Nov 1942- El Alamein in Egypt

Foiled Suez Canal

 

 

Nov- 1942 Algeria – Morocco American-British-Canadian Troops Dwight D. Eisenhower America Defeated George Patton May 1943

Nov- 1942

Algeria – Morocco

American-British-Canadian Troops

Dwight D. Eisenhower

America Defeated

George Patton

May 1943

 

Italian Invasion Bases in North Africa Island of Sicily-Summer 1943 Mainland – September Overthrow of Mussolini German resistance in Italy Monte Cassino Anzio Rome

Bases in North Africa

Island of Sicily-Summer 1943

Mainland – September

Overthrow of Mussolini

German resistance in Italy

Monte Cassino

Anzio

Rome

 

Air War In Germany Allies launch air attacks – summer 1942 American bombers by day British bombers by night massive destruction Thousands of civilians killed

Allies launch air attacks – summer 1942

American bombers by day

British bombers by night

massive destruction

Thousands of civilians killed

 

Soviets and Germans Battle it out! Initial invasion- June 1941 Leningrad – 900 day siege Russians refused to give in 1944 siege broke Moscow- Capital Stalingrad- Spring 1942 Turning Point

Initial invasion- June 1941

Leningrad – 900 day siege

Russians refused to give in

1944 siege broke

Moscow- Capital

Stalingrad- Spring 1942

Turning Point

Allied Invasion of France Operation Overlord Coast of Normandy- June 6, 1944 D-Day A million troops Liberation of Paris

Operation Overlord

Coast of Normandy- June 6, 1944

D-Day

A million troops

Liberation of Paris

Germany is going down Germans being squeezed Germany’s last ditch effort Battle of the Bulge End of German Resistance Berlin Hitler commits suicide V E Day – May 8 1945

Germans being squeezed

Germany’s last ditch effort

Battle of the Bulge

End of German Resistance

Berlin

Hitler commits suicide

V E Day – May 8 1945

America Mourns FDR never sees VE day Dies April 12, 1945 Harry S. Truman

FDR never sees VE day

Dies April 12, 1945

Harry S. Truman

 

The Holocaust Hitler’s warning in 1939 Destruction of Jews in Europe Genocide Solution to the “Jewish Question” What is it?

Hitler’s warning in 1939

Destruction of Jews in Europe

Genocide

Solution to the “Jewish Question”

What is it?

Persecution began with Hitler gaining power At start of war, rounded up and shot Mass graves “I watched a family of about eight persons…They went down into the pit, lined themselves up against the previous victims and were shot.”—witness of a massacre of Russian Jews

began with Hitler gaining power

At start of war, rounded up and shot

Mass graves

“I watched a family of about eight persons…They went down into the pit, lined themselves up against the previous victims and were shot.”—witness of a massacre of Russian Jews

 

 

Concentration Camps Crammed into railroad cars Prison camps Shaved heads, tattooed #’s on arms Starving conditions-soup-bread

Crammed into railroad cars

Prison camps

Shaved heads, tattooed #’s on arms

Starving conditions-soup-bread

 

 

The Final Solution Built death camps Killed thousands a day in gas chambers Burned bodies in ovens Largest camp – Auschwitz in Poland Nazi’s killed 1 – 2 million there 6 million Jews, Soviet POW’s, cripples, Poles, & Gypsies killed Known as the Holocaust

Built death camps

Killed thousands a day in gas chambers

Burned bodies in ovens

Largest camp – Auschwitz in Poland

Nazi’s killed 1 – 2 million there

6 million Jews, Soviet POW’s, cripples, Poles, & Gypsies killed

Known as the Holocaust

 

http:// www.remember.org/auschwitz/aus.php

http:// www.remember.org/auschwitz/aus.php

 

Section 5 War in the Pacific

War in the Pacific

Busy, Busy, Busy . . . December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor Wake Island Guam All Key American Bases Invasion of Thailand Malaya Guam Hong Kong (British Colony)

December 7, 1941

Pearl Harbor

Wake Island

Guam

All Key American Bases

Invasion of

Thailand

Malaya

Guam

Hong Kong (British Colony)

 

The Philippines Japanese take Manila mid-Dec Gen. Douglas MacArthur American Troops Filipino Troops Retreat to Bataan Peninsula- Island of Corregidor April, 1942 Bataan Falls May, 1942 Corregidor Falls

Japanese take Manila mid-Dec

Gen. Douglas MacArthur

American Troops

Filipino Troops

Retreat to Bataan Peninsula- Island of Corregidor

April, 1942 Bataan Falls

May, 1942 Corregidor Falls

 

The Bataan Death March Prisoners forced to walk 60 miles to camp 76,000 started, 54,000 made it alive “ Anybody that could walk, they forced ‘em into line . . .If you fell out to the side, you were either shot by the guards or you were bayoneted [stabbed] and left there.”

Prisoners forced to walk 60 miles to camp

76,000 started, 54,000 made it alive

“ Anybody that could walk, they forced ‘em into line . . .If you fell out to the side, you were either shot by the guards or you were bayoneted [stabbed] and left there.”

 

General MacArthur’s Promise Left for Australia 2 months before surrender in Bataan Promised Filipino’s “I Shall Return”

Left for Australia 2 months before surrender in Bataan

Promised Filipino’s “I Shall Return”

Japan is riding high American Morale is low Doolittle Raid B-25 bombers launched from an aircraft carrier in Pacific Bombed targets in Tokyo Little strategic importance; huge morale boost

Doolittle Raid

B-25 bombers launched from an aircraft carrier in Pacific

Bombed targets in Tokyo

Little strategic importance; huge morale boost

 

Series of Raids & Attacks Battle of the Coral Sea Japanese suffered crippling losses Halted Japanese advance to Australia Battle of Midway US Navy destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers; hundreds of planes Major defeat against Japan

Battle of the Coral Sea

Japanese suffered crippling losses

Halted Japanese advance to Australia

Battle of Midway

US Navy destroyed 4 Japanese aircraft carriers; hundreds of planes

Major defeat against Japan

 

Island Hopping Used for attacking and capturing certain strategic islands Used as bases to “hop” to next target Goal: Philippines and Japan

Used for attacking and capturing certain strategic islands

Used as bases to “hop” to next target

Goal: Philippines and Japan

Step 1 Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) Vicious campaign US secured island Step 2 Guam Allowed striking distance of Japan Step 3 Battle of Leyte Gulf (Philippines) Most of Japanese fleet lost Largest naval battle in history General MacArthur kept his promise!

Step 1

Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands)

Vicious campaign

US secured island

Step 2

Guam

Allowed striking distance of Japan

Step 3

Battle of Leyte Gulf (Philippines)

Most of Japanese fleet lost

Largest naval battle in history

General MacArthur kept his promise!

 

 

Step 4 Iwo Jima Okinawa Closing in on Japan Japanese fought/defended hard Thousands of Americans hurt/killed Step 5 Air Raids over Japan Civilians killed Economy crippled

Step 4

Iwo Jima

Okinawa

Closing in on Japan

Japanese fought/defended hard

Thousands of Americans hurt/killed

Step 5

Air Raids over Japan

Civilians killed

Economy crippled

 

Japanese Fight A New Kind of War Kamikaze Trained “suicide” pilots Hit American ships Last real effort against Allies BUT JAPANESE REFUSED TO SURRENDER

Kamikaze

Trained “suicide” pilots

Hit American ships

Last real effort against Allies

BUT

JAPANESE REFUSED TO SURRENDER

 

Albert Einstein German physicist Warned FDR, Germans may use a new type of bomb against US Led to the top secret “Manhattan Project” Tested in New Mexico, 1945

German physicist

Warned FDR, Germans may use a new type of bomb against US

Led to the top secret “Manhattan Project”

Tested in New Mexico, 1945

Should we or shouldn’t we? President Truman had to decide Issued the “Potsdam Declaration” Surrender or else Japan chose “or else”

President Truman had to decide

Issued the “Potsdam Declaration”

Surrender or else

Japan chose “or else”

August 6, 1945 Enola Gay, B-29 Bomber dropped 1 st bomb Hiroshima 70,000 killed Nagasaki (3 days later) 40,000 killed Unimaginable destruction Thousands hurt Many died later of radiation poisoning

August 6, 1945 Enola Gay, B-29 Bomber dropped 1 st bomb

Hiroshima

70,000 killed

Nagasaki (3 days later)

40,000 killed

Unimaginable destruction

Thousands hurt

Many died later of radiation poisoning

 

VJ Day August 15 th 1945 Japan Surrenders Formal surrender signed September 2 nd USS Missouri WWII IS OVER

August 15 th 1945 Japan Surrenders

Formal surrender signed September 2 nd

USS Missouri

WWII IS OVER

War Trials Nazi and Japanese leaders Charged with war crimes against humanity Held in Nuremberg, Germany and Tokyo 24 Nazis, 7 Japanese –convicted & executed Hundreds more jailed

Nazi and Japanese leaders

Charged with war crimes against humanity

Held in Nuremberg, Germany and Tokyo

24 Nazis, 7 Japanese –convicted & executed

Hundreds more jailed

Who’s gonna Pay? Most destructive conflict in history 40 million dead 322000 Americans dead 20 million civilians 800000 injured 20 million Soviet deaths

Most destructive conflict in history

Rebuilding of world was now under way

Rebuilding of world was now under way

Timeline of Events 1941-1945   Jump To: 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 1941 December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway. December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand. December 9, 1941 - China declares war on Japan. December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam. December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma. December 15, 1941 - First Japanese merchant ship sunk by a U.S. submarine. December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo. December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong. December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines. December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island. December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong. December 26, 1941 - Manila declared an open city. December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila. See Selected Battle Photos Easy-Print version of this page [  The History Place Main Page | Text Only Index | American Revolution | Abraham Lincoln | U.S. Civil War | Child Labor in America 1908-1912 | U.S. In World War II in the Pacific | John F. Kennedy Photo History | The Rise of Adolf Hitler | The Triumph of Hitler | Hitler Youth | Timeline of World War II in Europe | Holocaust Timeline | Photo of the Week  | This Month in History | Advertise  ] Copyright © 1999 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.

Timeline of Events 1941-1945

  Jump To: 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945

1941

December 7, 1941 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; also attack the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway. December 8, 1941 - U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan. Japanese land near Singapore and enter Thailand. December 9, 1941 - China declares war on Japan. December 10, 1941 - Japanese invade the Philippines and also seize Guam. December 11, 1941 - Japanese invade Burma. December 15, 1941 - First Japanese merchant ship sunk by a U.S. submarine. December 16, 1941 - Japanese invade British Borneo. December 18, 1941 - Japanese invade Hong Kong. December 22, 1941 - Japanese invade Luzon in the Philippines. December 23, 1941 - General Douglas MacArthur begins a withdrawal from Manila to Bataan; Japanese take Wake Island. December 25, 1941 - British surrender at Hong Kong. December 26, 1941 - Manila declared an open city. December 27, 1941 - Japanese bomb Manila.

See Selected Battle Photos

Easy-Print version of this page

[  The History Place Main Page | Text Only Index | American Revolution | Abraham Lincoln | U.S. Civil War | Child Labor in America 1908-1912 | U.S. In World War II in the Pacific | John F. Kennedy Photo History | The Rise of Adolf Hitler | The Triumph of Hitler | Hitler Youth | Timeline of World War II in Europe | Holocaust Timeline | Photo of the Week  | This Month in History | Advertise  ]

Copyright © 1999 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved

Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.

1942 Return to Top of Page Map of the Japanese Empire at its peak in 1942. January 2, 1942 - Manila and U.S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese. January 7, 1942 - Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines. January 11, 1942 - Japanese invade Dutch East Indies and Dutch Borneo. January 16, 1942 - Japanese begin an advance into Burma. January 18, 1942 - German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin. January 19, 1942 - Japanese take North Borneo. January 23, 1942 - Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain in the Solomon Islands and also invade Bougainville, the largest island. January 27, 1942 - First Japanese warship sunk by a U.S. submarine. January 30/31 - The British withdraw into Singapore. The siege of Singapore then begins. February 1, 1942 - First U.S. aircraft carrier offensive of the war as YORKTOWN and ENTERPRISE conduct air raids on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. February 2, 1942 - Japanese invade Java in the Dutch East Indies. February 8/9 - Japanese invade Singapore. February 14, 1942 - Japanese invade Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. February 15, 1942 - British surrender at Singapore. February 19, 1942 - Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia; Japanese invade Bali. February 20, 1942 - First U.S. fighter ace of the war, Lt. Edward O'Hare from the LEXINGTON in action off Rabaul. February 22, 1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines. February 23, 1942 - First Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland as a submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California. February 24, 1942 - ENTERPRISE attacks Japanese on Wake Island. February 26, 1942 - First U.S. carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers. February 27- March 1 - Japanese naval victory in the Battle of the Java Sea as the largest U.S. warship in the Far East, the HOUSTON, is sunk. March 4, 1942 - Two Japanese flying boats bomb Pearl Harbor; ENTERPRISE attacks Marcus Island, just 1000 miles from Japan. March 7, 1942 - British evacuate Rangoon in Burma; Japanese invade Salamaua and Lae on New Guinea. March 8, 1942 - The Dutch on Java surrender to Japanese. March 11, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur leaves Corregidor and is flown to Australia. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright becomes the new U.S. commander. March 18, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur appointed commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater by President Roosevelt. March 18, 1942 - War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Despite the internment, over 17,000 Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in World War II in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history. March 23, 1942 - Japanese invade the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. March 24, 1942 - Admiral Chester Nimitz appointed as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific theater. April 3, 1942 - Japanese attack U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan. April 6, 1942 - First U.S. troops arrive in Australia. April 9, 1942 - U.S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. April 10, 1942 - Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths. April 18, 1942 - Surprise U.S. 'Doolittle' B-25 air raid from the HORNET against Tokyo boosts Allied morale. April 29, 1942 - Japanese take central Burma. May 1, 1942 - Japanese occupy Mandalay in Burma. May 3, 1942 - Japanese take Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. May 5, 1942 - Japanese prepare to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands. May 6, 1942 - Japanese take Corregidor as Gen. Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. And Filipino forces in the Philippines. May 7-8, 1942 - Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea - the first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other. May 12, 1942 - The last U.S. Troops holding out in the Philippines surrender on Mindanao. May 20, 1942 - Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India. June 4-5, 1942 - Turning point in the war occurs with a decisive victory for the U.S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway as squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack and destroy four Japanese carriers, a cruiser, and damage another cruiser and two destroyers. U.S. loses YORKTOWN. June 7, 1942 - Japanese invade the Aleutian Islands. June 9, 1942 - Japanese postpone further plans to take Midway.

1942 Return to Top of Page

Map of the Japanese Empire at its peak in 1942.

January 2, 1942 - Manila and U.S. Naval base at Cavite captured by the Japanese. January 7, 1942 - Japanese attack Bataan in the Philippines. January 11, 1942 - Japanese invade Dutch East Indies and Dutch Borneo. January 16, 1942 - Japanese begin an advance into Burma. January 18, 1942 - German-Japanese-Italian military agreement signed in Berlin. January 19, 1942 - Japanese take North Borneo. January 23, 1942 - Japanese take Rabaul on New Britain in the Solomon Islands and also invade Bougainville, the largest island. January 27, 1942 - First Japanese warship sunk by a U.S. submarine. January 30/31 - The British withdraw into Singapore. The siege of Singapore then begins. February 1, 1942 - First U.S. aircraft carrier offensive of the war as YORKTOWN and ENTERPRISE conduct air raids on Japanese bases in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. February 2, 1942 - Japanese invade Java in the Dutch East Indies. February 8/9 - Japanese invade Singapore. February 14, 1942 - Japanese invade Sumatra in the Dutch East Indies. February 15, 1942 - British surrender at Singapore. February 19, 1942 - Largest Japanese air raid since Pearl Harbor occurs against Darwin, Australia; Japanese invade Bali. February 20, 1942 - First U.S. fighter ace of the war, Lt. Edward O'Hare from the LEXINGTON in action off Rabaul. February 22, 1942 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General MacArthur out of the Philippines. February 23, 1942 - First Japanese attack on the U.S. mainland as a submarine shells an oil refinery near Santa Barbara, California. February 24, 1942 - ENTERPRISE attacks Japanese on Wake Island. February 26, 1942 - First U.S. carrier, the LANGLEY, is sunk by Japanese bombers. February 27- March 1 - Japanese naval victory in the Battle of the Java Sea as the largest U.S. warship in the Far East, the HOUSTON, is sunk. March 4, 1942 - Two Japanese flying boats bomb Pearl Harbor; ENTERPRISE attacks Marcus Island, just 1000 miles from Japan. March 7, 1942 - British evacuate Rangoon in Burma; Japanese invade Salamaua and Lae on New Guinea. March 8, 1942 - The Dutch on Java surrender to Japanese. March 11, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur leaves Corregidor and is flown to Australia. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright becomes the new U.S. commander. March 18, 1942 - Gen. MacArthur appointed commander of the Southwest Pacific Theater by President Roosevelt. March 18, 1942 - War Relocation Authority established in the U.S. which eventually will round up 120,000 Japanese-Americans and transport them to barb-wired relocation centers. Despite the internment, over 17,000 Japanese-Americans sign up and fight for the U.S. in World War II in Europe, including the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in U.S. history. March 23, 1942 - Japanese invade the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. March 24, 1942 - Admiral Chester Nimitz appointed as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific theater. April 3, 1942 - Japanese attack U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan. April 6, 1942 - First U.S. troops arrive in Australia. April 9, 1942 - U.S. forces on Bataan surrender unconditionally to the Japanese. April 10, 1942 - Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths. April 18, 1942 - Surprise U.S. 'Doolittle' B-25 air raid from the HORNET against Tokyo boosts Allied morale. April 29, 1942 - Japanese take central Burma. May 1, 1942 - Japanese occupy Mandalay in Burma. May 3, 1942 - Japanese take Tulagi in the Solomon Islands. May 5, 1942 - Japanese prepare to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands. May 6, 1942 - Japanese take Corregidor as Gen. Wainwright unconditionally surrenders all U.S. And Filipino forces in the Philippines. May 7-8, 1942 - Japan suffers its first defeat of the war during the Battle of the Coral Sea off New Guinea - the first time in history that two opposing carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other. May 12, 1942 - The last U.S. Troops holding out in the Philippines surrender on Mindanao. May 20, 1942 - Japanese complete the capture of Burma and reach India. June 4-5, 1942 - Turning point in the war occurs with a decisive victory for the U.S. against Japan in the Battle of Midway as squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from ENTERPRISE, HORNET, and YORKTOWN attack and destroy four Japanese carriers, a cruiser, and damage another cruiser and two destroyers. U.S. loses YORKTOWN. June 7, 1942 - Japanese invade the Aleutian Islands. June 9, 1942 - Japanese postpone further plans to take Midway.

July 21, 1942 - Japanese land troops near Gona on New Guinea. August 7, 1942 - The first U.S. amphibious landing of the Pacific War occurs as 1st Marine Division invades Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. August 8, 1942 - U.S. Marines take the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and name it Henderson Field after Maj. Lofton Henderson, a hero of Midway. August 8/9 - A major U.S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U.S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U.S. destroyer, all in less than an hour. Another U.S. cruiser and two destroyers are damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen are lost. August 17, 1942 - 122 U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attack Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. August 21, 1942 - U.S. Marines repulse first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal. August 24, 1942 - U.S. And Japanese carriers meet in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons resulting in a Japanese defeat. August 29, 1942 - The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs. August 30, 1942 - U.S. Troops invade Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands. September 9/10 - A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U.S. forests in the state of Oregon - the only bombing of the continental U.S. during the war. Newspapers in the U.S. voluntarily withhold this information. September 12-14 - Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal. September 15, 1942 - A Japanese submarine torpedo attack near the Solomon Islands results in the sinking of the Carrier WASP, Destroyer O'BRIEN and damage to the Battleship NORTH CAROLINA. September 27, 1942 - British offensive in Burma. October 11/12 - U.S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal. October 13, 1942 - The first U.S. Army troops, the 164th Infantry Regiment, land on Guadalcanal. October 14/15 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack. October 15/17 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships. October 18, 1942 - Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign. October 26, 1942 - Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. And Japanese warships results in the loss of the Carrier HORNET. November 14/15 - U.S. And Japanese warships clash again off Guadalcanal resulting in the sinking of the U.S. Cruiser JUNEAU and the deaths of the five Sullivan brothers. November 23/24 - Japanese air raid on Darwin, Australia. November 30/31 - Battle of Tasafaronga off Guadalcanal. December 2, 1942 - Enrico Fermi conducts the worlds first nuclear chain reaction test at the University of Chicago. December 20-24 - Japanese air raids on Calcutta, India. December 31, 1942 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives permission to his troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal after five months of bloody fighting against U.S. Forces

July 21, 1942 - Japanese land troops near Gona on New Guinea. August 7, 1942 - The first U.S. amphibious landing of the Pacific War occurs as 1st Marine Division invades Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. August 8, 1942 - U.S. Marines take the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and name it Henderson Field after Maj. Lofton Henderson, a hero of Midway. August 8/9 - A major U.S. naval disaster off Savo Island, north of Guadalcanal, as eight Japanese warships wage a night attack and sink three U.S. heavy cruisers, an Australian cruiser, and one U.S. destroyer, all in less than an hour. Another U.S. cruiser and two destroyers are damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen are lost. August 17, 1942 - 122 U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attack Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. August 21, 1942 - U.S. Marines repulse first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal. August 24, 1942 - U.S. And Japanese carriers meet in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons resulting in a Japanese defeat. August 29, 1942 - The Red Cross announces Japan refuses to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs. August 30, 1942 - U.S. Troops invade Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands. September 9/10 - A Japanese floatplane flies two missions dropping incendiary bombs on U.S. forests in the state of Oregon - the only bombing of the continental U.S. during the war. Newspapers in the U.S. voluntarily withhold this information. September 12-14 - Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal. September 15, 1942 - A Japanese submarine torpedo attack near the Solomon Islands results in the sinking of the Carrier WASP, Destroyer O'BRIEN and damage to the Battleship NORTH CAROLINA. September 27, 1942 - British offensive in Burma. October 11/12 - U.S. cruisers and destroyers defeat a Japanese task force in the Battle of Cape Esperance off Guadalcanal. October 13, 1942 - The first U.S. Army troops, the 164th Infantry Regiment, land on Guadalcanal. October 14/15 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night from warships then send troops ashore onto Guadalcanal in the morning as U.S. planes attack. October 15/17 - Japanese bombard Henderson Field at night again from warships. October 18, 1942 - Vice Admiral William F. Halsey named as the new commander of the South Pacific Area, in charge of the Solomons-New Guinea campaign. October 26, 1942 - Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. And Japanese warships results in the loss of the Carrier HORNET. November 14/15 - U.S. And Japanese warships clash again off Guadalcanal resulting in the sinking of the U.S. Cruiser JUNEAU and the deaths of the five Sullivan brothers. November 23/24 - Japanese air raid on Darwin, Australia. November 30/31 - Battle of Tasafaronga off Guadalcanal. December 2, 1942 - Enrico Fermi conducts the worlds first nuclear chain reaction test at the University of Chicago. December 20-24 - Japanese air raids on Calcutta, India. December 31, 1942 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan gives permission to his troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal after five months of bloody fighting against U.S. Forces

1943  Return to Top of Page January 2, 1943 - Allies take Buna in New Guinea. January 22, 1943 - Allies defeat Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea. February 1, 1943 - Japanese begin evacuation of Guadalcanal. February 8, 1943 - British-Indian forces begin guerrilla operations against Japanese in Burma. February 9, 1943 - Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ends. March 2-4 - U.S. victory over Japanese in the Battle of Bismarck Sea. April 18, 1943 - U.S. code breakers pinpoint the location of Japanese Admiral Yamamoto flying in a Japanese bomber near Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Eighteen P-38 fighters then locate and shoot down Yamamoto. April 21, 1943 - President Roosevelt announces the Japanese have executed several airmen from the Doolittle Raid. April 22, 1943 - Japan announces captured Allied pilots will be given "one way tickets to hell." May 10, 1943 - U.S. Troops invade Attu in the Aleutian Islands. May 14, 1943 - A Japanese submarine sinks the Australian hospital ship CENTAUR resulting in 299 dead. May 31, 1943 - Japanese end their occupation of the Aleutian Islands as the U.S. completes the capture of Attu. June 1, 1943 - U.S. begins submarine warfare against Japanese shipping. June 21, 1943 - Allies advance to New Georgia, Solomon Islands. July 8, 1943 - B-24 Liberators flying from Midway bomb Japanese on Wake Island. August 1/2 - A group of 15 U.S. PT-boats attempt to block Japanese convoys south of Kolombangra Island in the Solomon Islands. PT-109, commanded by Lt. John F. Kennedy, is rammed a

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