Chapter 25w

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Information about Chapter 25w

Published on March 27, 2008

Author: Bruno


Chapter 25: New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania:  Chapter 25: New Worlds: The Americas and Oceania _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Before you get started: This chapter picks up where chapter 21 left off, so its worth a quick review of that chapter first. While not as long as chapter 24, this chapter is an important one focused on three clear ideas; conquest, exploration, and interaction of cultures. How did the inadequately prepared and vastly out numbered Spanish subdue the fierce Aztecs and the sophisticated Incas? What type of multicultural society did the Spanish and Portuguese establish in the New World and how did they maintain control so far from their homelands? How did the English, Dutch, and French experiences in North America differ from their European counterparts in South America? Where do Australia and the Pacific Islands fit into these patterns of conquest and exploration? Above all, this chapter is great for consideration of point of view. How might this story be told differently from the perspective of the conquered and exploited? COLLIDING WORLDS The year 1492 is significant in world history because from that point forward there is permanent and sustained contact between the people of the eastern and western hemispheres which brings profound and often violent change to each world. The Europeans brought new technology and devastating disease to the Americas and used existing rivalries to overpower and ultimately destroy existing empires. Eventually, settler colonies further displaced the indigenous peoples in both South and North America. The Spanish Caribbean (Themes: Patterns of Interaction and Labor Systems) The islands of the Caribbean had been inhabited by the Tainos (Arawaks) since the late centuries B.C.E. when their ancestors sailed in canoes from the Orinoco River valley in South America; by the tenth century C.E. they had settled throughout the region. The Tainos, who lived in small villages under the rule of local chiefs and grew manioc as a primary food source, offered little resistance to Columbus and his men when they arrived and began to establish a series of forts, for trade. Slide2:  The Spanish Caribbean cont . . . (Themes: Patterns of Interaction and Labor Systems) Columbus built their forts anticipating trade in silks, spices, and other trade goods from the Orient. He wasn’t in the Orient! Now the Spanish realized they would have to make a living in some other manner. They tried gold mining, it was too difficult, so they began to use the Tainos as labor for mining. This process of forced labor was known as encomienda. In return for their labor the Tainos were supposed to receive aid from the Spanish to maintain the health and physical welfare, the Spanish also attempted to convert them to Christianity. The reality was that encomienda became a brutal system of exploitation akin to slavery. The Tainos of course tried to rebel but were met with Spanish steel and firearms. The Tainos population began to decline under this system and when an outbreak of smallpox appeared in 1518, the Tainos population was virtually wiped out. The Spanish tried to use new Tainos and other native peoples of the Caribbean but by the 16th century very few remained having been decimated by disease and the brutal encomienda system. As the gold supplies began to dwindle mining became unprofitable in the Caribbean, discovery of silver in Peru and Mexico shifted the focus of Spanish settlement to the South and Central American mainland. In the 1640s, English, Dutch, and French settlers began to arrive in the Caribbean, not to mine, but in the pursuit of producing valuable cash crops like sugar, and tobacco. Plantations began to be built requiring labor, however, there were virtually no native peoples to do the labor, the Europeans needed labor (they weren’t willing to do this back breaking work themselves!) so they began to import several million slaves from west Africa to supply the labor they required. By 1700, the Caribbean was populated by a small class of European planters and a large number of African slaves. The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (Themes: Patterns of Interaction and Technology) The dwindling mineral wealth in the Caribbean soon sent the Spaniards to the mainland in search of new sources of precious minerals. Conquistadors like Hernan Cortes in Mexico and Francisco Pizarro in Peru led expeditions of conquest which eventually destroyed the Aztec and Incan empires and laid the groundwork for colonial settlement and European government that transformed the Americas. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Slide3:  The Conquest of Mexico and Peru (Themes: Patterns of Interaction and Technology) In Mexico, Cortes found a society much different than those of the Caribbean. Making his way along the Gulf coast to the capital city of Tenochtitlan with 450 soldiers, Cortes found a rich and vibrant city with a population well over two hundred thousand people. Initially driven from the city by Aztec forces, Cortes used his superior weaponry and , the aid of native groups who despised the Aztecs, to starve the city into surrender. It was disease, especially smallpox, that ended Aztec resistance. Pizarro’s experience in Peru was very similar. With a force of under 600 men, he arrived in Peru after smallpox had weakened the indigenous peoples. Taking advantage of a bitter struggle for the Incan crown, Pizarro also used native forces who hated the Incas, and eventually captured the Inca leader and held him for ransom in gold, then deceived and murdered many of the Inca nobility reducing the possibility for any serious military resistance from the Incas. Iberian Empires in the Americas (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) Cortes and Pizarro gave land and labor rights to their troops, but by 1570, the Spanish Crown began to developed a formal policy of control and administration to remove control from the conquistadors. Spanish administrators created centers of government in Mexico and Peru which were run by a powerful viceroy who was responsible to the king of Spain alone. The viceroy of Mexico established a new capital city built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, while the viceroy in Peru created his capital city in Lima on the coast of the Cuzco mountains. To keep the viceroys from becoming too powerful, the Spanish monarchy set up audiencias, review courts staffed by university educated lawyers to check the viceroys’ decisions, evaluate their performances, and hand out punishments. However, the distance from Spain kept the Spanish monarch from being directly involved in the day to day administration of the Americas, transportation and communication difficulties also made it difficult for the viceroys to supervise their territories called viceroyalties. Additionally, Spanish colonists preferred living in cities, so new cities had to be built to keep up with the expansion of territory. New Spain, administered from Mexico City, reached as far north as St. Augustine in Florida, and New Castile, administered from Lima, reached from Panama to Buenos Aires. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Slide4:  Iberian Empires in the Americas (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) Portugal created an imperial presence in Brazil as a result of the Treaty of Tordesillas. This strange document created by the Pope in Rome, divided the world into a Spanish sphere to the west and a Portuguese sphere to the east the imaginary dividing line included the northeastern tip of South America in the east, which meant Portugal had a New World Claim to Brazil. After the voyage of Pedro Alvares Cabral and a threatened potential land grab by the French and the Dutch, the Portuguese king decided to grant these new Brazil lands to his nobles; he sent a governor to oversee their land and to create his royal policy. After the establishment of profitable sugar plantations on the coast Portuguese interest in Brazil dramatically increased. The Spanish and Portuguese colonists wanted to live in European style cities; Spanish and Portuguese became the languages of government, society, and business. Indigenous culture survived best in areas remote from European interests, those areas with no agricultural or mineral resources. The Spanish and Portuguese settlers viewed their New World holdings as a place to be exploited to gain wealth, not as a place to settle and colonize. However, by 1800, more than 500,000 Spanish immigrants and over 100,000 Portuguese settled permanently in the Americas. Settler Colonies in North America (Themes: Patterns of Interaction) Spanish explorers traveled north into Florida and Virginia and even toward Maine and Newfoundland along the Atlantic. In the west, they explored parts of modern Canada, creating a fort on Vancouver Island. By the mid-sixteenth century, the Dutch, English, and French were regularly exploring the American coast searching for fish and the Northwest Passage to Asia. By the early 17th centuries, they began to create permanent colonies on the North American mainland. French colonists created settlements at Port Royal in Nova Scotia in 1604 and Quebec in 1608 and English settlements at Jamestown in Virginia in 1697 and the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. Dutch New Amsterdam, seized by the English in 1664, became New York and part of the growing English settlement spread throughout the east coast of North America. The French settled in eastern Canada and created fur trade along the St. Lawrence, Ohio, and Mississippi rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Slide5:  Settler Colonies in North America (Themes: Patterns of Interaction) North American settlement was difficult and often deadly. A focus on the production of valuable commodities for export like fur, pitch, tar, or lumber, rather than on food production, meant the early colonists relied on provisions shipped from Europe. Lack of food and disease nearly destroyed the Jamestown settlement as only sixty of the original five hundred settlers survived the first winter. Many differences existed between the French and English colonies and the Iberian territories. The English and French explorations were financed most often by private sources (capitalism), while the Iberians were supported by the monarchy. The English and French were a bit more independent, while subject to royal authority, had no viceroys or audiencias to deal with and often had some measure of self government through colonial assemblies. The greatest difference of the Iberian and French and English experiences was due to the relationships with the indigenous peoples. There were no North American equivalent societies to the Aztec or Incas. The North American peoples were agricultural, hunter-gatherers who were mobile with no permanent villages. To the European settlers, this implied there were no “owners” of the land and the availability of fertile agricultural lands were very attractive to European immigrants. Large numbers of English, French, Dutch, German, and Irish settlers soon arrived in search of free land. Land titles were issued based on English common law, which considered unfarmed land as “unproductive” and therefore available for occupancy and cultivation. Native peoples recognized this land grab and began to raid European settlements, the attacks brought reprisals and the conflict was on. Once again, the native people were overmatched by European weaponry and especially epidemic disease brought by the settlers. COLONIAL SOCIETY IN THE AMERICAS The history of colonial societies in America is one of interactions of cultures: European, American, African. Mining, fur trapping, and the cultivation of cash crops formed the economic basis of these societies and Christianity emerged as the dominant religion in the western hemisphere. The mestizo population, a mixture of European and Euro-American offspring, came to dominate the political, economic, and cultural climate in the New World. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Slide6:  The Formation of Multicultural Societies (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) European migrants radically changed the social strata in colonial settlements and states. Because the vast majority of settlers were men they entered into relationships with native women that produced mestizo progeny especially in Mexico. Women were more prominent in Peru where migrants lived cities, married among themselves, and kept mostly apart from the native populations. Brazil became even more ethnically and racially mixed than Mexico. In Brazil, few European women were available, Portuguese men entered into relationships with native and African slave women, creating mestizo, mulatto (Portuguese and African parents), zambos (native and African parents), and other combinations of these groups. Peninsulares, migrants born in Europe who came to live in Spanish or Portuguese colonies, stood at the top of the social strata. Criollos or creoles, individuals born of Iberian parents born in the Americas, were in the next strata. Mestizos lived in the fringes of society, but as time passed and their numbers grew, especially in Mexico and Brazil, they gained acceptance in colonial society. Mulattoes, zambos, and other people of mixed race became prominent in Brazil, though always below anyone of European or European mixed ancestry while slaves and conquered peoples remained at the bottom of the social hierarchy. In North America, the social structure of the French and English colonies developed differently, mainly because European women were more available. French traders did associate with native women to produce children known as metis, liaisons between French men and native women were less common in more settled regions. The English colonies experienced less mingling because they viewed the native people as heathens and extended this term to include imported Africans as well. The English were unwilling to accept the children of mixed ancestry, treating them with scorn. Despite their exclusionary views, English settlers readily adopted useful cultural elements such as terms and technologies they gathered from native populations or African slaves. The English settlers adopted names for plants and animals that did not exist in Europe and even styles of clothing and warfare used by the indigenous people. Also, African agricultural techniques and food crops were adopted by the settlers. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Slide7:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Mining and Agriculture in the Spanish Empire (Theme: Economics, Technology, and Labor Systems) Although the conquistadors found easily available gold and silver in the Aztec and Inca empires, their followers had to rely on mining to retrieve the mineral wealth. Silver, not gold, became the most abundant mineral wealth and was found in two regions: in northern Mexico near Zacateas and in the Bolivian Andes. Unlike the Mexican mines where laborers were somewhat willing, many miners at Potosi, in the Andes, became part of the draft-labor system known as mita. Mita was adopted from the Incan system of drafting labor that required a village to send one-seventh of its male population to work for four months. Supposedly, the miners were to be paid, fed, and housed during the period of their mita; in reality they received virtually none of this. Many native men fled to cities or hid in remote areas to escape their mita obligations. Spain grew wealthy from the silver production in the New World. The Spanish government claimed one-fifth of the silver for itself; this quinto helped the Spanish government build a huge military and administration to support it. In addition to mining, the principal work in Spanish America was farming, raising live stock, and craft production. The hacenda, or estate, became the most prominent agricultural and craft production site by the 17th century. The hacienda, which relied on native labor, produced crops mostly of European origin such as wheat, grapes, and meat from cattle and pigs. Smaller properties owned by poorer Spanish migrants or creoles produced similar crops on a smaller scale for local consumption. Indigenous people practiced subsistence agriculture and lived in small villages. At first, the haciendas existed on the encomienda system to force indigenous people into farm work. Over time however, the payment of tribute from small native farmers proved more profitable than the mita for the Spanish. Still needing labor for their haciendas the Spanish developed another form of exploitation, they loaned money to native farmers to buy seed, tools, and supplies, which the native people had to pay for with labor; of course, the wages were too low to pay the loans. This created something called debt peonage that created a captive force to work the haciendas. The native people did resist the Spanish, sometimes trying to work within the Spanish government. Men like Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala sent a 1,200 page letter with four hundred illustrations to King Philip III of Spain showing the abuse of indigenous people demanding Philip’s protection. Slide8:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Mining and Agriculture in the Spanish Empire (Theme: Economics, Technology, and Labor Systems) Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala’s letter never made it to Spain but somehow it ended up hidden in a museum in Denmark until the twentieth century! Other attempts at rebellion were not so tame. In 1680, native groups in northern Mexico, led by a shaman named Pope, attacked Spanish estates driving the Spanish settlers out of the region for more than twelve years; these uprisings were known as the Pueblo Revolt. In Peru, an even larger rebellion took place in 1780 when a force of 60,000 native people participated in the Tupac Amaru Rebellion, which lasted almost two years before it was put down by Spanish military forces. Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil (Themes: Economics, Technology, and Labor Systems) Portuguese economic and social patterns produced different systems of labor and production in Brazil than the systems in the Spanish colonies. Portuguese noblemen and entrepreneurs did not have conquistadores like the Spanish had used to subdue the native populations and force them to work. Instead, they relied on African slaves to work on their sugar plantations; these enslaved migrants quickly outnumbered their Portuguese captors. Sugar soon became Brazil’s most important export and the engenho, or sugar mill, became the center of colonial Brazilian life. Engenho, soon became the term used to describe the land, buildings, animals, equipment, tools, capital, and technical skills needed to produce molasses and refined sugar from sugar cane. Portuguese planters and owners became a privileged class and had great political, economic, and social influence in Brazil and Portugal. Royal support for their means and endeavors was insured, as long as their ventures produced a profit for the entrepreneur and a tax base for the monarchy. The devastating effects of disease and the nomadic nature of the indigenous people made them unreliable as a labor source, so the Portuguese plantation managers began to import African laborers as slaves as early as 1530; after 1580, Africans were supplying the vast bulk of labor on the sugar plantations. Tropical heat, disease, overwork, dangerous working conditions, inadequate food and housing, and mistreatment resulted in high death rates -- as many as 5-10 percent of the enslaved peoples perished. It is estimated that for every ton of sugar produced cost one human life! Slide9:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Fur Traders and Settlers in North America (Theme: Economics, Labor Systems, and Patterns of Interaction) Fish first brought European mariners to North American coastlines, soon fur became the more profitable commodity. At first, fishermen bartered for fur with local peoples, but after the European discovery of the Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay, they began the systematic exploitation of northern regions. Royal agents and adventurers built a series of trading posts and forts to connect large portions of the North American interior. Indigenous people would trap the desired animals and then trade those furs for manufactured items such as woolen blankets, iron pots, firearms, and distilled spirits. The fur trade created conflicts among trappers, native peoples, and Europeans. Individual trappers fought each other over prime territory; native peoples such as the Iroquois and the Huron fought over land resources using European-supplied weapons; and Europeans fought over the Americas and at home over territorial boundaries. European trappers soon became settlers and posed a serious threat to native populations as the settler-farmers turned former trapping grounds into plantations; ironically, these earliest settlers would most likely have died without the maize, game, and fish supplied to them by native peoples. Over time the French and English settlers grew more capable of survival and soon were actively seeking to distinguish themselves from the native people. The settlers began to cultivate cash crops like tobacco, then rice and indigo, and eventually cotton to sell to markets in Europe. While they did displace the native peoples, the settlers could not subdue enough of them to depend on as the steady supply of labor need to cultivate their cash crops. Indentured servants from Europe gave a short-term answer, but they either died, escaped, or survived to earn their freedom. In 1619, a group of twenty Africans arrived in Virginia where they worked alongside other European laborers. By 1661, Virginia recognized all blacks as slaves, and by 1680, planters were replacing indentured servants with African slaves. Many New England merchants traded in slaves headed for the West Indies, New Yorkers and Philadelphian entrepreneurs made huge profits on building and supplying slave ships, and New England ports became wealthy off the production of rum manufactured from the slave-produced sugar of the West Indies which was in turn traded for slaves along the West African coast. This is known as the triangle of trade. Slide10:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Christianity and Native Religions in the Americas (Theme: Religious and Cultural Developments) In addition to economic motivations, the desire to spread Christianity traveled to the New World with the European explorers, conquistadores, merchants, and settlers. Missionaries soon followed. Spanish missionaries from the Dominican, Franciscan, and especially Jesuit orders created schools in towns and villages and were extremely successful in converting the sons of prominent local families to Latin, Spanish, and Christian doctrines. At the same time, the missionaries themselves learned native languages and customs in their attempts to explain Christianity to the native peoples of Mexico and Peru Much of the modern knowledge regarding these indigenous cultures comes from the work of men like Franciscan priest Bernardino de Sahagun whose writings chronicled Aztec society, language, customs, history, and literature. Many native peoples continued to practice their traditional religions even though the Catholic church and the Spanish governments made consistent and sometimes violent efforts to wipe out the worship of pagan deities. When native peoples did adopt Christianity, they blended their won traditions and interests with the faith taught by the Christian missionaries. The reverence for the Virgin of Guadalupe became extremely popular among the mestizo population of Mexico and helped to ensure that Roman Catholicism would dominate Mexican culture. French and English missionaries found it much more difficult to convert the nomadic peoples of North America. English colonists in particular seemed little interested in conversions of indigenous peoples and did not welcome native converts into their European, Christian settlements. French missionaries were much more active and found some success in spreading Christianity in the St. Lawrence, Ohio, and Mississippi River valleys. EUROPEANS IN THE PACIFIC Though the European mariners explored the islands of the Pacific and Australia after the European migrations began to the Americas, the initial results were very similar, as the Pacific Islanders had no immunity to European diseases. The explorations began in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, but the European migrant settlements did not begin in most places until the nineteenth century. Slide11:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Australia and the Larger World (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) Many Europeans had speculated for centuries about the existence of an unknown southern land, but it was the Dutch who made the first recorded sighting of Australia in 1606. Though successive Dutch voyagers reported the land as arid and barren and concluded that it could not contain any mineral wealth, the Dutch mariners continued to scout the continent’s coastlines as did English Captain James Cook in 1770. These European mariners had only fleeting contact with the aborigines of Australia whom they considered “wretched savages” because the people were nomadic foragers rather than sedentary cultivators. Only after Cook’s exploration of Australia’s eastern coastline did the Europeans realize that the land was suitable for settlement. After 1788, the English decided to establish a penal colony as the continent’s first permanent settlement. It would not be until the 19th century that European migrants would begin a steady flow to the continent and begin sustained contact with aborigines who would not fair well in contact with European settlers and the British government. The Pacific Islands and the Lager World (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) Though European mariners explored the Pacific Ocean basin in the 16th and 17th centuries, it was not until the late 18th century that European merchants and settlers began to arrive in significant numbers. Guam and the Mariana Islands were the only Pacific islands to attract substantial Spanish interest in the 16th century. These islands were used as stops for fresh provisions for the Manila galleons, and for nearly a century these interactions were peaceful. In the late 17th century, the Spanish authorities decided to impose Spanish control in Guam and the Marianas under direction of the viceroy of Spain in Mexico. Spanish troops were sent to enforce the Crown’s rule and to enforce the conversion of the native Chamorro people to Christianity. Military intervention and a smallpox epidemic decimated the Chamorro people and their culture. By the 18th century, European interest and settlement in the Pacific islands grew. The search for the elusive Northwest Passage and the need to trade for provisions to sustain such long sea travel promoted interactions between Europeans and the peoples of the islands. Slide12:  _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ The Pacific Islands and the Lager World (Theme: Patterns of Interaction) Captain Cook’s experience in Hawaii illustrates a common pattern of relatively peaceful interaction at first, disagreements over sexual behaviors and trade agreements, escalating tensions, and them armed conflict. This time it would be venereal disease carried by the Europeans which would strike the indigenous population. In his 1779 return voyage, Cook died during a skirmish resulting from bitter conflict over thievery between his crew and the formerly welcoming islanders of Hawaii. Europeans in search of fish, especially whalers, were attracted by Cook’s accounts of the islands’ wealth and beauty. Rapid and unsettling change began for the islanders during the 19th and 20th centuries. Finished Reading the Chapter? Be sure you can . . .:  Finished Reading the Chapter? Be sure you can . . . Describe and analyze the changes in trade, technology, and demographics resulting from the European settlement of the Americas and Oceania. Describe and analyze the impact of European settlement & colonization on slave systems and slave trade Explain the impact of farming, mining industries, sugar production, and fur trapping on demographics and the environment Compare and contrast the coercive labor systems of this era Primary Source Questions:  Primary Source Questions Read, First Impressions of Spanish Forces, on page 669. What elements of the report seemed most frightening to Montezuma?(I know it’s the old fashioned spelling!) What does the report indicate about the identity of the Spaniards’ troops? Examine the Potosi Mining Operation illustration, on page 678. What does this illustration show about the complexities of the Potosi mining operation? What could you say about the point of view or perspective in this work?

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