Chapter 25 The Church And Crusades

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Information about Chapter 25 The Church And Crusades

Published on May 4, 2008

Author: cuevasl

Source: slideshare.net

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The Church and its role during the crusades

THE CHURCH 1000 A.D. – 1300 A.D. AND THE CRUSADES

Section 1 The Catholic Influence Daily Life Religious Ceremonies Holidays to honor Saints/events No meat on Fridays Mass on Sunday Church ran schools, hospitals Monks, Nuns helped travelers Priests –births, marriages, burials

The Catholic Influence

Daily Life

Religious Ceremonies

Holidays to honor Saints/events

No meat on Fridays

Mass on Sunday

Church ran schools, hospitals

Monks, Nuns helped travelers

Priests –births, marriages,

burials

Political Life Helped govern Were lords and vassals Advised king Canon law first Excommunicated

Helped govern

Were lords and vassals

Advised king

Canon law first

Excommunicated

The Inquisition Problem with heresy 1129 council of bishops Inquisition 1 month for confession Whipping and jail time Seizure of non-confessors 2 witnesses Confessors sentenced Non-confessors tortured

Problem with heresy

1129 council of bishops

Inquisition

1 month for confession

Whipping and jail time

Seizure of non-confessors

2 witnesses

Confessors sentenced

Non-confessors tortured

 

Attempts at Reform Tithing at 10% Nobles donated land and money Monks became careless Selling of “religious office” Church under scrutiny

Tithing at 10%

Nobles donated

land and money

Monks became careless

Selling of “religious office”

Church under scrutiny

The Monks of Cluny Devout fight back Benedictine Rule Cluny Monastery Simple, prayerful Followed the Pope Leadership spread

Devout fight back

Benedictine Rule

Cluny Monastery

Simple, prayerful

Followed the Pope

Leadership spread

Pope Gregory VII Pope was powerful Religiously/politically Ruled from Rome College of Cardinals 2 goals as Pope Rid the Church of kings/nobles Increase Pope’s power over Church officials Dismissed those who “sold” offices No marriage

Pope was powerful

Religiously/politically

Ruled from Rome

College of Cardinals

2 goals as Pope

Rid the Church of kings/nobles

Increase Pope’s power over Church officials

Dismissed those who “sold” offices

No marriage

1075 Document lays out Pope’s powers Power above the kings and nobles Choose bishops/church leaders Government officials removed who disobeyed People followed only officials who followed the Pope

Power above the kings and nobles

Choose bishops/church leaders

Government officials removed who disobeyed

People followed only officials who followed the Pope

Friars 1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform Like Monks Sold all belongings Depended on the people Did not marry Roamed from town to town

1200’s – spread the word of Christianity and reform

Like Monks

Sold all belongings

Depended on the people

Did not marry

Roamed from town to town

Orders of Friars Franciscans Founded by Francis of Assisi Cheerfulness, confidence Nature should be respected

Franciscans

Founded by Francis of Assisi

Cheerfulness, confidence

Nature should be respected

Dominicans Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic Life of poverty Studied languages Words and deeds showed loyalty

Dominicans

Founded by Spanish monk named Dominic

Life of poverty

Studied languages

Words and deeds showed loyalty

Going to School in the Middle Ages Cathedrals- headed by bishops Main goal: Prepare noble’s SONS for the Church Government workers Lawyers teachers

Cathedrals- headed by bishops

Main goal:

Prepare noble’s SONS for the Church

Government workers

Lawyers

teachers

What did the boys study? 7 subjects Grammar Rhetoric Logic Arithmetic Geometry Astronomy Music

7 subjects

Grammar

Rhetoric

Logic

Arithmetic

Geometry

Astronomy

Music

Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wl-OZ3breE

Fæder ure, ðu ðe eart on heofenum, si ðin nama gehalgod; to-becume ðin rice; geweorþe ðin willa on eorðan swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge dæghwamlican hlaf syle us to-deag, and forgyf us ure gyltas swa swa we forgifaþ urum gyltendum, ane ne gelæde ðu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle. Amen.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wl-OZ3breE

No free education! Paid fees for school Rented hall Few books memorization

Paid fees for school

Rented hall

Few books

memorization

Off to college… University system created from desire to learn Union formed between students/teachers Union becomes the “university” 1200’s spreads throughout Europe

University system created from desire to learn

Union formed between students/teachers

Union becomes the “university”

1200’s spreads throughout Europe

How did the University work? Chancellor Permission to teach Set times for class Listened to lectures Pass tests Lecturers (teachers) 21 yrs old 6 yrs study

Chancellor

Permission to teach

Set times for class

Listened to lectures

Pass tests

Lecturers (teachers)

21 yrs old

6 yrs study

Dorm Life… 1 st lived in boarding houses Rich sponsors Built special buildings (dorms) Rules for the dorm Attend daily Mass Could not gamble, disturb the peace Could not practice sword fighting punished

1 st lived in boarding houses

Rich sponsors

Built special buildings (dorms)

Rules for the dorm

Attend daily Mass

Could not gamble, disturb the peace

Could not practice sword fighting

punished

A Very Special Teacher Thomas Aquinas Noted scholar Faith and reason were gifts from God Tried to bring the two gifts together

Thomas Aquinas

Noted scholar

Faith and reason were gifts from God

Tried to bring the two gifts together

Reason Helped people know what the world was like. Helped them lead a good life Faith Revealed religious truths Helped understand life after death

Reason

Helped people know what the world was like. Helped them lead a good life

Faith

Revealed religious truths

Helped understand life after death

His writings… Summa Theologica A Summary of Religious Thought Asked questions and presented different opinions Gave answers to the questions (sound like anything else we have studied) Accepted and promoted by the Church

Summa Theologica

A Summary of Religious Thought

Asked questions and presented different opinions

Gave answers to the questions

(sound like anything else we have studied)

Accepted and promoted by the Church

The Crusades 1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem Controlled shrines Trouble for Christians Shock in Europe 200 years of “holy wars”

1071 Turks conquered Jerusalem

Controlled shrines

Trouble for Christians

Shock in Europe

200 years of “holy wars”

Beginnings… Turks continue to expand Threaten Byzantine empire Pope Urban II for help Unite Eastern Orthodox Church

Turks continue to expand

Threaten Byzantine empire

Pope Urban II for help

Unite Eastern Orthodox Church

Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks Underfed Rich, fertile land Free debts, taxes God would forgive sins Red Cross on tunics

Stop “civil war,” focus on Turks

Underfed

Rich, fertile land

Free debts, taxes

God would forgive sins

Red Cross on tunics

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/1090map.htm

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/maps/1090map.htm

 

The Peasants’ Crusade Deus Vult It Is The Will of God 9 months campaigning Christians and duty Nobles wanted land/fame Peasants wanted change

Deus Vult

It Is The Will of God

9 months campaigning

Christians and duty

Nobles wanted land/fame

Peasants wanted change

1096, 12000 untrained army from France God’s help German armies Attacked, looted, burned Massacred Jews Non-Christians, enemies Villagers fought back Poison Attacked camps

1096, 12000 untrained army from France

God’s help

German armies

Attacked, looted, burned

Massacred Jews

Non-Christians, enemies

Villagers fought back

Poison

Attacked camps

Constantinople 1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing Sent to Asia Minor Supplies/ships Wiped out

Constantinople

1/3 gone, broke, rags, stealing

Sent to Asia Minor

Supplies/ships

Wiped out

The Nobles’ Crusade 1097, Lords led Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths Supplied themselves 30000 to Asia Minor Defeat Turks

1097, Lords led

Vassals, wives, kids, clerks, cooks, blacksmiths

Supplied themselves

30000 to Asia Minor

Defeat Turks

Syria Starvation, dehydration Capture Syrian cities 12000 Arrive in Jerusalem Capture Holy City Kill Turks, Jews, & Christians Loot, gold, silver, goods, livestock

Syria

Starvation, dehydration

Capture Syrian cities

12000 Arrive in Jerusalem

Capture Holy City

Kill Turks, Jews, & Christians

Loot, gold, silver, goods, livestock

The Kingdom Beyond the Sea Crusades lose steam Return home 4 feudal kingdoms Outremer The kingdom beyond the sea

Crusades lose steam

Return home

4 feudal kingdoms

Outremer

The kingdom beyond the sea

Takeover of estates Turkish Arab How the system worked Arab peasants worked the land, orchards, vineyards Served as advisers, managers Friendships developed with Muslims Knew much about medicine, science, math Times of peace Crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court

Takeover of estates

Turkish

Arab

How the system worked

Arab peasants worked the land, orchards, vineyards

Served as advisers, managers

Friendships developed with Muslims

Knew much about medicine, science, math

Times of peace

Crusaders hunted, ran estates, attended court

How did they live? Built a castle, bigger and better Changed clothing styles Changed hygiene habits Changed eating habits

How did they live?

Built a castle, bigger and better

Changed clothing styles

Changed hygiene habits

Changed eating habits

Saladin and the Crusade of Kings 1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt United Muslims Christian occupation The Military

1174- Saladin, ruler of Egypt

United Muslims

Christian occupation

The Military

Emirs Honesty, consideration Shocked by Christians Rode on ponies Short bows Crusaders had long bows and heavy armor Learned to use the crossbow

Emirs

Honesty, consideration

Shocked by Christians

Rode on ponies

Short bows

Crusaders had long bows and heavy armor

Learned to use the crossbow

 

Saladin took Jerusalem Refusal to massacre Much respect

Saladin took Jerusalem

Refusal to massacre

Much respect

2nd Crusade of Kings Urged by the Church Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe King Richard I, England Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany King Philip II Augustus of France

Urged by the Church

Led by 3 most powerful rulers in Europe

King Richard I, England

Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany

King Philip II Augustus of France

King Phillip II King Richard Emperor Barbarossa

A failure of a crusade Frederick dies in Asia Minor Philip & Richard always fighting Took a few towns together Philip returns to France Richard left to fight alone Richard the Lionheart Brave warrior 3 years signed truce Jerusalem still under Muslim control

A failure of a crusade

Frederick dies in Asia Minor

Philip & Richard always fighting

Took a few towns together

Philip returns to France

Richard left to fight alone

Richard the Lionheart

Brave warrior

3 years signed truce

Jerusalem still under Muslim control

The Loss of an Ideal 1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade Knights answered the call

1202 Pope Innocent III calls for another crusade

Knights answered the call

Came by sea Used Venice as a port Made deal with Venetians Zara Constantinople Divided city Shocked western Europeans

Came by sea

Used Venice as a port

Made deal with Venetians

Zara

Constantinople

Divided city

Shocked western Europeans

Other Crusades Several fought—none won Children’s crusade- 1212 (2 groups) French children Led by peasant, Stephen of Cloyes

Several fought—none won

Children’s crusade- 1212 (2 groups)

French children

Led by peasant, Stephen of Cloyes

Set sail from France Children sold into slavery by captains 2 nd group from Germany left on foot- died of starvation or disease

Set sail from France

Children sold into slavery by captains

2 nd group from Germany left on foot- died of starvation or disease

1291- Acre Last Christian stronghold Managed to regain all the land in Palestine

1291- Acre

Last Christian stronghold

Managed to regain all the land in Palestine

Effects of the Crusades Effected by Near East and western Europe Permanent split between Byzantines Church (eastern) and western church Broke down feudalism in Europe Kings increased power/authority Power overcame religion

Effected by Near East and western Europe

Permanent split between Byzantines Church (eastern) and western church

Broke down feudalism in Europe

Kings increased power/authority

Power overcame religion

Interest in learning Luxuries items New trade – new towns

Interest in learning

Luxuries items

New trade – new towns

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