Chapter 20 Outline

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Information about Chapter 20 Outline

Published on December 11, 2007

Author: UpBeat


Chapter 20 Late Medieval Troubles:  Chapter 20 Late Medieval Troubles The good life was coming to an end:  The good life was coming to an end Most good land was already in use Technology to convert new land was non-existent Climate changed No innovations to increase food supply The Black Death:  The Black Death Most massive epidemic on record Form of bubonic plague unknown in Europe spread over the continent Plague returned later in the century Nobody knew how it spread or what countermeasures should be taken Two-thirds of those stricken, died Roughly one-quarter of European population perished Consequences of the Black Death:  Consequences of the Black Death Economic consequences Tax revenues declined sharply Public works stopped Shortage of labor Better working conditions, wages, job security for workers who survived Trade volume decline Peasant revolts Serfdom disappeared in Western Europe Psychic consequences Fascination with death seen in art Believed God sent plague as warning to sinners Penitence, self-flagellation, guilt, shame The Hundred Years War 1337-1453:  The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 Dynastic quarrel between England, France Causes were partially economic over woolen trade Problems of feudal allegiance made war into civil war within France Fighting interrupted occasionally by truces Major battles: Crecy, Agincourt Joan of Arc changed course of the war War ended with British withdrawal from France Consequences of the Hundred Years War:  Consequences of the Hundred Years War Consumed much manpower, tax monies Increased power, prestige of Parliament, especially over taxation France did not experience such development Differences would become significant France: power transferred from nobles to royal officials England: power of king weakened as Parliament strengthened Ended chivalric ideals of combat Infantry and artillery most important, along with gunpowder Social leveler – commoners were just as valuable soldiers Christian Church was omnipresent institution:  Christian Church was omnipresent institution Every person’s life was touched by it Church was more than just place of worship Parish priest was respected as representative of God Church courts determined many legal questions Pope Innocent III – more of secular ruler than moral authority Babylonian Captivity:  Babylonian Captivity Newly-elected pope stayed in Avignon France First time since Peter that the head of the church had not lived in Rome Urban VI and Clement VII – competing popes, neither having total legitimacy Led to Great Schism Great Schism:  Great Schism Europeans divided papal loyalties along national lines Conciliar Movement Enacted some new reforms Argued that entire church community, not the pope, had power to define doctrine John Wyclif Believed individual Christians should read and interpret Scripture for themselves Led revolt of Lollards, 1381 Council of Constance:  Council of Constance Scandal of schism caused resentment, pressure to end the papal quarrel Council of Constance made some changes New pope chosen Tried to eliminate heresy, only partially successful Reforms discussed, but not much done Society and Work:  Society and Work Many peasant revolts Most famous was Jacquerie of 1358 Lollard rebellion – peasants joined by artisans, urban workers Guilds Controlled what was made, for what price, by whom Worker moved from apprentice to journeyman to master Purpose to ensure economic security for members, not competition First instances of urban planning – open spaces, old walls torn down Skilled, semi-skilled workers Home workshops No machinery, all hand work Late Medieval Art:  Late Medieval Art Gothic cathedrals still most impressive examples of art Use of perspective, realism in painting Some improvement in metalwork Sponsorship now included commercial class as well as kings, nobles, church Medieval Sciences:  Medieval Sciences Scientific studies improved Arabic numbers Algebra Beginnings of chemistry Progress in geography Medicine, surgery, anatomy were somewhat beyond previous knowledge Physics, astronomy advanced after 1400 Science and Metaphysics:  Science and Metaphysics Part of the problem was that university education emphasized arts and humanities, rather than science Albertus Magnus and Roger Bacon pioneered experimental methods Aristotle still was final word about the cosmos Metaphysics Thomas Aquinas and Summa Theologica Scholastics tried to ignore ideas challenging tradition

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