Chapter 2- Models of Settlement

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Published on April 11, 2014

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Chapter 2: Models of Settlement- English Colonial Societies, 1590-1700

1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER Models of Settlement English Colonial Societies, 1590–1710 2 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States

2 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Models of Settlement I. The Chesapeake Colonies II. New England III. The Caribbean Colonies IV. The Restoration Era and the Proprietary Colonies V. The Crises of the Late Seventeenth Century VI. The Whig Ideal and the Emergence of Political Stability ENGLISH COLONIAL SOCIETIES, 1590–1710 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Chesapeake Colonies A. The Founding of Jamestown B. Tobacco Agriculture and Political Reorganization C. Lord Baltimore’s Refuge: Maryland D. Life in the Chesapeake: Tobacco and Society 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Founding of Jamestown Why did Jamestown turn out to be such a poor choice for a permanent settlement? What was the “starving time”? 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States

6 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences • English settlers kidnapped Matoaka (Pocahontas) hoping to force her people, the Powhatan, to accept a peace treaty. • During her captivity, Matoaka learned English, became a Christian, and adopted a new name: Rebecca. • John Rolfe, an English widower, proposed marriage to Rebecca/Matoaka. THE ORDEAL OF POCAHONTAS 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences Rebecca/Matoaka’s Choices Regarding Marriage THE ORDEAL OF POCAHONTAS 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States Reject the offer of marriage and remain captive Attempt to escape Marry Rolfe and then help forge a Powhatan-Virginia alliance

Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • Rebecca/Matoaka chose to marry Rolfe. • She gained her freedom and Rolfe’s high status. • She became a mediator between the Powhatan and the English settlers. What role did women play in Native American diplomacy? THE ORDEAL OF POCAHONTAS 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies • How do Indian conceptions of gender roles help explain Pocahontas’s decision to marry? THE ORDEAL OF POCAHONTAS 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Tobacco Agriculture and Political Reorganization What important reforms did Sir Edwin Sandys implement in 1618? 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Tobacco Agriculture and Political Reorganization Headright – An incentive system to encourage additional immigrants by giving 50 acres to any man who would pay his own fare to Virginia and 50 additional acres for each person brought with him 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States

13 Visions of America, A History of the United States

14 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Lord Baltimore’s Refuge: Maryland What was a proprietor? 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Lord Baltimore’s Refuge: Maryland Proprietor – This English legal title carried with it enormous political power, giving its possessor almost king-like authority over his domains. – Colonial proprietors carried similar powers. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Life in the Chesapeake: Tobacco and Society How did the unbalanced sex ratio of the Chesapeake affect gender roles in this colonial region? 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States

New England I. Plymouth Plantation II. A Godly Commonwealth III. Challenges to Puritan Orthodoxy IV. Expansion and Conflict 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Plymouth Plantation Why were English reformers called Puritans? 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Images as History What does Jan Steen’s painting tell us about the world English Separatists encountered in Holland? CORRUPTION VERSUS PIETY

Images as History One small child smokes a pipe; another is stealing from someone’s purse. The animals represent vice and disorder. The duck on the man’s shoulder mocks his false piety. The woman in the center of the painting is dressed immodestly and leers at the viewer. CORRUPTION VERSUS PIETY

A Godly Commonwealth Why did John Winthrop describe New England as “a city upon a hill?” What does John Cotton’s interpretation of the Fifth Commandment reveal about Puritan society? 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States

24 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Envisioning Evidence PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT IN NEW ENGLAND AND THE CHESAPEAKE COMPARED

Envisioning Evidence What were the most important differences in the settlement patterns typical of the Chesapeake and New England? PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT IN NEW ENGLAND AND THE CHESAPEAKE COMPARED

Challenges to Puritan Orthodoxy What do New England’s laws reveal about its culture? Why was Ann Hutchinson such a threat to the Puritan elite? 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Challenges to Puritan Orthodoxy Quakers – The Society of Friends, who believed each individual possessed a divine spark of grace, an inner light that could lead to salvation 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Competing Visions Why did Puritans oppose religious toleration? ANTINOMIANISM OR TOLERATION: THE PURITAN DILEMMA Some Puritans, such as Nathaniel Ward, opposed religious toleration because they believed it led to ethical relativism and moral anarchy; they believed religion was needed to guide behavior. Roger Williams, who favored tolerance, believed the religious and secular spheres were entirely separate; freedom in one sphere had no necessary implications for actions in the other sphere.

The Caribbean Colonies I. Power Is Sweet II. Barbados: The Emergence of a Slave Society 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States

31 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Power Is Sweet Why did the Caribbean become the jewel in the crown of England’s colonial empire? 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Barbados: The Emergence of a Slave Society Why did Barbados turn to slavery as its primary source of labor? 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States

34 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Restoration Era and the Proprietary Colonies I. The English Conquest of the Dutch Colony of New Netherland II. A Peaceable Kingdom: Quakers in Pennsylvania III. The Carolinas 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Restoration Era and the Proprietary Colonies What was the Restoration? 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Restoration Era and the Proprietary Colonies Restoration – In 1660 Charles II became king of England, restoring the monarchy to power after the Civil War and Cromwellian rule 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States

38 Visions of America, A History of the United States

39 Visions of America, A History of the United States The English Conquest of the Dutch Colony of New Netherland

A Peaceable Kingdom: Quakers in Pennsylvania How did Pennsylvania embody Quaker ideals? 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Carolinas How did the Restoration-era colonies differ from earlier colonies on the issue of religious toleration? 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Crises of the Late Seventeenth Century I. War and Rebellion II. The Dominion of New England and the Glorious Revolution III. The Salem Witchcraft Hysteria 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States

War and Rebellion What were the main causes of Bacon’s Rebellion? What economic and demographic forces contributed to the emergence of slavery in the Chesapeake region? 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States

War and Rebellion Bacon’s Rebellion – A popular uprising in Virginia in 1676 named after its leader, Nathaniel Bacon 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States

45 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Dominion of New England and the Glorious Revolution What was the Glorious Revolution? 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Dominion of New England and the Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution – The relatively bloodless revolution that led to the ascension of William and Mary, which was widely seen as a vindication for English liberty 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States

48 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Salem Witchcraft Hysteria New Englanders believed that the Devil made his minions sign a book or contract for what purpose? What was spectral evidence? 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States

50 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Whig Ideal and the Emergence of Political Stability I. The Whig Vision of Politics II. Mercantilism, Federalism, and the Structure of Empire 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Whig Vision of Politics What religious ideas were associated with the Glorious Revolution? 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States

The Whig Vision of Politics Whigs (English, 17th Century) – The group that supported parliamentary power after the Glorious Revolution 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States

54 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Mercantilism, Federalism, and the Structure of Empire What was the theory of mercantilism? 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States

Mercantilism, Federalism, and the Structure of Empire Mercantilism – Theory of empire that advocated strict regulation of trade between colonies and the mother country to benefit the latter 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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