Published on September 23, 2013
START IT UP PUP Chapter 2 Matter and Change Unit Notes
Section 2.1 Properties of Matter What is matter?
Which of these is matter? water air light darkness smoke human cold diamond heat jello cloud sound
What is matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter can be classified by extensive or intensive properties. Extensive depends on the amount of matter in the sample. Intensive does not depend on the amount but the type of matter in the sample.
What is a substance? Matter that has a uniform and definite composition is called a substance. Examples are: gold, copper, iron, water, sodium chloride (salt), oxygen (see table 2.1) Physical properties can be used to identify unknown substances.
States of Matter The three main states of matter are: solid, liquid and gas.
Solids Solids have a definite shape and volume. The shape of the solid doesn’t depend on the shape of the container. Solids are incompressible. Expand slightly when heated. Particle vibrate in place.
Liquids Indefinite shape Definite volume Not easily compressed Expand slightly when heated. Particles can flow.
Gases Indefinite shape. Indefinite volume. Easily compressed. Particles are free to roam everywhere.
Vocabulary Cards Matter Extensive Intensive Substance
Yup, yup SUM IT UP SUM IT UP PUP How can you tell if something is matter?
Mixtures 2.2 Mixtures are classified into two groups. Mixtures are physical blends of two or more components. Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform. Their components are not evenly distributed. Homogeneous mixtures are uniform and their components are evenly distributed. Phases describe any part of a mixture that has uniform composition and properties.
What kind of mixture is it? heterogeneous Homogeneous Homogeneous Homogeneous heterogeneous
Elements and compounds 2.3 Compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Elements cannot. If the composition of a material is fixed, the material is a substance. If the composition of a material can vary, it is a mixture. Chemical symbols are used to represent elements on the periodic table.
Chemical Reactions 2.4 During a chemical change, the composition of matter always changes. A substance present at the start of the reaction is called the reactant. The substance present at the end of the reaction is called the product. Clues that a chemical change has occurred are: energy transfer (hot or cold feeling), change in color, gas production, formation of a precipitate (solid stuff) During any chemical reaction, the mass of the reactants and the products must equal each other. Its called the Law of Conservation of Mass.
How can you recognize a physical versus and chemical change? Breaking glass Ice pack Frying an egg Burning a match Rusting car Boiling water Shaking pop Hand warmers Freezing water Cooking macaroni Chopping veggies Baking a cake
Vocabulary Cards Mixture Heterogeneous Homogeneous Compound Element Reactant product
SUM IT UP How can you tell if a chemical instead of a physical reaction has taken place?
LET’S REVIEW SO WE DON’T HIT A WALL WHEN WE TAKE THE TEST
Substance Matter that has the same composition and properties throughout is called a substance.
Compound A compound is a substance whose smallest unit is made up of atoms of more than one element chemically bonded together.
Mixture When two or more substances (element and compounds) come together but don’t combine to create a new substance, a mixture results.
Homogeneous Mixture These mixtures are the same throughout. You can’t see the different parts.
Heterogeneous Mixture These mixtures are not the same throughout and you can see the individual parts.
Which one is it? compound compound mixture mixture mixture compound
A chemical reaction must make something totally different that has different properties from when it started. You start with the And you end with the reactants products
When you make a sandwich, what do you do?
When you make a sandwich, what do you do? Products Reactants
SCIENCE SWAG EXTRA CREDIT: Create a video, poem or story about the states of matter. Poem or story must be one page. Video must be 2 minutes. Make sure the projects include good facts about the states of matter. Due in one week.
POST IT UP What is the Law of Conservation of Mass? OT IG IS! TH IN EE D HE LP !