Chapter 2.1 Plate Tectonics

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Information about Chapter 2.1 Plate Tectonics
Education

Published on July 7, 2009

Author: eeeeeks

Source: slideshare.net

Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics

Layers of the Earth

Layers of the Earth Denser Basaltic Rocks

Layers of the Earth Denser Less dense Basaltic Granitic Rocks Rocks

Alfred Wegener’s Continental Drift Theory

Evidences

Evidences

Evidences

Evidences • Geological Evidence: Edges of continents fit like a jig-saw

Evidences • Geological Evidence: Edges of continents fit like a jig-saw • Biological Evidence: Fossils & Imprints of plants

Evidences • Geological Evidence: Edges of continents fit like a jig-saw • Biological Evidence: Fossils & Imprints of plants • Climate Based Evidence: Glaciation

So does our earth still move today?

So does our earth still move today? How will earth look like in the future?

What’s wrong with Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift?

What’s wrong with Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift?

What’s wrong with Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift? • Continents do NOT move.

What’s wrong with Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift? • Continents do NOT move. • It is the tectonic (crustal) plates that consist of both oceanic and continental crusts that moves.

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates:

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates: • Consist of both continental and oceanic crusts.

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates: • Consist of both continental and oceanic crusts. • Plate Tectonics:

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates: • Consist of both continental and oceanic crusts. • Plate Tectonics: • How plates move

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates: • Consist of both continental and oceanic crusts. • Plate Tectonics: • How plates move • Why they move

Tectonic Plates vs. Plate Tectonics • Tectonic (Crustal) Plates: • Consist of both continental and oceanic crusts. • Plate Tectonics: • How plates move • Why they move • How the movement changes the physical landscape

Memorise!

Plate Boundaries & Movements

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart)

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries • Convergent (Move towards)

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries • Convergent (Move towards) • Compressional force

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries • Convergent (Move towards) • Compressional force • 3. Conservative plate boundaries

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries • Convergent (Move towards) • Compressional force • 3. Conservative plate boundaries • Transform (Slide past)

Plate Boundaries & Movements • 1. Constructive plate boundaries • Divergent (Move apart) • Tensional force • 2. Destructive plate boundaries • Convergent (Move towards) • Compressional force • 3. Conservative plate boundaries • Transform (Slide past) • Frictional force

Physical features in the World

Physical features in the World Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Physical features in the World East African Rift Valley Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Physical features in the World East African Rift Valley Andes Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Physical features in the World Rockies East African Rift Valley Andes Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Physical features in the World Himalayas Rockies East African Rift Valley Andes Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Physical features in the World St. Andrea’s Fault Himalayas Rockies East African Rift Valley Andes Mid-Atlantic Ridge

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries Sea Floor Spreading Plates diverges & pulls apart

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Ridges.

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Ridges. • Eg. Mid-Atlantic Ridge

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Ridges. • Eg. Mid-Atlantic Ridge • Sometimes lava fountains are found in the middle of the ridges.

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts • Rift Valleys

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts • Rift Valleys • Eg. East African Rift Valley

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts • Rift Valleys • Eg. East African Rift Valley • Magma rises and squeezes through the widening cracks, sometimes to erupt and form volcanoes.

1. Constructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Continental- Continental Crusts • Rift Valleys • Eg. East African Rift Valley • Magma rises and squeezes through the widening cracks, sometimes to erupt and form volcanoes. • The rising magma puts more pressure on the crust to produce additional fractures and, ultimately, the rift zone.

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries Plates converges & collide

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes • Trench

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes • Trench • Eg. Peru-Chile Trench

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes • Trench • Eg. Peru-Chile Trench • Earthquakes

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes • Trench • Eg. Peru-Chile Trench • Earthquakes

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #1: Oceanic-Continental Crusts • Mountains • Eg. Andes • Trench • Eg. Peru-Chile Trench • Earthquakes

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Oceanic trenches

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Oceanic trenches • Eg. Marianas Trench

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Oceanic trenches • Eg. Marianas Trench • Volcanic islands  Island Arcs

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Oceanic trenches • Eg. Marianas Trench • Volcanic islands  Island Arcs • Hawaiian Islands

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #2: Oceanic-Oceanic Crusts • Oceanic trenches • Eg. Marianas Trench • Volcanic islands  Island Arcs • Hawaiian Islands • Earthquakes

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #3: Continental-Continental Crusts

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #3: Continental-Continental Crusts • Fold Mountains

2. Destructive Plate Boundaries • Case #3: Continental-Continental Crusts • Fold Mountains • Eg. Himalayas

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries Plates slide past each other

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries • Fault lines

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries • Fault lines • Eg. St. Andreas Fault, San Francisco

3. Conservative Plate Boundaries • Fault lines • Eg. St. Andreas Fault, San Francisco • Earthquakes

Dynamic movements of tectonic plates

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