Chapter 2 1

56 %
44 %
Information about Chapter 2 1

Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Minerva


Slide1:  Chapter 2 Early Civilizations Slide2:  Lesson 1: The Fertile Crescent Where Civilization Began A. Civilization 1. Groups of People living together that form a complex society 2. Civilizations have customs, food supply, social division, government, religion and technology 3. Civilizations began in about 3,500 BC in the Fertile Crescent B. The Fertile Crescent 1. An area of land in the south western part of Asia along the Tigris and Euphrates River, from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf 2. Fertile- means rich soil good for farming 3. The west was wooded forest filled with deer, sheep and goats 4. In the center between the Tigris and Euphrates was a great plain of grasslands with pigs, oxen and lions C. Mesopotamia 1. The area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates River 2. Mesopotamia means “Land between Rivers” 3. Mesopotamia was on of the first Civilizations in the world Slide3:  Climate and Rivers A. Climate 1. The Climate of this area is not very good for farming. It is very dry from May to October sometimes reaching 120 F 2. In November to April it sometimes rains so much it floods the plain between the two rivers 3. There is usually not enough rain for crops to grow. B. The Rivers 1. Farmers move south in search of better farmland in about 5000 BC 2. They moved from the plateau to the plains between the Tigris and Euphrates 3. Plateau an area of high flat land 4. The rivers provided farmers with a constant source of water for crops 5. The soil was rich from the constant flooding of the rivers 6. Farmers used irrigation from the river to water their crops C. Irrigation 1. Building of trenches and ditches to control the amount of water crops receive Slide4:  The People A. Problem Solvers 1. Built Irrigation systems to farm 2. Made buildings from reeds near the river 3. Later began making mud bricks to form homes, temples and other buildings B. Work 1. Most people worked as farmers or hearders a. Crops: Barley, Millet,wheat dates, lentils, onions, lettuce, apples, cucumbers, garlic, and turnips b. Animals: sheep, goats, and cattle C. Technology 1. Over time they impoved farming tools and farming techniques 2. Soon these people had surplus crops they could move up and down the rivers Slide5:  Growth of City-States and Trade A. City States 1. A city state is a city that is an individual unit. It has its own government and traditions 2. City-States include:Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Mippur, Umma and Ur. 3. These city-states were in the Region of Mesopotamia 4. Region- Area on earth with common physical features B. Surplus food led to population growth 1. New settlers moved into this area 2. Surplus food led to specialization a. Some people stopped farming and took on other jobs b. Jobs like: soldiers, government, religious leaders 3. Artisans-crafts people with special skills like potters and weavers 4. Artisans were paid for their skills in food C. Traders 1. Some people began to trade goods 2. Traders would leave with food and cloth and travel by donkey or reed boat to trade for copper wood and stone 3. Later they built large wooden boats to travel farther to trade this spread Mesopotamian culture to other parts of the world Lesson 2: Mesopotamia:  Lesson 2: Mesopotamia Sumer an Akkad A. How they were alike 1. Both practiced similar farming and business practices 2. Both were city-states 3. Both had large markets for people to trade goods B. Differences 1. Spoke different languages 2. Fought over control of land and water C. Uruk 1. A Large Sumerian city-state of about 50,000 people 2. Was surrounded by field of grains 3. Was protected by a large brick wall 4. People lived in mud brick houses D. Ziggurat 1. A temple to honor gods 2. Made of rectangular platforms stacked an top of each other 3. Highest building in the city some were 290 feet high Slide7:  Religion and Government A. Religion was very important in Sumer and Akkad 1. Temples were very large and magnificent 2. Temples were homes to the gods 3. Polytheism- the worship of many gods B. Society 1. an organized community with established rules and traditions C. Gods 1. Believed the gods were responsible for the well being of the people and making the land fertile 2. Anu- god of heavens Enlil-god of wind Enki- god of water Ninhursag- mother of the gods 3. People believe if they had good crops and did well the gods were happy 4. People and priest made offerings to the gods like food, drink, incense Slide8:  D. Government 1. Closely linked to religion 2. Believed kings were chosen by gods to carry out gods wishes 3. Divine Kingship – The right to rule was god given and could be passed down from father to son 4. Divine kingship had a huge impact on later civilizations E. The Class system- way of breaking society into social groups by importance to the society 1. King 2. Wealthy business men 3. landowners 4. artisans (craftsmen) and farm workers 5. slaves Slide9:  Writing A. Writing system created 1. System was created to keep track of business dealings for trading 2. It started as a simple picture that stood for objects B. Scribe 1. person who was a professional writer 2. used a sharpen reed to scratch into wet clay tablets 3. the clay tablet would dry to form a permanent record 4. Cuneiform- Sumerian system of writing using pictures in clay tablets C. Why Cuneiform was so important 1. First written language 2. Could settle disputes between people 3. Was copied by many other cities in the area 4. Many tablets have been translated by archeologists 5. Found literature of Gilgamesh adventures as king Slide10:  Rise and Fall of Akkadian Empire A. Sargon 1. King of Akkadian 2. Sargon attacked and conquered many city-states in Mesopotamia. He united them under him as one kingdom or empire 3. Conquer- defeat in battle 4. Empire- a large territory consisting of many different places under the control of one ruler B. Enheduanna 1. Sargon’s daughter he named as high priestes of Ur. 2. She made offerings to the gods 3. Following rulers named their daughters to high priestess C. Dynasty 1. Ruling family of an empire 2. Sargon past his kingship to his son 3. Akkadia remained in power for about 150 years 4. Akkadia was constantly threatened by revolts Slide11:  Sumer’s Final Days A. Ur Controlled summer for about 100 years 1. Ur Nammu was king 2. His son Shulgi took over when he died B. Sumer did well 1. Farming, business, and the arts flourished 2. Large structures were built. The largest ziggurat was built at this time C. Ur was conquered by invaders from the northeast. 1. Sumerian civilizations decline 2. Sumerians contributions helped other civilizations a. Cuneiform b. Ziggurats c. The wheel Lesson 3:Babylon and Assyria:  Lesson 3:Babylon and Assyria The Rise of Hammurabi and Babylonia A. Babylon 1. Large city-state in Mesopotamian region that served as the capitol city of the Babylonian Empire B. Hammurabi 1. Ruler of the Babylonian empire 2. Hammurabi collected taxes and built huge building in Babylon 3. Created Hammurabi’s Code of laws 4. Brilliant military commander who conquered much of Mesopotamia Slide13:  Babylonian Civilization A. Daily Life 1. Continued to Farm using irrigation to water crops 2. Continued to practice the similar religions that were in this area 3. Developed a very strict class system 4. Babylon grew into a cultural center with may advancements in mathematics, literature and law. B. Hammurabi’s Code of Laws 1. 282 Laws dealt with business, property, medical practice and marriage 2. Not the 1st written law code, but the oldest complete law code that has been found 3. The law code gives us an understanding of Babylonian history 4. Punishments were harsh eye for an eye 5. Laws were also established to protect the weak Slide14:  The Assyrians A. Assyria 1. City-State in Northern Mesopotamia 2. Great fighter- place a high importance on war and conquest 3. Conquest- defeat of another group of people 4. Wheeled battering ram destroyed city walls and troops would swarm the cities B. Ashurbanipal 1. King of Assyria 2. Led his army into battle 3. Very educated man 4. Built a great library in Nineveh where he collected many works from other Mesopotamian civilizations. 5. Historians have learned much about the Mesopotamian people from this library Slide15:  Babylon Grows A. Nebuchadnezzar II 1. Became King of Babylon 2. Built massive buildings tower of Babylon, Hanging Gardens 3. Babylon grew into a trading center once again 4. Advancements in Math (place value of numbers) 5. Advancements in Science: Study of planets and the sun B. Nebuchadnezzar II dies 1. Babylon declines quickly 2. 539 BC Persians invade and conquer Babylon Lesson 4:Hebrews, Phoenicians and Lydians:  Lesson 4:Hebrews, Phoenicians and Lydians Hebrews A. Abraham 1. Shepherd who lived in Ur. 2. Considered the first Jew 3. God Spoke to Abraham and told him to move to the land of Canaan 4. Abraham promised to move to Canaan and to only worship one God. God agreed to care for Abraham and his people 5. The people who followed Abraham were called Hebrews 6. Abraham was the founder of Judaism B. Covenant 1. an agreement 2. The agreement between God and Abraham C. Monotheism 1. The worship of only one God 2. Judaism ( religion of the Hebrews) is the first Monotheist religion Slide17:  D. Hebrews move to Egypt 1. Egyptians force the Hebrews into slavery 2. Slavery- Practice of one person owning another person 3. Moses- Person chosen by God to lead the Hebrews from slavery to freedom E. Hebrews leave Egypt 1. Moses given the Ten Commandments 2. Ten Commandments- list of rules for worshiping God and moral conduct 3. God made a covenant with Moses. Those people who left Egypt and their descendants would follow the commandments and God would care for them 4. Descendants- people who are born later in the same family Slide18:  The Hebrew Bible A. Torah 1. First 5 books of the Hebrew Bible given to Moses from God 2. Torah means “to teach” 3. The Torah provide guidance and laws for the Jewish people B. Tradition 1. These books are very sacred to Jewish people 2. The rollers that hold the Torah are often decorated, but the scrolls are never decorated. 3. The Torah also recorded the early Hebrew History through Stories Slide19:  Israel and Judah A. Deborah 1. A woman Hebrew Judge 2. Judges provided guidance in times of trouble 3. Women were not usually given these roles 4. Deborah encouraged the King of the Israel to attack the Canaanites B. War with the Canaanites 1. King of Canaanites was treating the Hebrew harshly 2. The Hebrews attacked and won the battle 3. The Canaanite King escaped and was killed by a Hebrew woman just as Deborah predicted C. David as King 1. David united the twelve tribes and found the new kindom of Israel 2. Under David and his son Solomon Israel prospered and did well. 3. Solomon built a large temple in Jerusalem to worship God and house the Torah 4. After Solomon's death Israel was attacked by the Assyrians and late by Nebuchadnezzar II and many of the Israelites were brought to Babylon as slaves 5. Many Israelites continued to practice their religion and returned to Jerusalem Slide20:  Judaism Today A. Jewish Practices 1. Still read the Torah 2. Worship in Synagogues 3. Synagogues- Jewish house of worship 4. Still Celebrate Jewish feasts such as Passover 5. Rabbis teach Jews how to read the Torah 6. Rabbi in Hebrew means teacher Phoenicians and Lydians A. Phoenicians 1. Traders who traded goods throughout the Mediterranean area 2. Phoenicians live on the east side of the Mediterranean. 3. Most important trading city was Carthage in Africa 4. Their trading passed ideas through this entire region of the world B. Alphabet 1. The most important contribution was the modern alphabet 2. Cuneiform was too complex 700 characters 3. Phoenician Alphabet was much simpler 22 characters 4. Later Greeks added vowels C. Lydians 1. As people traded goods they bartered 2. Barter is to trade goods or services 3. Lydians were the first people to use coins with a set value guaranteed by the king 4. Soon other people started using coins like the Greeks

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Insidious: Chapter 2 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Insidious: Chapter 2 is a 2013 American supernatural horror film directed by James Wan. ... The film earned $1.5 million from its Thursday night showings, ...
Read more

Insidious: Chapter 2 | Film 2013 |

Alle Infos zum Film Insidious: Chapter 2 (2013): Auch in dem Horrorthriller-Sequel Insidious: Chapter 2 wird Patrick Wilsons Familie von Geistern ...
Read more

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 GSS Treats Card promo! Additional $50 off hair... Chapter 2 GSS Treats Card prom... Read More. June 4, 2013 ...
Read more

Insidious: Chapter 2 - Film 2013 -

Insidious: Chapter 2, Ein Film von James Wan mit Patrick Wilson, Rose Byrne. Übersicht und Filmkritik. Nachdem Familie Lambert es geschafft hat, ihren ...
Read more

IREAD hierschreibenwir | Spiegelkinder Chapter 2.1

Willkommen auf der groessten deutschen Mitschreib-Community fuer Jugendliche
Read more

Insidious: Chapter 2 - Film - - Kino bei CINEMA ...

Alle Infos zum Film Insidious: Chapter 2 (2013): Auch im Sequel seines Gruselhits von 2011 lässt "Saw"-Erfinder James Wan die Geister los ... Chapter 2" 1 / 4
Read more

Insidious: Chapter 2 Official Trailer #1 (2013) - Patrick ...

Insidious: Chapter 2 Official Trailer #1 (2013) - Patrick Wilson Movie HD The haunted Lambert family seeks to uncover the mysterious childhood ...
Read more

Insidious: Chapter 2 – Wikipedia

Insidious: Chapter 2 ist ein US-amerikanischer Horrorfilm aus dem Jahr 2013 unter der Regie von James Wan. Das Drehbuch schrieb Leigh Whannell. Der Film ...
Read more

Chapter 2

chapter 2. BLUE SUEDE SHOES - MEMPHIS. £140.00. chapter 2. BLUE SUEDE SHOES - ELECTRIC. £140.00. our news... February 13, 2016 backstage with Elvis.
Read more