Chapter 19 Growth Of Industry

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Information about Chapter 19 Growth Of Industry

Published on February 16, 2008

Author: cuevasl

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Growth of Industry in America
Middle School American History
Grades 6-8

MONEY, MONEY, MONEY CHAPTER 19 THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY

Section1 East and West coasts are connected Plains areas are populated trade moving N, S, E, W and overseas What was once a “chopped up” nation—now whole

East and West coasts are connected

Plains areas are populated

trade moving N, S, E, W and overseas

What was once a “chopped up” nation—now whole

More people—more stuff Supply/Demand Who could get it quicker, cheaper, more economical and in bigger quantities –the challenge

More people—more stuff

Supply/Demand

Who could get it quicker, cheaper, more economical and in bigger quantities –the challenge

Set up our nation on a wild ride THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Set up our nation on a wild ride

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

RAILROAD EXPANSION 1890’s five Railway lines crossed the country thousands of miles of new track laid Larger railroad companies bought smaller ones—consolidation known as railroad barons

1890’s five Railway lines crossed the country

thousands of miles of new track laid

Larger railroad companies bought smaller ones—consolidation

known as railroad barons

Railroad Barons Cornelius Vanderbilt—New York Leland Stanford--California

Cornelius Vanderbilt—New York

Leland Stanford--California

Railroad stimulates the Economy carried raw materials iron ore coal timber carried manufactured goods from factories to market carried produce from farms to cities

carried raw materials

iron ore

coal

timber

carried manufactured goods from factories to market

carried produce from farms to cities

helped iron mining need for tracks need for locomotives 1900 started using steel stronger than iron add carbon & other elements to iron helped other industry lumber industry: supplied wood for RR ties coal: fuel for locomotives labor: people had to do all this stuff!

helped iron mining

need for tracks

need for locomotives

1900 started using steel

stronger than iron

add carbon & other elements to iron

helped other industry

lumber industry: supplied wood for RR ties

coal: fuel for locomotives

labor: people had to do all this stuff!

Improving the Railroads Each R/R built it’s tracks to its own specs no unified code tracks not interchangeable made travel inefficient adopted a standard gauge

Each R/R built it’s tracks to its own specs

no unified code

tracks not interchangeable

made travel inefficient

adopted a standard gauge

Railroad Technology 4 major technological developments 1. Air brakes-Westinghouse 2. Janney car coupler—Janney 3. Refrigerator Cars— Gustavus Swift 4. Pullman sleeping car—George Pullman next

4 major technological developments

1. Air brakes-Westinghouse

2. Janney car coupler—Janney

3. Refrigerator Cars— Gustavus Swift

4. Pullman sleeping car—George Pullman

next

Westinghouse Air Brake

 

Refrigerator Car

 

Competition Big companies—breed competition offered discounts to lure customers discounted money had to come from somewhere!

Big companies—breed competition

offered discounts to lure customers

discounted money had to come from somewhere!

Railroads change America Eastern business started moving West Redistributed the population Changed the way people thought of time How far is it to Tallahassee? Orlando? Mobile? Opened up the United States to economic growth; united different regions of the nation

Eastern business started moving West

Redistributed the population

Changed the way people thought of time

How far is it to Tallahassee?

Orlando?

Mobile?

Opened up the United States to economic growth; united different regions of the nation

Section 2 Inventions

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0gZHkO1IJA The Telegraph Samuel F.B. Morse Introduced 1844 Western Union Telegraph Company US and Europe connected

The Telegraph

Samuel F.B. Morse

Introduced 1844

Western Union Telegraph Company

US and Europe connected

Ring, Ring, Ring… Alexander Graham Bell Born in Scotland 1876 developed the telephone “ Mr. Watson, come here. I want you” Formed Bell Telephone Company 1890 sold 500,000 phones

Alexander Graham Bell

Born in Scotland

1876 developed the telephone

“ Mr. Watson, come here. I want you”

Formed Bell Telephone Company

1890 sold 500,000 phones

The race was on… 400,000 new patents from 1860 – 1890 What is a patent? New inventions: typewriter-1868 adding machine-1888 camera-1888 (George Eastman) vacuum cleaner-1889

400,000 new patents from 1860 – 1890

What is a patent?

New inventions:

typewriter-1868

adding machine-1888

camera-1888 (George Eastman)

vacuum cleaner-1889

Somebody turn the light on! Thomas Alva Edison goal: invention a minor invention every 10 days; a major invention every 6 months received 1000 patents phonograph motion picture projector telephone transmitter storage battery dictating machine light bulb

Thomas Alva Edison

goal: invention a minor invention every 10 days; a major invention every 6 months

received 1000 patents

phonograph

motion picture projector

telephone transmitter

storage battery

dictating machine

light bulb

power plant production designed them to produce electric power to deliver it to his lightbulbs 1 st power plant built in 1882 illuminated 85 buildings in New York City George Westinghouse-1885 built transformers send electric power cheaper and to places farther away

power plant production

designed them to produce electric power to deliver it to his lightbulbs

1 st power plant built in 1882

illuminated 85 buildings in New York City

George Westinghouse-1885

built transformers

send electric power cheaper and to places farther away

African American Inventors/Engineers Lewis Howard Latimer- filament for the lightbulb Granville Woods- electric incubator & electromagnetic brake; automatic circuit breaker Elijah McCoy- mechanism for oiling machinery Jan E. Matzeliger- shoemaking machine

Lewis Howard Latimer- filament for the lightbulb

Granville Woods- electric incubator & electromagnetic brake; automatic circuit breaker

Elijah McCoy- mechanism for oiling machinery

Jan E. Matzeliger- shoemaking machine

Transportation Two new modes of transportation by land and by air Henry Ford 1908- Model T is born Assembly Line mass production

Two new modes of transportation

by land and by air

Henry Ford

1908- Model T is born

Assembly Line

mass production

It’s a bird, It’s a plane… Orville and Wilbur Wright – 1903 1 st plane- wood/canvas with 12 hp engine

Orville and Wilbur Wright – 1903

1 st plane- wood/canvas with 12 hp engine

Section 3 An Age of Big Business 1850 - 1900

An Age of Big Business

The Timeline 1859- Oil Discovered in Titusville, PA 1870- Rockerfeller organizes the Standard Oil Company 1890- Sherman Antitrust Act Prohibits monopolies 1900- Andrew Carnegie rules the steel industry

1859- Oil Discovered in Titusville, PA

1870- Rockerfeller organizes the Standard Oil Company

1890- Sherman Antitrust Act Prohibits monopolies

1900- Andrew Carnegie rules the steel industry

Economics What was this sticky substance? OIL Edwin L. Drake- beginning of the petroleum industry

What was this sticky substance?

OIL

Edwin L. Drake- beginning of the petroleum industry

Economics Companies need cash to survive Cash = Capital How to raise capital= corporation Corporation= shares/stocks stock=sold to public public= shareholders shareholders=partial owners

Companies need cash to survive

Cash = Capital

How to raise capital= corporation

Corporation= shares/stocks

stock=sold to public

public= shareholders

shareholders=partial owners

partial owner=earned dividends company prospered=stock rose in value high stock value = sell for a profit company failed = stock fell in value low stock value = lost investment buying/selling of stocks on the market is the stock exchange

partial owner=earned dividends

company prospered=stock rose in value

high stock value = sell for a profit

company failed = stock fell in value

low stock value = lost investment

buying/selling of stocks on the market is the stock exchange

Railroads 1 st to form corporations manufacturing firms next others fell into place growth of corporations feeds the industrial expansion of America

Railroads 1 st to form corporations

manufacturing firms next

others fell into place

growth of corporations feeds the industrial expansion of America

Where did the $$ come from? Businesses borrowed money from banks Banks made money from profits on loans

Businesses borrowed money from banks

Banks made money from profits on loans

The Oil Business Late 1800’s Titusville well produced 15 barrels a day Like the gold rush, an oil rush began in the East—Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia One of the 1 st big names in Oil John D. Rockefeller

Late 1800’s Titusville well produced 15 barrels a day

Like the gold rush, an oil rush began in the East—Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia

One of the 1 st big names in Oil

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller http://youtube.com/watch?v=_y7XbLri4ZE

http://youtube.com/watch?v=_y7XbLri4ZE

The Standard Oil Trust Built empire using horizontal integration combining competing companies together pressured customers not to deal with rival companies pressured R/R’s to give him rebates I’ll pat your back/ you pat mine

Built empire using horizontal integration

combining competing companies together

pressured customers not to deal with rival companies

pressured R/R’s to give him rebates

I’ll pat your back/ you pat mine

Power…. Increased control by forming a trust Step 1- Rockefeller bought stock in lots of other oil companies Step 2- Shareholders of those companies traded their stock for Standard Oil stock Step 3- Now B.O.D. of Standard Oil had ownership of other’s stock and could manage their companies.

Increased control by forming a trust

Step 1- Rockefeller bought stock in lots of other oil companies

Step 2- Shareholders of those companies traded their stock for Standard Oil stock

Step 3- Now B.O.D. of Standard Oil had ownership of other’s stock and could manage their companies.

Created a monopoly- total control by a single producer Standard Oil (Rockefeller) became the oil master

Created a monopoly- total control by a single producer

Standard Oil (Rockefeller) became the oil master

The Steel Industry Steel – a new big business Expensive to manufacture New techniques brought costs down and change the industry

Steel – a new big business

Expensive to manufacture

New techniques brought costs down and change the industry

2 new methods to make steel Bessemer Process Open hearth process Steel mills emerge in western Pennsylvania/Eastern Ohio near iron ore Pittsburgh becomes steel capital of US among other eastern cities

2 new methods to make steel

Bessemer Process

Open hearth process

Steel mills emerge in western Pennsylvania/Eastern Ohio near iron ore

Pittsburgh becomes steel capital of US among other eastern cities

Bessemer Process

Open Hearth Process

Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_kMkQCZV8o Son of a Scottish immigrant began as a telegraph operator worked up to manager of the Pennsylvania RR 1865 invested in iron industry built a steel plant near Pittsburg used the Bessemer process Named company J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_kMkQCZV8o

Son of a Scottish immigrant

began as a telegraph operator

worked up to manager of the Pennsylvania RR

1865 invested in iron industry

built a steel plant near Pittsburg

used the Bessemer process

Named company J. Edgar Thompson Steel Works

Vertical Integration 1890– Carnegie dominated steel industry Built it through vertical integration acquired companies that had the resources, services, equipment he needed coal and iron mines, warehouses, ore ships, railroads 1900 combined all his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company produced 1/3 of all steel

1890– Carnegie dominated steel industry

Built it through vertical integration

acquired companies that had the resources, services, equipment he needed

coal and iron mines, warehouses, ore ships, railroads

1900 combined all his companies into the Carnegie Steel Company

produced 1/3 of all steel

Carnegie sells out J. Pierpont Morgan $450 MILLION Formed Carnegie with other companies United States Steel Corporation (US Steel) 1 st billion dollar corporation

Carnegie sells out

J. Pierpont Morgan

$450 MILLION

Formed Carnegie with other companies

United States Steel Corporation (US Steel)

1 st billion dollar corporation

 

US Steel

Make it and Give it Away Philanthropists- use money to benefit the community Rockefeller, Carnegie Carnegie Hall-concert hall Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of teaching University of Chicago Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research

Philanthropists- use money to benefit the community

Rockefeller, Carnegie

Carnegie Hall-concert hall

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of teaching

University of Chicago

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research

Carnegie Hall

University 0f Chicago

Corporations grow and grow … Like Standard Oil, US Steel etc. more and more companies “merged” Pro’s and Con’s helped growth power in the hands of a few people Monopolies—defenders believed reduced competition = great economic stability opposition– lack of competition, fear of unstable prices

Like Standard Oil, US Steel etc. more and more companies “merged”

Pro’s and Con’s

helped growth

power in the hands of a few people

Monopolies—defenders believed

reduced competition = great economic stability

opposition– lack of competition, fear of unstable prices

Government steps in 15 states limited monopolies companies set up shop in other states 1890 congress Sherman Antitrust Act--”to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraint and monopoly”

15 states limited monopolies

companies set up shop in other states

1890 congress Sherman Antitrust Act--”to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraint and monopoly”

 

Section 4 Industrial Workers

No more Mom and Pop joints Industrial growth increased jobs more people working, bigger payrolls, larger staffs factories once family owned/now corporations led to poorer working conditions

Industrial growth increased jobs

more people working, bigger payrolls, larger staffs

factories once family owned/now corporations

led to poorer working conditions

 

less personal 10 – 12 hr wk days fired for any reason immigrants would work for lower pay (out servicing overseas today)

less personal

10 – 12 hr wk days

fired for any reason

immigrants would work for lower pay

(out servicing overseas today)

Working Conditions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9oDbphV8nM noisy, unhealthy accidents common burns from molten steel cave-ins from coal mines gas and coal dust inhalation sweatshops common in garment district firetraps

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9oDbphV8nM

noisy, unhealthy

accidents common

burns from molten steel

cave-ins from coal mines

gas and coal dust inhalation

sweatshops common in garment district

firetraps

Who made what? Salaries- women made ½ salary of men common for children under 16 to work Laws passed to protect kids

Salaries-

women made ½ salary of men

common for children under 16 to work

Laws passed to protect kids

 

Labor Unions formed Trade Unions Knights of Labor Secret organization allowed groups no others would lost membership during strikes AFL wanted same things as others collective bargaining lasted through strikes

Trade Unions

Knights of Labor

Secret organization

allowed groups no others would

lost membership during strikes

AFL

wanted same things as others

collective bargaining

lasted through strikes

 

Women and the Unions Mother Jones Triangle Shirtwaist Company International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union

Women and the Unions

Mother Jones

Triangle Shirtwaist Company

International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union

 

 

The Unions Act Depression of the 1870’s and 1890’s Unions “ strike ” back Railroad Strike of 1877 used strikebreakers Haymarket Riot of 1886 protest leads to killings—leads to bomb labor unions linked to terrorism

Depression of the 1870’s and 1890’s

Unions “ strike ” back

Railroad Strike of 1877

used strikebreakers

Haymarket Riot of 1886

protest leads to killings—leads to bomb

labor unions linked to terrorism

 

 

 

Homestead Strike of 1892 Carnegie’s steel plant non-union workers armed guards, militia Pullman Strike of 1894 cut wages closed plant railway union responds government intercedes

Homestead Strike of 1892

Carnegie’s steel plant

non-union workers

armed guards, militia

Pullman Strike of 1894

cut wages

closed plant

railway union responds

government intercedes

Homestead Strike

Pullman Strike

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