Chapter 15

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Information about Chapter 15

Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Dora


Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright:  Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright Environmental Hazards and Human Health PPT by Clark E. Adams Chapter 15 Environmental Hazards and Human Health:  Environmental Hazards and Human Health Links between human health and the environment Pathways of risk Risk assessment Some Definitions:  Some Definitions Environment: combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors Hazard: anything that can cause injury, death, disease, damage to personal/public property, or deterioration or destruction of environmental components Risk: probability of suffering a loss as a result of exposure to a hazard Links between Human Health and the Environment:  Links between Human Health and the Environment The picture of health Environmental hazards The Picture of Health: Some Terms:  The Picture of Health: Some Terms Morbidity: incidence of disease in a population Mortality: incidence of death in a population Epidemiology: study of presence, distribution, and control of disease in a population Causes of Human Mortality :  Causes of Human Mortality Environmental Hazards:  Environmental Hazards Cultural Biological Physical Chemical Cultural Hazards:  Cultural Hazards Consequence of choice Risky behavior To what cultural hazards do college students commonly subject themselves? Deaths from Various Cultural Hazards:  Deaths from Various Cultural Hazards Biological Hazards:  Biological Hazards Pathogenic bacteria Fungi Viruses Protozoans Worms Global Map of Tuberculosis, 2001:  Global Map of Tuberculosis, 2001 Infectious Diseases:  Infectious Diseases More prevalent in, but not exclusive to, developing countries Contamination of food and water Lack of resources for sanitation Lack of education Ideal climates for transmission of vector-borne diseases like malaria Malarial Parasite Life Cycle:  Malarial Parasite Life Cycle Physical Hazards:  Physical Hazards Natural disasters, e.g., tornadoes, floods, hurricanes, and wildfires Avoidance of risk important in prevention, e.g., building homes in floodplains, and living on the coast Climate change: consequences of elevated greenhouse gases Chemical Hazards:  Chemical Hazards Result of industrialization Exposure through ingestion, inhalation, absorption through skin May be direct use or accidental Many chemicals are toxic at low levels Chemical Hazards:  Chemical Hazards 74 chemicals are known to be carcinogenic (Table 15-2) Environmental carcinogens initiate mutations in DNA; several mutations lead to a malignancy Pathways of Risk:  Pathways of Risk The risk of being poor The cultural risk of tobacco use Risk and infectious diseases Toxic risk pathways The Risk of Being Poor:  The Risk of Being Poor One major pathway for hazards is poverty No money for health insurance Higher probability of exposure to environmental hazards The 10 Leading Global Risk Factors:  The 10 Leading Global Risk Factors Fig. 15-9 here Environmental Health:  Environmental Health Factors contributing to the environmental health of a nation include: Education Nutrition Commitment from government More equitable distribution of wealth The Cultural Risk of Tobacco Use:  The Cultural Risk of Tobacco Use Regulation of Smoking:  Regulation of Smoking Warning labels Smoke-free zones in public places FDA regulations Lawsuits against the tobacco industry Risk and Infectious Diseases:  Risk and Infectious Diseases One major pathway of risk is contamination of food and water Inadequate hygiene Inferior sewage treatment Control of Infectious Disease:  Control of Infectious Disease Genome sequencing of the Anopheles mosquito Bed nets Change in land use practices: wetland development New effective antimalarial drugs Worldwide Distribution of Malaria:  Worldwide Distribution of Malaria Toxic Risk Pathways:  Toxic Risk Pathways Categories of impact of airborne pollutants Chronic: effect takes place over a period of years Acute: life-threatening reaction within a period of hours or days Carcinogenic: pollutants initiate cellular change leading to cancer Indoor Air Pollution: Developed Countries:  Indoor Air Pollution: Developed Countries Hazardous fumes from home products Well-insulated buildings Long exposure to indoor air Indoor Air Pollution: Developing Countries:  Indoor Air Pollution: Developing Countries Results from burning biofuels (wood, dung) inside homes Acute respiratory infections in children Chronic lung diseases Lung cancer Birth-related problems Risk Assessment:  Risk Assessment Environmental risk assessment by the EPA Public-health risk assessment Risk management Risk perception Definition of Risk Assessment :  Definition of Risk Assessment The process of evaluating the risks associated with a particular hazard before taking some action in which the particular hazard is present Loss of Life Expectancy from Various Risks: Top Five (see Fig. 15-16):  Loss of Life Expectancy from Various Risks: Top Five (see Fig. 15-16) Alcoholic Poverty Smoking – male Poor social connections Heart disease Loss of Life Expectancy from Various Risks:  Loss of Life Expectancy from Various Risks Environmental Risk Assessment by the EPA:  Environmental Risk Assessment by the EPA Hazard assessment (What chemicals cause cancer?) Dose-response assessment (How much?) Exposure assessment (How long?) Risk characterization (How many will die?) Public-Health Risk Assessment:  Public-Health Risk Assessment Potential global impact High likelihood of causality Modifiability Availability of data (see Table 15-4) Risk Management:  Risk Management Usually involves: Cost–benefit analysis Risk–benefit analysis Public preferences Risk Perception: Hazard vs. Outrage:  Risk Perception: Hazard vs. Outrage Hazard: expresses primarily a concern for fatalities only Risk Perception: Hazard vs. Outrage:  Risk Perception: Hazard vs. Outrage Outrage includes: Lack of familiarity with technology Extent to which the risk is voluntary Public impressions of hazards Overselling safety Morality Control Fairness Risk Assessment/Management:  Risk Assessment/Management Some suggest we use distributive justice in making decisions about risk Ethical process of making certain that everyone receives proper consideration Should reduce environmental racism/injustice Risk Assessment/Management:  Risk Assessment/Management Not a perfect system Precautionary principle Lack of certainty should not be used as a reason for preventing environmental degradation/hazards End of Chapter 15:  End of Chapter 15

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