Chapter 14: Now That We Are Free: Reconstruction and the New South, 1863-1890

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Published on April 11, 2014

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Chapter 14: Now That We Are Free: Reconstruction and the New South, 1863-1890

1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Now That We Are Free Reconstruction and the New South, 1863–1890 14 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States

2 Visions of America, A History of the United States

3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Now That We Are Free I. Preparing for Reconstruction II. The Fruits of Freedom III. The Struggle to Define Reconstruction IV. Implementing Reconstruction V. Reconstruction Abandoned VI. The New South RECONSTRUCTION AND THE NEW SOUTH, 1863–1890 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States

4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Preparing for Reconstruction A. Emancipation Test Cases B. Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan C. Radical Republicans Offer a Different Vision

5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Emancipation Test Cases How did freedmen define freedom in the Sea Islands? Why did Union officials define freedom for former slaves so narrowly in Louisiana?

6 Visions of America, A History of the United States

7 Visions of America, A History of the United States

8 Visions of America, A History of the United States Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan What advantage did Lincoln see in a moderate Reconstruction policy?

9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Ten Percent Plan – Pardoned all Southerners (except high-ranking military officers and Confederate officials) who took an oath pledging loyalty to the Union and support for emancipation –As soon as 10 percent of a state’s voters took this oath, they could call a convention, establish a new state government, and apply for congressional recognition.

10 Visions of America, A History of the United States Radical Republicans Offer a Different Vision Freedmen’s Bureau – Relief agency for the war-ravaged South created by Congress in March 1865 –Provided emergency services, built schools, and managed confiscated lands

11 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Fruits of Freedom A. Freedom of Movement B. Forty Acres and a Mule C. Uplift through Education D. The Black Church

12 Visions of America, A History of the United States Freedom of Movement

13 Visions of America, A History of the United States Forty Acres and a Mule Why did freedmen believe they were owed land?

14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Uplift through Education Why did education become such a priority for African Americans?

15 Visions of America, A History of the United States

16 Visions of America, A History of the United States

17 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Black Church How did the black church become such a vital institution in freedmen communities?

18 Visions of America, A History of the United States

19 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Struggle to Define Reconstruction A. The Conservative Vision of Freedom: Presidential Reconstruction B. Congressional Reconstruction and the Fourteenth Amendment C. Republicans Take Control

20 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Conservative Vision of Freedom: Presidential Reconstruction What was Andrew Johnson’s primary motivation in devising his lenient Reconstruction policy? What events in the South in 1865–1866 angered Northern Republicans? How did Black Codes calling for freedmen to sign labor contracts curtail their freedom?

21 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Conservative Vision of Freedom: Presidential Reconstruction Black Codes – Laws designed by the ex- Confederate states to sharply limit the civil and economic rights of freedmen and create an exploitable workforce

22 Visions of America, A History of the United States

23 Visions of America, A History of the United States

24 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions DEMANDING RIGHTS, PROTECTING PRIVILEGE Delegates to the Convention of Colored People claimed the rights of suffrage and of equal protection under the laws. The Mississippi legislature passed vaguely-worded Black Codes that allowed freedmen to be arrested at will. What is significant about the freedmen’s use of the term citizen?

25 Visions of America, A History of the United States Congressional Reconstruction and the Fourteenth Amendment How did the Civil Rights Act promote equal rights for all Americans, regardless of race?

26 Visions of America, A History of the United States Congressional Reconstruction and the Fourteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment – Drafted by Congress in June 1866, it defined citizenship to include African Americans, guaranteed equal protection before the law, and established the federal government as the guarantor of individual civil rights

27 Visions of America, A History of the United States

28 Visions of America, A History of the United States Republicans Take Control Why did moderate Republicans decide not to remove Johnson from office?

29 Visions of America, A History of the United States Implementing Reconstruction A. The Republican Party in the South B. Creating Reconstruction Governments in the South C. The Election of 1868 D. The Fifteenth Amendment E. The Rise of White Resistance

30 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republican Party in the South Why did many Northerners move south after the Civil War?

31 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republican Party in the South Carpetbagger – White Southerners’ derogatory term for Northerners who came south after the war to settle, work, or aid the ex-slaves –It falsely suggested they were penniless adventurers who came south merely to get rich.

32 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republican Party in the South Scalawag – White Southerners’ derogatory term for fellow whites considered traitors to their region and race for joining the Republican Party and cooperating with Reconstruction policy

33 Visions of America, A History of the United States

34 Visions of America, A History of the United States Creating Reconstruction Governments in the South How did African American voting affect the political situation in the South in 1876– 1868? Why did Southerners charge that Reconstruction governments were corrupt?

35 Visions of America, A History of the United States

36 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1868

37 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Politics of Racism

38 Visions of America, A History of the United States

39 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Fifteenth Amendment Why did some women’s rights activists oppose ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment?

40 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Fifteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment – Constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1869 providing an explicit constitutional guarantee for black suffrage

41 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Rise of White Resistance Why did groups like the Klan indulge in anti- black violence?

42 Visions of America, A History of the United States

43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Reconstruction Abandoned A. Corruption and Scandal B. Republican Disunity C. The Election of 1872 D. Hard Times E. The Return of Terrorism F. The End of Reconstruction

44 Visions of America, A History of the United States Corruption and Scandal How did the scandals of the Grant administration undermine Reconstruction?

45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Republican Disunity Why did Liberal Republicans lose faith in Reconstruction by the early 1870s?

46 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Election of 1872

47 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Return of Terrorism What was the political impact of the resurgence of white vigilante violance?

48 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Return of Terrorism Mississippi Plan – Campaign of violence and intimidation waged by armed groups of whites closely allied with the Democratic Party that drove Republicans from power in the Mississippi state elections of 1874 –Copied by other Southern states

49 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Return of Terrorism Redeemers – Name for white Southern political leaders who successfully returned their states to white Democratic rule in the mid-1870s –The name was intended to depict these leaders as saviors of Southern society from rule by freedmen, scalawags, and carpetbaggers.

50 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Return of Terrorism Civil Rights Act of 1875 – Passed by Congress in 1875, it required state governments to provide equal access in public facilities such as schools and to allow African Americans to serve on juries. In 1883 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional.

51 Visions of America, A History of the United States

52 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History What makes political cartoons so popular and effective? POLITICAL CARTOONS REFLECT THE SHIFT IN PUBLIC OPINION

53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History POLITICAL CARTOONS REFLECT THE SHIFT IN PUBLIC OPINION “Columbia” symbolizes America and democracy. The cartoonist, Thomas Nast, believed blacks had earned their citizenship through service and sacrifice.

54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History POLITICAL CARTOONS REFLECT THE SHIFT IN PUBLIC OPINION An Irish immigrant (left), an ex-Confederate (center), and a Northern capitalist (right) crush a freedman. The ballot box has been kicked aside.

55 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History POLITICAL CARTOONS REFLECT THE SHIFT IN PUBLIC OPINION Columbia chastises African American leaders. Nast’s views have changed; Blacks now are caricatured as inept and selfish.

56 Visions of America, A History of the United States The End of Reconstruction Why is the eventual result of the election of 1876 considered the end of Reconstruction?

57 Visions of America, A History of the United States The End of Reconstruction Compromise of 1877 – Resolution of the disputed presidential election of 1876 that handed victory to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden –Democrats agreed to the deal in exchange for patronage and the continued removal of federal troops from the South.

58 Visions of America, A History of the United States

59 Visions of America, A History of the United States

60 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New South A. Redeemer Rule B. The Lost Cause C. The New South Economy D. The Rise of Sharecropping E. Jim Crow

61 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New South New South – Optimistic phrase white Southerners used to describe the post- Reconstruction South, reflecting the South’s development of a new system of race relations based on segregation and white supremacy and pointing to a profound economic transformation that swept across the region

62 Visions of America, A History of the United States Redeemer Rule What groups constituted the political leadership of the New South?

63 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Lost Cause How was the Lost Cause a useful myth for Southerners?

64 Visions of America, A History of the United States

65 Visions of America, A History of the United States The New South Economy What weaknesses limited the success of the New South economy?

66 Visions of America, A History of the United States

67 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Rise of Sharecropping How did sharecropping provide limited independence to freedmen?

68 Visions of America, A History of the United States

69 Visions of America, A History of the United States

70 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jim Crow What role did the black middle class play in the Jim Crow South? How did the poll tax and literacy test allow Southerners to circumvent the Fifteenth Amendment?

71 Visions of America, A History of the United States

72 Visions of America, A History of the United States

73 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences • Homer Plessy was an African American who challenged Louisiana’s law requiring separate train cars for black and white passengers. • Plessy bought a first-class ticket and was arrested for sitting in the whites-only car. SANCTIONING SEPARATION

74 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices Regarding Laws Imposing Segregation SANCTIONING SEPARATION Refuse to hear the case Rule in favor of Plessy and strike down the Louisiana law Reject Plessy’s appeal and uphold the Louisiana law

75 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • The Supreme Court rejected Plessy’s claim. • The court established the “separate but equal” interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause. • Segregation became entrenched in schools, hospitals, parks, theaters, and restaurants. • Segregation laws also targeted Mexicans and Asians. SANCTIONING SEPARATION How did the Supreme Court play a role in the imposition of segregation?

76 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies • How should African Americans respond to the imposition of Jim Crow laws? SANCTIONING SEPARATION

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