Published on February 22, 2014
Management: Arab World Edition Robbins, Coulter, Sidani, Jamali Chapter 14: Managers and Communication Lecturer: [Insert your name here]
Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. 14.1 The Nature and Function of Communication • Define communication, interpersonal communication and organizational communication. • Discuss the functions of communication. 14.2 Methods of Interpersonal Communication • Describe the components of the communication process. • Discuss the criteria that managers can use to evaluate the various communication methods. • List 14-3 the communication methods managers might use. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Learning Outcomes 14.3 Effective Interpersonal Communication • Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication. • Discuss ways to overcome the barriers to effective interpersonal communication. 14.4 Organizational Communication • Contrast • Explain communication flow in an organization. • Describe • Discuss 14-4 formal and informal communication. the three common communication networks. how managers should handle the grapevine. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Learning Outcomes 14.5 Information Technology and Communication • Describe • Explain how technology affects managerial communication. how information technology affects organizations. 14.6 Communication Issues In Today’s Organization • Discuss the challenges of managing communication in an Internet world. • Explain how organizations can manage knowledge. • Explain why communicating with customers is an important managerial issue. • Explain 14-5 how political correctness is affecting communication. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
The Nature and Function of Communication 1. Define communication, interpersonal communication and organizational communication. 2. Discuss the functions of communication. 14-6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
What Is Communication? Communication is the transfer and understanding of meaning. Transfer means the message was received in a form that can be interpreted by the receiver. Understanding the message is not the same as the receiver agreeing with the message. 14-7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
What Is Communication? (cont’d) Interpersonal Communication Communication between two or more people Organizational Communication 14-8 All the patterns, network, and systems of communications within an organization Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Four Functions of Communication Control Motivation Functions of Communication Information 14-9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Emotional Expression
Functions of Communication Control Formal and informal communications act to control individuals’ behaviors in organizations. Motivation 14-10 Communications clarify for employees what is to done, how well they have done it, and what can be done to improve performance. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Functions of Communication (cont’d) Emotional Expression Social interaction in the form of work group communications provides a way for employees to express themselves. Information 14-11 Individuals and work groups need information to make decisions or to do their work. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Methods of Interpersonal Communication 1. Describe the components of the communication process. 2. Discuss the criteria that managers can use to evaluate the various communication methods. 3. List the communication methods managers might use. 14-12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Exhibit 14–1 The Interpersonal Communication Process 14-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Interpersonal Communication Message Source: sender’s intended meaning Encoding The message converted to symbolic form Channel The medium through which the message travels Decoding The receiver’s retranslation of the message Noise 14-14 Disturbances that interfere with communications Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Distortions in Communications Message Encoding • The effect of the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the sender on the process of encoding the message • The social–cultural system of the sender The Message • Symbols used to convey the message’s meaning • The content of the message itself • The choice of message format • Noise interfering with the message 14-15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Distortions in Communications (cont’d) The Channel • The sender’s choice of the appropriate channel or multiple channels for conveying the message Receiver • The effect of skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the receiver on the process of decoding the message • The social–cultural system of the receiver Feedback Loop • 14-16 Communication channel distortions affecting the return message from receiver to sender Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Interpersonal Communication Methods Face-to-face Hotlines Telephone E-mail Group meetings Computer conferencing Formal presentations Voice mail Memos Teleconferences Traditional mail Videoconferences Fax machines Employee publications Bulletin boards Audio- and videotapes 14-17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Evaluating Communication Methods Feedback Time–space constraint Complexity capacity Cost Breadth potential Interpersonal warmth Confidentiality Formality Encoding ease Scanability Decoding ease Time consumption 14-18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Exhibit 14–2 Comparison of Communication Methods Note: Ratings are on a 1–5 scale where 1 = high and 5 = low. Consumption time refers to who controls the reception of communication. S/R means the sender and receiver share control. Source: P. G. Clampitt, Communicating for Managerial Effectiveness (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991), p. 136. 14-19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Nonverbal Communication • Communication that is transmitted without words. • Sounds with specific meanings or warnings • Images that control or encourage behaviors • Situational • Clothing 14-20 behaviors that convey meanings and physical surroundings that imply status Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Nonverbal Communication (cont’d) Body language: gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning Verbal intonation: emphasis that a speaker gives to certain words or phrases that convey meaning 14-21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Effective Interpersonal Communication 1. Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication. 2. Discuss ways to overcome the barriers to effective interpersonal communication. 14-22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Interpersonal Communication Barriers National Culture Language Filtering Emotions Interpersonal Communication Defensiveness 14-23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Information Overload
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver Emotions 14-24 Disregarding rational and objective thinking processes and substituting emotional judgments when interpreting messages Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) Information Overload Being confronted with a quantity of information that exceeds an individual’s capacity to process it Defensiveness 14-25 When threatened, reacting in a way that reduces the ability to achieve mutual understanding Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) Language The different meanings of and specialized ways (jargon) in which senders use words can cause receivers to misinterpret their messages National Culture 14-26 Culture influences the form, formality, openness, patterns, and use of information in communications Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communications Simplify Language 14-27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Use Feedback Listen Actively Constrain Emotions Watch Nonverbal Cues
Exhibit 14–3 Active Listening Behaviors Source: Based on P.L. Hunsaker, Training in Management Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001). 14-28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Organizational Communication 1. Contrast formal and informal communication. 2. Explain communication flow in an organization. 3. Describe the three common communication networks. 4. Discuss how managers should handle the grapevine. 14-29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Formal versus Informal Communication Formal Communication Communication that follows the official chain of command or is part of the communication required to do one’s job Informal Communication Communication that is not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy 14-30 Permits employees to satisfy their need for social interaction Can improve an organization’s performance by creating faster and more effective channels of communication Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Communication Flows U p w a r d 14-31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education Lateral D o w n w a r d
Direction of Communication Flow Downward Communications that flow from managers to employees to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees Upward Communications that flow from employees up to managers to keep them aware of employee needs and how things can be improved to create a climate of trust and respect 14-32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Direction of Communication Flow (cont’d) Lateral (Horizontal) Communication Communication that takes place among employees on the same level in the organization to save time and facilitate coordination Diagonal Communication 14-33 Communication that cuts across both work areas and organizational levels in the interest of efficiency and speed Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Organizational Communication Networks Chain Network Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward. Wheel Network All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group. All-Channel Network 14-34 Communications flow freely among all members of the work team. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Exhibit 14–4 Three Common Organizational Communication Networks and their Effectiveness 14-35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
The Grapevine An informal organizational communication network that is active in almost every organization. Provides a channel for issues not suitable for formal communication channels. The impact of information passed along the grapevine can be countered by open and honest communication with employees. 14-36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Information Technology and Communication 1. Describe how technology affects managerial communication. 2. Explain how information technology affects organizations. 14-37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Benefits of Information Technology (IT) Better decision making based on more complete information More collaboration and sharing of information 14-38 Increased ability to monitor individual and team performance Greater accessibility to co-workers Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Information Technology Networked Computer Systems E-mail Linking individual computers to create an organizational network for communication and information sharing Instant messaging (IM) Blogs Wikis Voicemail Fax machines Electronic Data Exchange (EDI) Teleconferencing Videoconferencing Web conferencing 14-39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Types of Network Systems – Intranet – Extranet 14-40 An internal network that uses Internet technology and is accessible only to employees An internal network that uses Internet technology and allows authorized users inside the organization to communicate with certain outsiders such as customers and vendors Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Wireless (WIFI) capabilities Wireless communication technology has the ability to improve work for managers and employees. Internet access is available through Wi-Fi and WiMAX hot spots, which are locations where users gain wireless access. Employees do not have to be at their desks to communicate with others in the organization. 14-41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
How IT Affects Organization Removes the constraints of time and distance Allows widely dispersed employees to work together Provides for the sharing of information Increases effectiveness and efficiency Integrates decision making and work Provides more complete information and participation for better decisions Creates problems of constant accessibility to employees 14-42 Blurs the line between work and personal lives Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Communication Issues in Today’s Organizations 1. Discuss the challenges of managing communication in an Internet world. 2. Explain how organizations can manage knowledge. 3. Explain why communicating with customers is an important managerial issue. 4. Explain how political correctness is affecting communication. 14-43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Managing Communication in an Internet World • Legal and security issues • Inappropriate use of company e-mail and instant messaging • Loss of confidential and proprietary information due to inadvertent or deliberate dissemination or to hackers • Lack of personal interaction • Being connected is not the same as face-to-face contact • Difficulties occur in achieving understanding and collaboration in virtual environments 14-44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Managing the Organization’s Knowledge Resources Build online information databases that employees can access Create “communities of practice” for groups of people who share a concern, share expertise, and interact with each other 14-45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Communication and Customer Service Recognize the three components of the customer service delivery process: The customer The service organization The service provider Develop a strong service culture focused on the personalization of service to each customer. Listen and respond to the customer Provide 14-46 access to needed service information Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
“Politically Correct” Communication Do not use words or phrases that stereotype, intimidate, or offend individuals based on their differences. However, choose words carefully to maintain as much clarity as possible in communications. 14-47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education
Terms to Know communication interpersonal communication organizational communication message encoding channel decoding communication process noise nonverbal communication 14-48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education body language verbal intonation filtering selective perception information overload jargon active listening formal communication informal communication downward communication upward communication
Terms to Know (cont’d) lateral communication diagonal communication communication networks grapevine e-mail instant messaging (IM) blog wiki voicemail fax electronic data interchange (EDI) 14-49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education teleconferencing videoconferencing Web conferencing intranet extranet communities of practice
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