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Chapter 13 - Texas Government

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Information about Chapter 13 - Texas Government
Education

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: twr1028

Source: slideshare.net

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Government and Politics in the Lone Star State: Theory and Practice L. Tucker Gibson, Jr. and Clay Robison Prepared by Darrial Reynolds Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13: Contemporary Public Policy Issues in Texas Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Policy Process  The Elements of Public Policy Costs and benefits for various groups  Indirect benefits for society  Regulation of the private sector  Changes to the governmental process and the distribution of political power  Pursuit of the common good  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Policy Process  Stages of the Policy Process Identification and Formulation of an Issue or a Problem  Access and Representation  Policy Formulation and Enactment  Policy Adoption or Legitimation  Policy Implementation  Policy Evaluation  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Policy Process  Iron  Triangles and Issue Networks Iron Triangles Represent clusters of policy participants  Work within policy subsystems     Legislative committees and subcommittees Administrative agencies and bureaucrats Interest groups Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Policy Process  Iron  Triangles and Issue Networks Issue Networks Involve a more complex relationship among federal, state, and local actors  Led by policy specialists from government, think tanks, universities, associations, and corporations  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The State Budget  Two-Year  Budgets Legislative Budget Board (LBB) Agencies send spending requests to the LBB.  The LBB writes a budget that the legislature uses as a starting point for budgetary deliberations.   Pay-as-You-Go Budgets Prohibits debt financing  Must be certified by the comptroller  The top 2012–2013 expenditures were education (42%), health and human services (31.9%), and business and economic development (13.6%).  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The State Budget  Dedicated Funds Require state revenues to be set aside for specific purposes  Limit discretionary spending in the budget  Three Key Examples of a Dedicated Fund  Highway Trust Fund  Permanent School Fund  Permanent University Fund  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  The   Regressive Tax System Based on sales taxes, property taxes, and fees Consumes a larger portion of incomes from the poor and middle class 12.2 percent of the incomes of the poor families  7.6 percent of the incomes of the middle-class families  3.3 percent of incomes of the wealthiest 1 percent of families   A low-tax state only from perspective of wealthy Texans Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  Sales Tax Created in 1961 and the rate was 2 percent  Currently at 6.25 percent and is the single biggest generator of state revenue   The sales tax generated $21.5 billion for state government in fiscal 2011. Cities and mass transportation authorities may each add 1 percent.  An 8.25 percent rate is charged in most Texas metropolitan areas.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  Business Taxes Expanded in 2006 from a hybrid corporate income tax to include a wider range of businesses  Partially dedicated to education financing   Based on Texas Supreme Court order to find new revenues for education financing 2009 legislature raised the exemption level  The margins tax raised $3.9 billion in 2011.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  Property Taxes  Major source of revenue for school districts and other local and special district governments  Mostly school district taxes  Severance  (Ad Valorem Taxes) Taxes Oil and gas taxes  Other Taxes  Sin taxes and motor fuels Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  Gambling on New Revenue No significant revenue for parimutuel and dog track betting  Lottery started well in 1991 but started to lag  Dedicated to public education in 1997  $1.7 billion for public education in 2011   Relying on gambling for tax revenue  Risky because it is based on discretionary income that dries up during economic hard times Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  Bonds: Build  Now, Pay More Later State borrows money for specific purposes Voters approve bonds by constitutional amendments  General obligation bonds are taxpayer supported.  Revenue bonds are self-supporting.   Criticisms Increases the tax liability on future taxpayers  Debt service, or interest payments, can double the cost of a project.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

State Taxes  The Income Tax: An Alternative to a Regressive Tax System? In 1991, the Texas Association of Taxpayers became the first major business group to endorse a state income tax.  In 1993, voters approved a constitutional amendment to ban a personal income tax unless approved by the voters.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Public Education: A Struggle for Equity and Quality Local property tax revenues have produced wide inequities in dollars spent on education.  Revenue inequities affect equity and quality.  Facilities, resources, and enrichment programs  Extracurricular activities and teachers’ salaries  Poor school districts have minimum standards.  Rich school districts have discretionary income.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Public Education: A Struggle for Equity and Quality  Rodriguez v. San Antonio Independent School District (1968) The U.S. Supreme Court found the finance system unfair but not unconstitutional.  The legislature started to pump equalization money into poorer districts, but there are still problems.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Public Education: A Struggle for Equity and Quality  House Bill 72 (1984) Increased teacher salaries and limited class sizes  Created student achievement exams and a literacy test for teachers  Created tutoring and prekindergarten programs  Replaced elected State Board of Education with an appointed board  Included the no-pass, no-play rule  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Public Education: A Struggle for Equity and Quality  Edgewood v. Kirby (1984) Declared the existing school finance system unconstitutional  Ordered the creation of a new finance system by May 1, 1990  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Persistence of Funding Problems 1990 law ruled unconstitutional  1993 funding sharing (“Robin Hood”) options  Neely v. West Orange-Cove Consolidated ISD   Texas Supreme Court ruling in 2005 that the school finance system amounted to an unconstitutional statewide property tax   2006 plan reduced property taxes by one-third Additional revenue provided by business and cigarette taxes Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Other  Issues Affecting the Public Schools Teacher Pay, Working Conditions, and Morale  Salaries rank thirty-first in the United States. Students Testing and “Accountability”  Charter Schools  Private School Vouchers  Home Schools  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Higher Education: The Continuing Quest for Excellence and Equity  Includes Texas universities, medical schools, law schools, and community colleges   Oversight provided by governor-appointed boards, elected boards for community colleges, and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Permanent University Fund  Funds higher education and is based on revenues from public lands Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Opposition to Affirmative Action in Higher Education  The Hopwood Case (1996) 1996 UT Law School’s race-based admissions policies declared unconstitutional  Cannot use race or ethnicity as a preferential factor in admissions    University of MI case (2003) repealed Hopwood decision 10 percent plan (1997) increased minority students  In 2009 legislators put limits on the 10 percent law. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Educational Policies and Politics  Tuition  Deregulation In 2003, universities were allowed to set tuition rates independently of legislative action. By 2006, tuition and fees had increased by an average of 39 percent.  By 2009, tuition and fees had increased by an average of 72 percent.   In 2011, the legislature reduced funding for major student financial aid programs by 15 percent. . Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc

Educational Policies and Politics A  Political Interest in University Research The Texas Public Policy Foundation (TPPF)   Much academic research at universities is a waste of tax dollars and harmful to good teaching. UT chancellor Francisco Cigarroa states that research would remain a priority at the university.  Marc Musick, a UT-Austin sociology professor, states that the vast majority of senior faculty at the Austin campus were extremely productive. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Criminal Justice  Reforms  Prompted by Crowded Prisons Ruiz v. Estelle (1980) Created prison alcoholism and drug abuse treatment programs  Reduced the parole rate  Lightened sentences for nonviolent offenders  Expanded prison and jail facilities  State Board of Pardons and Paroles relaxed rules to release minor parole violators.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Criminal Justice  Continuing Popularity of the Death Penalty in Texas Texas leads the nation in executions.  University of Texas/Texas Tribune poll (2010)  53 percent of respondents said they strongly supported the death penalty.  25 percent said they supported it “somewhat.”   Houston Chronicle survey in 2002 69% of respondents supported the death penalty.  55% said that innocent people probably had been executed. .  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc

Discussion Question  Continuing Popularity of the Death Penalty in Texas Do you think Texas has executed innocent people?  If so, does this affect your view of the death penalty? Why or why not?  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Health and Human Services  The Struggle of Many Texans for Health Care  About 17.9 percent of Texans live in poverty.   Affecting children, the elderly, and minority populations most 24.6 percent of residents (6.2 million) and 16.8 percent of children (1.2 million) in Texas were living without health insurance in 2010.   Medicaid Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Health and Human Services  The Squeezing of Nursing Homes In 2011, the legislature reduced state funding for nursing homes by $20.4 million.  Texas is forty-ninth in the nation in Medicaid reimbursement rates to nursing facilities.    The national average reimbursement rate was $173 per day, and in Texas it was $126. Most nursing home residents in Texas are poor or disabled. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Health and Human Services  Reorganizing Health and Human Services  Overhaul of Social Services (Goal in 2003) Smaller state government and less spending with administrative changes and privatization  Consolidation of twelve agencies into five  Accenture was given an $899 million state contract to determine applicants’ eligibility for public benefits.   In 2006, state officials cut the contract by $356 million and ended it two years early. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Environmental Problems and Policies  Dirty  Air Texas ranks near the bottom in environmental regulations. More attention focused on attracting businesses  Lack of strict enforcement     Grandfathering of older power plants and industrial facilities Voluntary pollution reduction programs for businesses Little development of public transportation systems to replace motor vehicle traffic Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Environmental Problems and Policies  Global Warming In 2007, Texas (number one) had more carbon dioxide emissions than the number two and three states (CA and PA) combined.  In 2009, scientists at Texas A&M said global warming poses a threat to the Texas coast.  Would cause the sea levels to rise, spawn more intense hurricanes, and increase coastal flooding  Damage to coastal communities from hurricanes would more than triple by the 2080s.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Environmental Problems and Policies  Endangered Water Supply Concerns over drought and population growth  In 2011, Texas was struck by the worst oneyear drought on record.  Texas Water Development Board in 2011  Texas does not and will not have enough water to meet its needs under serious drought conditions.  By 2060, water supplies will decrease by 10% as the Texas population increases to 46 million.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

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