Chapter 13 Slide Show North And South

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Information about Chapter 13 Slide Show North And South

Published on May 4, 2008

Author: cuevasl

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Life in the south prior to the Civil War; new inventions, industry

Chapter 13 – North and South 1820-1860 Section 1 The North’s Economy

Section 1

The North’s Economy

TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY Developed in 3 phases 1-manufacturers made products by dividing the work up among workers 1 would spin thread, 1 would weave etc. 2-manufacturers built factories bringing specialized workers together Products could be put together faster this way -used machinery to do some of the work 3-Power driven looms (more products in less time)

Developed in 3 phases

1-manufacturers made products by dividing the work up among workers

1 would spin thread, 1 would weave etc.

2-manufacturers built factories bringing specialized workers together

Products could be put together faster this way

-used machinery to do some of the work

3-Power driven looms (more products in less time)

Mass production -began in New England -Elias Howe invented sewing machine in 1846 -by 1860 Northeast’s 74000 factories produces 2/3 of the countries manufactured goods (a lot in one place)

Mass production

-began in New England

-Elias Howe invented sewing machine in 1846

-by 1860 Northeast’s 74000 factories produces 2/3 of the countries

manufactured goods (a lot in one place)

Elias Howe’s Sewing Machine

IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION Construction crews built thousands of miles of new roads and canals between 1800-1850. This allowed new shipping routes by connecting rivers and lakes Railroads growth another way to transport goods

Construction crews built thousands of miles of new roads and canals between 1800-1850.

This allowed new shipping routes by connecting rivers and lakes

Railroads growth another way to transport goods

Steamboats and Steamships Robert Fulton-1807 inventor of the steamboat . Carried goods and people cheaply along inland waterways Canal builders widened and deepened channel and canals, sparked development of cities like Cincinnati, Buffalo, Chicago

Robert Fulton-1807 inventor of the steamboat . Carried goods and people cheaply along inland waterways

Canal builders widened and deepened channel and canals, sparked development of cities like Cincinnati, Buffalo, Chicago

Steamboats

Steam also used as a power source for ships to travel across the ocean. “The Great Western” sailed from US to Britain in 1838 (took sails in case it broke down!)

Steam also used as a power source for ships to travel across the ocean. “The Great Western” sailed from US to Britain in 1838 (took sails in case it broke down!)

Steam Powered Ocean Liner The “Great Western”

The “Great Western”

Clipper Ships - improved sailing ships sleek hulls, tall sails, 300 miles per day, they “clipped” time from long journeys. Cut sailing times in almost half. Famous ships “Flying Cloud” Sea Witch, Cutty Sark, Champion of the Seas

- improved sailing ships

sleek hulls, tall sails, 300 miles per day, they “clipped” time from long journeys. Cut sailing times in almost half. Famous ships “Flying Cloud” Sea Witch, Cutty Sark, Champion of the Seas

Clipper Ships Flying Cloud Cutty Sark

Flying Cloud Cutty Sark

Locomotives Early trains were drawn by horses instead of engines (horsepower gets its name) The “Rocket” was first steam powered train 1829 in England Peter Cooper designed and built first American steam locomotive in 1830- “Tom Thumb” Raced a horse drawn train and lost due to engine failure. Steam powered engines improved over the next 10 years

Early trains were drawn by horses instead of engines (horsepower gets its name)

The “Rocket” was first steam powered train 1829 in England

Peter Cooper designed and built first American steam locomotive in 1830- “Tom Thumb”

Raced a horse drawn train and lost due to engine failure.

Steam powered engines improved over the next 10 years

The Race!

Tracks - 1840/3000 of track 1860/31,000 of track mainly in north and Midwest. Links New York City/Buffalo Philadelphia/Pittsburg Baltimore/Wheeling Virginia

Tracks - 1840/3000 of track 1860/31,000 of track mainly in north and Midwest.

Links New York City/Buffalo Philadelphia/Pittsburg Baltimore/Wheeling Virginia

Moving Goods and People past, Mississippi River only route to ship goods to other countries or to east coast -then, east/west canals and RR allowed products like grain, live stock, dairy to move directly from Midwest to east, Cheaper way to transport -since cheaper to transport, could sell cheaper -populations grew in Midwest because of train transportation (cause) Industries developed (effect)

past, Mississippi River only route to ship goods to other countries or to east coast

-then, east/west canals and RR allowed products like grain, live stock, dairy to move directly from Midwest to east, Cheaper way to transport

-since cheaper to transport, could sell cheaper

-populations grew in Midwest because of train transportation (cause)

Industries developed (effect)

FASTER COMMUNICATION Invention of Telegraph and Morse Code Samuel Morse-American Inventor Tried for 5 years to win support for his invention $30000 from congress to build an experimental line from capitol to Baltimore May 24,1844 he tapped out words “What hath God Wrought” from the US capitol, moments later the message was tapped back

Invention of Telegraph and Morse Code

Samuel Morse-American Inventor

Tried for 5 years to win support for his invention

$30000 from congress to build an experimental line from capitol to Baltimore

May 24,1844 he tapped out words “What hath God Wrought” from the US capitol, moments later the message was tapped back

Telegraph Machine

Morse code – a series of dots and dashes representing letters and numbers By 1860 more than 50,000 miles of telegraph line strung

Morse code – a series of dots and dashes representing letters and numbers

By 1860 more than 50,000 miles of telegraph line strung

 

 

Invention of the Printing Press 1846 steam cylinder printing press invented by Richard Hoe. (Cause) Many newspapers began. (effect)

1846 steam cylinder printing press invented by Richard Hoe. (Cause)

Many newspapers began. (effect)

Richard Hoe Steam Cylinder Rotary Press

Steam Cylinder Rotary Press

REVOLUTION IN AGRICULTURE Technology in Farming Areas west of Mississippi created challenges in farming, prairie soil, matted soil, rocky soil, etc. 3 inventions 1- steel-tipped plow from John Deere in 1837 (wooden plows used before that) 2- mechanical reaper – sped up harvesting of wheat-1834 Cyrus McCormick (used handheld reapers before that) 3- thresher – separated grain from the stalk

Technology in Farming

Areas west of Mississippi created challenges in farming, prairie soil, matted soil, rocky soil, etc.

3 inventions

1- steel-tipped plow from John Deere in 1837 (wooden plows used before that)

2- mechanical reaper – sped up harvesting of wheat-1834 Cyrus McCormick (used handheld reapers before that)

3- thresher – separated grain from the stalk

John Deere Steel-tipped Plow

Steel-tipped Plow

Cyrus McCormick Mechanical reaper

Mechanical reaper

Thresher

Cash Crops Midwest – wheat in large quantities Northeast and middle Atlantic – fruits and vegetables (grew well in those soils) North turned more to industry.

Midwest – wheat in large quantities

Northeast and middle Atlantic – fruits and vegetables (grew well in those soils)

North turned more to industry.

Section 2 The North’s People

The North’s People

Northern Factories Early 1800’s mills established in Lowell, Massachusetts Entire production process under one roof “the factory system” Produced items like textiles, shoes, watches, sewing machines, guns

Early 1800’s mills established in Lowell, Massachusetts

Entire production process under one roof

“the factory system”

Produced items like textiles, shoes, watches, sewing machines, guns

Water run mill

Working Conditions System worsened as it developed Owners wanted longer hours from workers to produce more goods Average work day was 11.4 hours O-T-J accidents increased Machinery did not have safety, protective gear around it Losing fingers, broken bones, kids especially

System worsened as it developed

Owners wanted longer hours from workers to produce more goods

Average work day was 11.4 hours

O-T-J accidents increased

Machinery did not have safety, protective gear around it

Losing fingers, broken bones, kids especially

Working Conditions cont’ Hot and stifling in summer Air conditioning not invented, machines emitted a lot of heat Cold in the winter No heat in the factories Profits over worker comforts $$$ Jobs were few and far between An unhappy worker was easily replaced No laws existed to protect workers

Hot and stifling in summer

Air conditioning not invented, machines emitted a lot of heat

Cold in the winter

No heat in the factories

Profits over worker comforts $$$

Jobs were few and far between

An unhappy worker was easily replaced

No laws existed to protect workers

Working “the line”

Lowell Mills Built clean, simple lodging for employees Tried to attract young, women workers to the factory By 1840, practice ended Wages were so low, many forced to live in slums near the factory

Built clean, simple lodging for employees

Tried to attract young, women workers to the factory

By 1840, practice ended

Wages were so low, many forced to live in slums near the factory

Lowell Girls

Attempts to Organize 1830’s workers began to “organize” Wanted improved working conditions Skilled workers formed trade unions Organizations of workers with some trade or skill Unskilled workers formed unions as well Mid 1830’s skilled workers strike Refusing to work to put pressure on employees Wanted higher wages 10 hour work days Formed the General Trades Union of New York

1830’s workers began to “organize”

Wanted improved working conditions

Skilled workers formed trade unions

Organizations of workers with some trade or skill

Unskilled workers formed unions as well

Mid 1830’s skilled workers strike

Refusing to work to put pressure on employees

Wanted higher wages

10 hour work days

Formed the General Trades Union of New York

The Right to Strike Early 1800’s striking was illegal Punishable by the law or loss of job 1842 Massachusetts court ruled workers had the right to strike

Early 1800’s striking was illegal

Punishable by the law or loss of job

1842 Massachusetts court ruled workers had the right to strike

African American Workers Slavery disappeared from the North by 1820 Didn’t mean everything was “pie in the sky” Faced Racial prejudice & Discrimination An unfair opinion on based on facts Unfair treatment of a group 1821 white, non-landowning males could vote African American males could not African Americans could not attend public school Barred from public facilities Forced into separate, segregated schools and hospitals Had to take the lowest paying jobs

Slavery disappeared from the North by 1820

Didn’t mean everything was “pie in the sky”

Faced Racial prejudice & Discrimination

An unfair opinion on based on facts

Unfair treatment of a group

1821 white, non-landowning males could vote

African American males could not

African Americans could not attend public school

Barred from public facilities

Forced into separate, segregated schools and hospitals

Had to take the lowest paying jobs

Success Stories for African Americans Successful Businessmen Henry Boyd – Owned a furniture Co. in Cincinnati John B. Russworm-founded Freedom’s Journal 1 st African American newspaper Macon B. Allen – 1 st lawyer Most African Americans were extremely poor Better off than been enslaved in the South Suffered cruel and lasting effects of discrimination

Successful Businessmen

Henry Boyd – Owned a furniture Co. in Cincinnati

John B. Russworm-founded Freedom’s Journal

1 st African American newspaper

Macon B. Allen – 1 st lawyer

Most African Americans were extremely poor

Better off than been enslaved in the South

Suffered cruel and lasting effects of discrimination

Women Workers Played a major role in development of mill and factory system Were discriminated against Paid less then men When unions were formed, women were excluded Men wanted women out of the workplace to provide more jobs for men Females attempted to organize in 1830’s & 40’s Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization founded by Sarah G. Bagley wanted 10 hour days legislature ignored because petition signed by women Paved the way for future women’s movements

Played a major role in development of mill and factory system

Were discriminated against

Paid less then men

When unions were formed, women were excluded

Men wanted women out of the workplace to provide more jobs for men

Females attempted to organize in 1830’s & 40’s

Lowell Female Labor Reform Organization

founded by Sarah G. Bagley

wanted 10 hour days

legislature ignored because petition signed by women

Paved the way for future women’s movements

The Rise of Cities People flocked to cities were factories were located 1840, 14% of North’s population lived in cities 1860, 26% of North’s population lived in cities Population of cities in 1860 New York City – 1,000,000 Philadelphia- 500,000

People flocked to cities were factories were located

1840, 14% of North’s population lived in cities

1860, 26% of North’s population lived in cities

Population of cities in 1860

New York City – 1,000,000

Philadelphia- 500,000

Lots of people, Lots of problems Low paying jobs = unaffordable housing=living in crowded, run-down buildings with no plumbing or heat=unsanitary living conditions=spread of disease and sickness, and=increase in fires because of closely spaced wooden buildings.

Low paying jobs = unaffordable housing=living in crowded, run-down buildings with no plumbing or heat=unsanitary living conditions=spread of disease and sickness, and=increase in fires because of closely spaced wooden buildings.

Immigration Movement of people into a country Do you know where you came from?

Do you know where you came from?

Immigration Cont’ Immigration increased between 1840-60 Welcomed by manufacturers Work long hours for little pay Irish Immigrants Largest group to USA; 1.5 million Settled mostly in Northeast Migrated because of potato famine An extreme shortage of food Potatoes are eaten at each meal Potato blight (disease) destroyed crop in 1840’s Starvation ensued, more than 1 Million died Unable to buy land or farm Worked in factories for low pay Performed manual labor Women became servants and factory workers By 1850, 1/3 of all workers in Boston were Irish

Immigration increased between 1840-60

Welcomed by manufacturers

Work long hours for little pay

Irish Immigrants

Largest group to USA; 1.5 million

Settled mostly in Northeast

Migrated because of potato famine

An extreme shortage of food

Potatoes are eaten at each meal

Potato blight (disease) destroyed crop in 1840’s

Starvation ensued, more than 1 Million died

Unable to buy land or farm

Worked in factories for low pay

Performed manual labor

Women became servants and factory workers

By 1850, 1/3 of all workers in Boston were Irish

Immigration Cont’ German Immigrants 2 nd largest group Left Germany because of breakdown in democracy and for work and future opportunity 1848-1860 1 million, mostly men Had $ to buy farms or start businesses Prospered, founding their own communities (Germantowns) etc. Settled in New York, Pennsylvania, Midwest, western territories

German Immigrants

2 nd largest group

Left Germany because of breakdown in democracy and for work and future opportunity

1848-1860 1 million, mostly men

Had $ to buy farms or start businesses

Prospered, founding their own communities (Germantowns) etc.

Settled in New York, Pennsylvania, Midwest, western territories

Impact of Immigration Immigrants changed the character of the country Brought their language Customs Religions Unique ways Filters into American way of life

Immigrants changed the character of the country

Brought their language

Customs

Religions

Unique ways

Filters into American way of life

Religion Beginning of Immigration Mainly only Protestants from Great Britain Most Catholics lived near Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Augustine Most of the Irish and ½ of the Germans were Catholic Church was source of spiritual guidance, center of community Germans bring language and religion; use in their communities; establish German publications and musical societies

Beginning of Immigration

Mainly only Protestants from Great Britain

Most Catholics lived near Baltimore, New Orleans, St. Augustine

Most of the Irish and ½ of the Germans were Catholic

Church was source of spiritual guidance, center of community

Germans bring language and religion; use in their communities; establish German publications and musical societies

Prejudice for Immigrants “ native” Americans feared the change in character People opposed to immigration: nativists Thought immigrants threatened the future of the native (?) huh Accused immigrants of taking jobs from “real” Americans Accused of bringing disease and crime to America because many lived in slum areas

“ native” Americans feared the change in character

People opposed to immigration: nativists

Thought immigrants threatened the future of the native (?) huh

Accused immigrants of taking jobs from “real” Americans

Accused of bringing disease and crime to America because many lived in slum areas

A new political party The Know Nothing Party Formed by Nativists Secret, anti Catholic society Answered questions about their society by saying “I know nothing” Urged Americans to fight the alien menace Wanted stricter citizenship laws Extending the waiting period from 5 years to 14 years Foreign born citizens could not hold office Supported Millard Fillmore for President although he lost to James Buchanan Mid 1850’s split into two branches- North and South over slavery issue

The Know Nothing Party

Formed by Nativists

Secret, anti Catholic society

Answered questions about their society by saying “I know nothing”

Urged Americans to fight the alien menace

Wanted stricter citizenship laws

Extending the waiting period from 5 years to 14 years

Foreign born citizens could not hold office

Supported Millard Fillmore for President although he lost to James Buchanan

Mid 1850’s split into two branches- North and South over slavery issue

 

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