Chapter 13 notes

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Information about Chapter 13 notes

Published on October 15, 2013

Author: hohlert



chemistry, matter, change, energy

Chapter 13 States of Matter and Changes

Solid Liquid Gas Mass Definite Shape Indefinite shape Indefinite shape Volume Definite Definite indefinite Particles Vibrate in place Strong bonds Can flow Loose bonds No bonds

13.1 The Nature of Gases • The word kinetic refers to motion. • The energy an object has because of motion is called kinetic energy.

Kinetic Theory • 1. The particles in a gas are considered to be small, hard spheres with an insignificant volume. • 2. The motion of the particles in a gas is rapid, constant and random. • 3. All collision between particles in a gas are perfectly elastic.

1 • Particles are far apart. • Between the particles there is empty space. • Motion is independent. • No attractive or repulsive forces are present.

2 • Gases fill their container regardless of their shape. • Uncontained gases can spread without limit. • Particles only change direction when rebounding off objects. • Particles move at random.

3 • Kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another. • Total kinetic energy remains constant.

Gas Pressure • Gas pressure results from the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object. • Gas pressure is a result of simultaneous collisions of billions of rapidly moving particles in a gas with an object. • An empty space with no particles and no pressure is called a vacuum. • Atmospheric pressure results from the collisions of atoms and molecules in the air with objects. • A barometer is device that is used to

MATH MONKEY MOMENT 1 atm=760 mm Hg= 101.3 kPa Practice converting units of pressure. What pressure, in kilopascals and in atmospheres, does a gas exert at 385 mm Hg? Pg. 387 The pressure at the top of Mount Everest is 33.7 kPa. Is that pressure greater or less than .25 atm?

Can you convert easily? Or did I just pull your tail 1. 51.3 kPa, .507 atm 2. 33.7 kPa is greater than .25 atm.

Vocabulary Cards • Definite • Indefinite • Uniform • Kinetic energy • Gas pressure

SUM IT UP- 30 words

Kinetic Energy and Temperature • As a substance is heated, its particles absorb energy. • Some gets stored in the particles as potential energy. • The rest of the energy speeds up the particles thus increasing their kinetic energy. • Average kinetic energy is the measurement of kinetic energy for a substance regardless of physical state.

Kinetic Energy and Temperature • Absolute zero is the theoretical point at which all motion stops and kinetic energy is zero. • It has never been produced in a laboratory but scientists have come close in a vacuum. • The Kelvin temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.

13.2 The Nature of Liquids • Particles in liquids have kinetic energy like a gas. • Substances that flow are referred to as liquids. • The key difference between liquids and gases, is that liquids have attractions between the particles and gases don’t. • The interplay between the disruptive motions of particles in a liquid and the attractions among the particles determine the physical properties of liquids.

Evaporation • The conversion of a liquid to a gas is called vaporization. • When the conversion occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling, it is called evaporation. • Most of the molecules in a liquid don’t have enough kinetic energy to overcome attractive forces and escape into a gaseous state. • During evaporation, only those molecules with a certain minimum kinetic energy can escape the surface of the liquid.

Vapor Pressure • Vapor Pressure is a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid. • Over time, the number of particles entering the vapor increases and some of the particles condense back into a liquid. • In a system at constant vapor pressure, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation. • An increase in the temperature of the liquid increases the vapor pressure.

• Animation

Boiling Point • The rate of evaporation of a liquid from an open container increases as the liquid is heated. • When a liquid is heated to a temperature at which particles throughout the liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil. • The temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid is the boiling point.

Vapor pressure less than atmospheric pressure Vapor pressure more than atmospheric pressure

Boiling Point and Pressure Changes • Liquids don’t always boil at the same temperature all the time. • Change in altitude affects the boiling point. • Higher altitudes decrease boiling point. • Lower altitudes (under water) increase boiling points. • Normal boiling point is at standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.

Vocabulary Cards • Potential energy • Average kinetic energy • Evaporation • Vaporization • Vapor pressure • Equilibrium • Boiling point

POST IT UP When will a liquid evaporate? I S! TH OT IG IN EE DH EL P!

13.3 The Nature of Solids • The general properties of solids reflect the orderly arrangement of their particles and the fixed locations of their particles. • When you heat a solid, its particles vibrate more rapidly as their kinetic energy increases. • The melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid. • The melting and freezing points are at the same temperatures and the solid and liquid phases are in equilibrium.

Allotropes • Some solid substances can exist in more than one form. • Allotropes are two or more different molecular forms of the same element in the same physical state. • Carbon is one example. • Carbon can exist as a diamond, graphite and as fullerene.

8 allotropes of carbon

13.4 Changes of State • Sublimation occurs in solids with vapor pressures that exceed atmospheric pressure at or near room temperature. • Examples are iodine and carbon dioxide. • A phase diagram is a visual representation of boiling, melting and triple points. • The triple point is a point in which all three states of matter exist at one time. • Boiling and melting points vary with atmospheric pressure.

Science Swag

Science Swag • Research an allotrope of carbon. • You may choose any type. • Write a one page type I paper about your research. • Things you could include: examples, pictures, experiments, history, discoveries, past/present/future of allotropes……..etc etc…

POST IT UP What is the triple point? I S! TH OT IG IN EE DH EL P!

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