Chapter 13: A Nation Torn Apart: The Civil War, 1861-1865

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Published on April 11, 2014

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Chapter 13: A Nation Torn Apart: The Civil War, 1861-1865

1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States A Nation Torn Apart The Civil War, 1861–1865 13 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States

2 Visions of America, A History of the United States

3 Visions of America, A History of the United States A Nation Torn Apart I. Mobilization, Strategy, and Diplomacy II. The Early Campaigns, 1861−1863 III. Behind the Lines IV. Toward Union Victory THE CIVIL WAR, 1861–1865 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States

4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Mobilization, Strategy, and Diplomacy A. Comparative Advantages and Disadvantages B. Mobilization in the North C. Mobilization in the South D. The Struggle for the Border States E. Wartime Diplomacy

5 Visions of America, A History of the United States Comparative Advantages and Disadvantages What significant advantages did the North hold over the South on the eve of war?

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9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Mobilization in the North Why did Southerners seek to link secession to the American Revolution?

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11 Visions of America, A History of the United States Mobilization in the South How did the doctrine of states’ rights hinder the Southern war effort?

12 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Struggle for the Border States What made the Border States so economically and militarily valuable to the Confederacy?

13 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Struggle for the Border States Border States – The four slave states, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware, that bordered the Confederacy • The Lincoln administration succeeded in keeping these states in the Union.

14 Visions of America, A History of the United States

15 Visions of America, A History of the United States Wartime Diplomacy Why did Lincoln decide to back down and release the Confederates in the Trent Affair?

16 Visions of America, A History of the United States Wartime Diplomacy Cotton Embargo – A ban imposed by Confederates in 1861 on the export of cotton • The goal was to prompt cotton-importing nations to intervene to secure Confederate independence. Trent Affair – A diplomatic incident in 1861 when a U.S. Navy vessel removed two Confederates from the British ship Trent

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18 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Early Campaigns, 1861–1865 A. No Short and Bloodless War B. The Peninsular Campaign C. A New Kind of War D. Toward Emancipation E. Slaughter and Stalemate

19 Visions of America, A History of the United States No Short and Bloodless War Why did the First Battle of Bull Run take place before either army was adequately prepared?

20 Visions of America, A History of the United States

21 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Peninsular Campaign Why did the Peninsular Campaign fail?

22 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Peninsular Campaign Peninsular Campaign – The complex plan developed by General George B. McClellan to capture the Confederate capital • Four hundred ships deposited 120,000 soldiers east of Richmond at Fortress Monroe between the James and York Rivers.

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24 Visions of America, A History of the United States A New Kind of War Why is the Civil War considered the first modern war?

25 Visions of America, A History of the United States A New Kind of War Modern Warfare – Military conflict involving enormous armies that utilize the technologies of the Industrial Revolution • Uses advances in communications, transportation, and firearms. • Victory is secured by destroying the enemy’s army and inflicting suffering on civilian populations.

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27 Visions of America, A History of the United States Toward Emancipation How did Lincoln expect the Emancipation Proclamation to benefit the Union war effort?

28 Visions of America, A History of the United States Toward Emancipation Contraband of War – The term used to justify the refusal to return fugitive slaves to their owners because they were seized property Emancipation Proclamation – Lincoln’s 1862 decree that declared slaves in the seceded states not under Union army control “forever free”

29 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History WHO FREED THE SLAVES? Theodor Kaufmann’s painting, “On to Liberty” Freedmen’s Memorial

30 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History WHO FREED THE SLAVES? Women are portrayed as dignified and courageous leaders. Two children in the middle seem reluctant. Smoke emanates from a Civil War battle. Slaves walk toward Union lines, which represented liberation.

31 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History WHO FREED THE SLAVES? Lincoln stands over the slave, emphasizing his—and all white people’s—superiority. The slave kneels, suggesting a passive role in his liberation. Lincoln stretches out his hand, evoking a biblical prophet or Christ giving a blessing.

32 Visions of America, A History of the United States Slaughter and Stalemate Why did photography have a more powerful impact on the public than artists’ depictions of battles?

33 Visions of America, A History of the United States

34 Visions of America, A History of the United States Behind the Lines A. Meeting the Demands of Modern War B. Hardships on the Home Front C. New Roles for Women D. Copperheads E. Conscription and Civil Unrest

35 Visions of America, A History of the United States Meeting the Demands of Modern War How did the Union fund the war?

36 Visions of America, A History of the United States Hardships on the Home Front In what ways did the war change Northern society? What were its effects on Southern society?

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38 Visions of America, A History of the United States New Roles for Women What new opportunities did the war open up for women?

39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Copperheads What was the basis of the criticisms leveled at Abraham Lincoln by his critics in the North, including the Copperheads? How did he respond?

40 Visions of America, A History of the United States Copperheads Copperheads – Northern Democrats (sometimes called “Peace Democrats”) who opposed the war and the Lincoln administration and favored a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy

41 Visions of America, A History of the United States Conscription and Civil Unrest Why did the Lincoln administration impose a draft in 1863? Why did New Yorkers riot against the draft?

42 Visions of America, A History of the United States Conscription and Civil Unrest Conscription Act – A law passed in 1863 to offset the declining number of volunteers to the Union Army • It declared all male citizens (and immigrants who had applied for citizenship) aged twenty to forty-five eligible to be drafted into the Union Army. • The rich could pay a $300 fee to avoid the draft.

43 Visions of America, A History of the United States Conscription and Civil Unrest Draft Riots – Four days of rioting in New York City in July 1863 by mostly poor, immigrant, and working-class men who opposed the draft

44 Visions of America, A History of the United States

45 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions CIVIL LIBERTIES IN A CIVIL WAR Are principles such as civil liberties subject to different treatment during a national crisis such as war? “Copperhead” Democrats argued that placing military authority over civil authority violated the Constitution. Lincoln argued that his actions were constitutional and were necessary to preserve the Union.

46 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions CIVIL LIBERTIES IN A CIVIL WAR

47 Visions of America, A History of the United States Toward Union Victory A. Turning Point: 1863 B. African Americans under Arms C. The Confederacy Begins to Crumble D. Victory in Battle and at the Polls E. War Is Hell

48 Visions of America, A History of the United States Turning Point: 1863 Why did Lee decide to invade the North a second time?

49 Visions of America, A History of the United States African Americans under Arms How were African-American soldiers treated in the Union Army? What role did African-American soldiers play in the Union war effort? Why did Lincoln initially agree to pay African-American soldiers less than white soldiers?

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52 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Early in the war, African-American soldiers received the same pay as whites. In June 1863, pay for African Americans was cut from $13 to $7 a month. EQUAL PERIL, UNEQUAL PAY

53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Choices regarding unequal pay EQUAL PERIL, UNEQUAL PAY Quietly accept lower wages Reject lower wages on principle, protest and lobby for equal pay, but continue to fulfill duties as soldiers Refuse to obey orders until equal pay is offered Accept lower wages but protest and lobby for equal pay

54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Rejected lower wages on principle, despite financial hardship. • Continued to fulfill duties, protested, and lobbied for equal pay • Over a year later, Congress authorized equal pay scale for all soldiers. What role did African American soldiers play in the Union war effort? EQUAL PERIL, UNEQUAL PAY

55 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •How were African Americans in the military treated after the Civil War? EQUAL PERIL, UNEQUAL PAY

56 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Confederacy Begins to Crumble How did the Union blockade affect the Confederate war effort?

57 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE ARMIES OF THE CIVIL WAR How did the Union’s 2:1 advantage over the Confederacy in overall population play a role in winning the war?

58 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE ARMIES OF THE CIVIL WAR The Confederacy’s refusal to arm African Americans further decreased its human resources. Both the Union and Confederate armies included immigrants.

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60 Visions of America, A History of the United States Victory in Battle and at the Polls What distinguished Grant’s approach to war from his predecessors’?

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64 Visions of America, A History of the United States War Is Hell What steps did the Republican Party take to improve Lincoln’s changes for victory in 1864? Why did Sherman destroy so much property in Georgia? What conciliatory measures toward the Confederates did Grant adopt at Lee’s surrender?

65 Visions of America, A History of the United States War Is Hell Sherman’s March to the Sea – The 285- mile “scorched earth” campaign of General William T. Sherman across Georgia in late 1864 and early 1865 •Sherman’s soldiers seized or destroyed $100 million in goods, hurting Southern morale and depriving the Confederate army of supplies.

66 Visions of America, A History of the United States War is Hell Special Field Order No. 15 – Sherman’s directive announced during his March to the Sea that set aside more than 400,000 acres of seized Confederate land for distribution to former slaves in 40-acre plots

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69 Visions of America, A History of the United States Chapter Review Questions 1. What advantages allowed the Confederacy to enjoy military success in the early years of the war? 2. Why did both North and South consider the Border States vital? 3. How did African Americans contribute to emancipation? 4. How did the war change Northern society and the federal government? 5. What approach to warfare set Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman apart from less successful Union military leaders? 6. How did social, economic, and class differences in Southern society contribute to the Confederacy’s defeat?

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