Chapter 12 Revolution and Romanticism

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Information about Chapter 12 Revolution and Romanticism
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Published on March 26, 2008

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Revolution and Romanticism:  Revolution and Romanticism HUM 2020 Chapter 12 Values of Romanticism:  Values of Romanticism Rejection of: simplicity, proportion and restraint. Valued: Feeling, Intuition, Passion, Imagination, Spontaneity Revolutions and Rights:  Revolutions and Rights 1776-- American Revolution 1789-- French Revolution Democracy, republicanism, equality before the law Congresses, presidencies, constitutions--results of those conflicts The Revolution in America:  The Revolution in America American colonists’ resentment of British control Declaration of Independence, 1776 Principles of Enlightenment--John Locke’s Treatise on Civil Government Thomas Jefferson: equality, civil rights and popular sovereignty from philosophes Federalist Papers: authority of state; rights of individual--did not address slavery The Revolution in France:  The Revolution in France Louis XVI: Middle class delegates: “Oath of the Tennis Court” July 14: Bastille prison attached Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen-- from Rousseau’s thoughts Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite 1793, beheading of monarchs Reign of Terror began The Napoleonic Era:  The Napoleonic Era 1799--disillusioned citizens New hero: Napoleon Bonaparte Dreams of imperial glory Crowned himself emperor in 1804 Campaign to conquer Europe Defeated in 1814 at Waterloo Imprisoned for the rest of his life in St. Helena Napoleon and the Arts:  Napoleon and the Arts Imitated Roman emperors--Paris imperial capital like Rome Power advertised by arts and buildings Louvre--museum to pieces stolen from conquered countries Triumphal arches and columns La Madeleine--Greek temple Slide11:  Jacques-Louis David--Painter to the Empire Coronation scene and equestrian painting Benoist’s Portrait of a Black Woman Counterpoint to Canova’s sculpture of Napoleon’s sister as Venus Colonial Revolutionaries:  Colonial Revolutionaries 1793--Toussaint L’Ouverture led Haiti’s revolt against the French--Napoleon imprisoned him. Simon Bolivar--wanted to create a United States of South America. Obtained freedom for Venezuela, Colombia and Peru. The Romantic Hero:  The Romantic Hero Romantics preferred feeling and imagination to intellect and reason. Attracted to the picturesque in nature and the past; prized creativity and cast off neoclassical restraint and laws. 1775-1850 Beethoven:  Beethoven Suffering romantic genius Deafness at 25 Pianist in Vienna, able to sell his compositions Symphony No. 3 Eroica was the bridge between Classical style and romantic style Slide18:  Added piccolo and trombone to the symphonic orchestra Symphony Number 5 in C Minor Confrontation with fate: “Fate knocking at the door” Motif: Term for short musical idea Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony:  Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony On this edition of Milestones of the Millennium, we look back to the very first performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony on Friday, May 7, 1824. Today, this masterpiece is recognized as one of the all-time greatest achievements, not just in music, but for humanity as a whole. Admired around the world, the symphony has been used countless times to underscore momentous occasions such as the fall of the Berlin Wall. Musical Virtuosos:  Musical Virtuosos Paganini: violin Chopin: piano Schumann: Songs and symphonies Clara Schumann: Lieder (songs) Brahms: symphonies Goethe and Faust:  Goethe and Faust Faust: romantic masterpiece drama in two parts Delacroix illustrated a French translation Schubert composed songs Gounod: opera Faust: Ambition to burst all human constraint and indulge unquenched desire for experience Delacroix and the Byronic Hero:  Delacroix and the Byronic Hero French more attracted to sensuality of Lord Byron: Don Juan, life of sexual freedom, political idealism and exotic travel. Intellectual and moral freedom Eugene Delacroix rebelled against the academy Color, drama and exotic themes Death of Sardanapalus and Liberty Leading the People:  Death of Sardanapalus and Liberty Leading the People Orgy of egoism, violence and sexuality When threatened by rebellion he destroys his possessions and himself Revolution of 1830 overthrew the Bourbon king Unity of the classes Elements of Romanticism:  Elements of Romanticism Heroic individualism: Faust and Lord Byron Protest against political and social injustice Attraction for nature and medieval times Fascination with evil and the exotic Sensibility that responded to historical circumstances Romantic Social Protest: William Blake:  Romantic Social Protest: William Blake Sympathetic observer of those enslaved by the industrial city Condemned the ills of urban existence Romantic Feminism:  Romantic Feminism Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Women : Compared women to soldiers Revolutions did not liberate women. Napoleon’s legal code denied women the right to hold property Western nations did not allow women to vote Goya and Spain:  Goya and Spain Goya’s paintings depicted the senseless brutality of war Executions of the Third of May 1808 Christ-like martyr in white Lamp: enlightenment (irony) The Sleep of Reason Brings Forth Monsters, Romantic fascination with evil The Romantics and Nature:  The Romantics and Nature Romantic landscapes Constable: The Hay Wain rustic landscapes Turner: The Slave Ship Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway Effects of fog and smoke Romantic Exotism:  Romantic Exotism Middle classes become strong Drawn to exotic and grotesque Colonies overseas: Africa and Asia Fascination with Arabic customs and dress Ingres: Disciple of David--The Turkish Bath Classical figures Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique:  Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique Innovated with program music (composition that tells a story or describes a place) Story of Irish actress who rejected him Fifth movement: musician is dead and his beloved joins the celebration in a witches’ dance The macabre Symphonie Fantastique:  Symphonie Fantastique A young musician of great sensibility and plentiful imagination, in deep despair because of hopeless love, has poisoned himself with opium. The drug is not strong enough to kill him but puts him into deep sleep with strange dreams. His sensations, emotions, and memories, as they filter through his fevered brain, are transformed into musical images and ideas. The beloved one herself becomes to him a tune, a recurring theme (the idée fixe) which continually haunts him. First two movements:  First two movements 1. Reveries, Passions. First he remembers the weariness of the soul, that indefinable longing, that sombre melancholia and those objectless joys which he experienced before meeting his beloved. Then the explosive love which immediately inspired him, his delirious suffering, his return to tenderness, his religious consolations. 2. A Ball. At a ball, in the middle of a noisy brilliant fête, he finds his beloved again. Slide39:  3. In the Country. On a summer evening in the country, he hears two shepherds calling each other with folk melodies. The pastoral duet in such surroundings, the gentle rustle of the trees swayed by the wind, some reasons for hope which had come to his knowledge recently–all unite to fill his heart with a unique tranquility and lend brighter colours to his fancies. But his beloved appears new, spasms contract his heart, and he is filled with dark premonition. What if she proved faithless? Only one of the shepherds resumes his rustic tune. The sun sets. Far away there is a rumble of thunder–solitude–silence. 4. March to the Scaffold. He dreams he has killed his loved one, that he is condemned to death and led to his execution. A march, now gloomy yet ferocious, now solemn yet brilliant, accompanies the procession. Noisy outbursts are followed without pause by the heavy sound of marching footsteps. Finally, like a last thought of love, the idée fixe briefly appears, to be cut off by the fall of an axe. Last Movement:  Last Movement . Dream of a Witches' Sabbath. He sees himself at a Witches' Sabbath, surrounded by a fearful crowd of spectres, sorcerers, and monsters of every kind, united for his burial. Unearthly sounds, groans, shrieks of laughter, distant cries, to which others seem to respond! The melody of his beloved is heard but it has lost its character of nobility and reserve. It is now an ignoble dance tune, trivial and grotesque. It is she who comes to the Sabbath! A shout of joy greets her arrival. She joins the diabolical orgy. The funeral knell, burlesque of the Dies Irae. Dance of the Witches. The dance and the Dies Irae combine. The Romantic Novel:  The Romantic Novel Fascination with evil and the demonic: The Gothic novel Edgar Allan Poe Charlotte and Emily Bronte Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Hero who suffers a conflict between his God-like ambitions and moral blindness

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