Chapter 11.2: The Inner Planets

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Information about Chapter 11.2: The Inner Planets
Education

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: reginakorrnell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Grade 8 Integrated Science Chapter 11 Lesson 2 on the inner planets. Discusses the four inner planets, their atmosphere, interior, surface, weather, and other defining features. Includes individual slides on Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

The Inner Planets Ch 11.2 (p382-387)

Planets Made of Rock • The inner planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars – are also called terrestrial planets. • Terrestrial planets are the planets closet to the Sun, are made of rock and metal, and have solid outer layers.

Mercury • The smallest planet • Closest to the Sun • No atmosphere – The strength of a planet’s gravity depends on the planet’s mass. Because Mercury’s mass is so small, its gravity is not strong enough to hold onto an atmosphere • No atmosphere = no wind – Temperatures: • -170C on the side facing away from the Sun • 450 C on the side facing the Sun

Mercury’s Surface • Impact craters, depressions formed by collisions with objects from space, cover the surface of Mercury. • There are smooth plains of solidified lava from long-ago eruptions. • There are also high cliffs that might have formed when the planet cooled quickly • Without an atmosphere, almost no erosion occurs on Mercury’s surface – As a result, features that formed billions of years ago have changed very little.

Mercury’s Surface • Like all inner planets, Mercury has a core made of iron and nickel. • Surrounding the core is a layer called the mantle. • The mantle is mainly made of silicon and oxygen. • The crust is a thin, rocky layer above the mantle. • Mercury’s large core might have been formed by a collision with a large object during Mercury’s formation.

Venus • 2nd planet from the Sun • About the same size as Earth • It rotates so slowly that its period of rotation is longer than its period of revolution. – One day is longer than one year • Venus rotates east to west, unlike most planets

Venus’s Atmosphere • The atmosphere of Venus is about 97% carbon dioxide • It is so dense that the atmospheric pressure on Venus is about 90 times greater than on Earth • Venus has no water on its surface. • It is covered by a thick layer of clouds made of acid

The Greenhouse Effect on Venus • With an average temperature of about 460C, Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. • The high temperature are caused by the greenhouse effect – The greenhouse effect occurs when a planet’s atmosphere traps solar energy and causes the surface temperature to increase. • Without the greenhouse effect Venus would be about 450C cooler.

Venus’s Structure and Surface • Venus’s internal structure is similar to Earth’s. • Radar images show that more than 80% of Venus’s surface is covered by solidified lava

Concept Check • How are the inner planets similar? • Why is Venus hotter than Mercury?

Earth • The third planet from the Sun • Unlike Mercury and Venus, Earth has a moon.

Earth’s Atmosphere • A mixture of gases and a small amount of water vapor make up most of Earth’s atmosphere • They produce a greenhouse effect that increases Earth’s average surface temperature • This effect and Earth’s distance from the Sun warm Earth enough for large bodies of water to exist. • Earth’s protective atmosphere, the presence of liquid water, and the planet’s moderate temperature range support a variety of life

Earth’s Structure • Earth has a solid inner core surrounded by a liquid outer core • The mantle surrounds the liquid outer core. • Above the mantle is Earth’s crust. • It’s broken into large pieces, called plates, that constantly slide past, away from, or into each other

Mars • 4th planet from the Sun • Half the size of Earth • Two very small and irregularly shaped moons • Water on Mars is mainly trapped in the polar ice caps and a small amount in found as liquid vapor • However, little evidence of liquid water or life has been found

Mar’s Atmosphere • 95% carbon dioxide • Temperatures: -125C – 20C • Dust storms that last for months

Mar’s Surface • • • • Reddish due to iron oxide in the soil (rust) Enormous canyons Largest mountain in the solar system Polar ice caps made of frozen carbon dioxide and ice

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