Chapter 1 - Texas Government

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Published on February 24, 2014

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Government and Politics in the Lone Star State: Theory and Practice L. Tucker Gibson, Jr. and Clay Robison Prepared by Darrial Reynolds Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 1: The Social and Economic Milieu of Texas Politics Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Challenges of the TwentyFirst Century  Problems for an Urban State  Population growth  Transformation of the economy  Increasing demands for services  Each Generation Must Address:  Role of government in society  Relationship of people to government  Government responsiveness Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Myths of Texas’s Political Culture  Political Myths  Stories used to describe the past  Common historical or cultural experiences  Pervasive in literature, symbols, rituals, and popular culture  Texas  Myth  Political Myths of origin (individualism) The Alamo and the Lone Star State  Frontier  myth (individualism) Cowboys and Texas Rangers Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Political Culture of Texas  Political Culture Set of attitudes, beliefs, and sentiments    Give order and meaning Assumptions and rules that govern behavior Beliefs about proper role of government; about relationship of government to its citizens; and about who should govern  Daniel    Elazar Three political subcultures in the United States Shaped by immigration patterns Account for regional political differences in Texas Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Political Culture of Texas  The Individualistic Subculture Politics and Government as a Marketplace  Purpose of Government    Provide a stable political order in which private individuals and groups can pursue their specific interests Politics  New policy initiatives are more likely to be initiated by interest groups or private individuals than by public officials. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Political Culture of Texas  The  Purpose of Government   Moralistic Subculture To serve the general interests or the general good Politics  Sense of duty and responsibility to use power and resources to provide benefits for all segments of society Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Political Culture of Texas  The  Purpose of Government   Traditionalistic Subculture Government and the political order are designed to serve the interests of a few. Politics Systematic efforts to reduce or eliminate the participation of the general public  Limited interest in expanding participation in the decisions of government  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Historical Origins of Political Subcultures  Origins of Three Political Subcultures  Moralistic  subculture New England states  Individualistic  subculture Mid-Atlantic states  Traditionalistic   subculture Southern states Texas Is Individualistic and Traditionalistic.  Two patterns of migration   Upper South before and after Mexican independence Lower South after Texas independence Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  Native  Americans Three small Native American groups Alabama-Coushatta, Tigua, and Kickapoo  Population is less than one-half of 1 percent of the state’s total population   Tejas (Texas) reflects and refers to the Native American tribes living in Texas. Tejas means allies or friends.  Tejas is the geographic area that became known as the word Texas.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  Hispanics  In 2010, Hispanics comprised 37.6 percent of the state’s population.  This growth in population is steadily increasing the political power and influence of this group.  Seven Hispanics have been elected to statewide office.  Hispanics held some 2,520 elected positions in Texas in 2011, the highest number of any state. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  African Americans  In 2010, African Americans made up about 12 percent of the Texas population.  The African American population is concentrated in the eastern counties of the state and in the large urban areas. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  Anglos  Anglos are the dominant population in Texas.  Anglo population of Texas originated in the states of the upper and lower South.  Anglos helped establish the individualistic and traditionalistic subcultures in Texas.  Anglos accounted for only 45.3 percent of the people of Texas in 2010. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  Asian Americans  In 2010, Asian Americans comprised 3.8 percent of the Texas population.  Several Asian Americans have been elected to public office in Houston.  Houston is home to the largest concentration of Asian Americans in Texas. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

The People of Texas  Politics, Race, and Ethnicity Polarized voting along ethnic lines  V. O. Key (scholar of American politics)   Voters in Texas “divide along class lines in accord with their class interests as related to liberal and conservative candidates.” Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  Population Growth In 2010, Texas had 25,145,561 people.  Increase of 4.3 million people in ten years    Texas growth rate of 20.6 percent was higher than the national growth rate of 9.7 percent. Texas is the second most populous state, second only to California due to the following reasons.  High birth rates, migration, and immigration Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  The  Aging Population In 2010, Texas ranked forty-ninth among the states in median age. Median age in Texas was 33.6 years, compared to 37.2 years for the entire country.  About 10 percent of the state’s population was older than sixty-five in 2010.   Aging population demands health care, long-term care, and increased Medicaid spending. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  Urban  Texas 83 percent of Texans live in urban areas of the state. Three of the ten largest cities in the United States are in Texas.  There is an increase in demand for goods and services due to an urbanized population.  State government and its subdivisions are now forced to deal with this challenge.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  Wealth  Wide disparity in the distribution of income among Texans   and Income Distribution About 17 percent of Texans live below the poverty line. Disproportionately, the poor are minorities, single heads of households, children, and the elderly.  These disparities in wealth have shaped partisan conflict and politics. Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  Education  and Literacy Education determines how Texas competes in a new global economy. Service jobs will require a higher level of education.  Education not only helps determine a person’s employment and income potential but also affects his or her participation in politics.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  The Size and Geographic Diversity of Texas Texas is 261,231 square miles.  Candidates in statewide campaigns spend millions of dollars to communicate with and mobilize Texas voters.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  The Economy of Texas Texas has a $1.2 trillion gross state product.  Texas’s economy is undergoing diversification.  Future growth will be in the service industries.  New high-tech and biotech industries are taking on more importance in this economic transformation.  North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Discussion Question  The  Economy of Texas What impacts could increased trade between the governments of Mexico and Texas have on the following areas and cities? On the border economy?  On cities such as Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, El Paso?  Other cities?  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Growth and Changing Demographics  Economic  Regions of Texas Texas has twelve economic regions. Agriculture is huge in the High Plains Region, the South Texas Border Region, and the Upper East Texas Region.  But these three regions, like the other nine regions, are all different in terms of economic recovery, growth, and development.  Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

Copyright © 2013, 2011, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc.

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