Chapter 1- Intro Applied Psych - DLVL.

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Published on December 11, 2008

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Industrial/Organizational Psychology : Industrial/Organizational Psychology Christine Nivens MA, LPC Office # K239 Thursday 5:00 – 6:30 PM (972) 881-5759 Faculty Office Phone (214) 733-3139 Cell Phone cnivens@ccccd.edu Chapter 1: An Introduction into I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: An Introduction into I/O Psychology Definition of I/O Psychology Three major specialty areas of I/O psychology and their focal points Contributions of the following people: Walter Dill Scott Hugo Munsterberg Walter Bingham Frederick Taylor (early 1900’s) Robert Yerkes (World War I) Hawthorne Studies (1920’s) James Cattell, Lillian Gilbreth, and Marion Bills (1930’s) World War II 1960’s – 1980’s Current trends in I/O psychology Seven critical forces likely to affect the future of I/O psychology Requirements for becoming and I/O psychologist Chapter 1: Definition of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Definition of I/O Psychology Definition of I/O Psychology: Psychology is the scientific of behavior and mental processes. Industrial/Organizational Psychology refers to the application of psychological theory and methodology to the problems of organizations and the problems of groups and individuals in organizational settings. These psychologists work in background Employment tests, career training, design of job tasks, preparation for retirement They must used systematic and exacting research methods Chapter 1: Three major specialty areas : Chapter 1: Three major specialty areas Personnel Psychology Deals with employee recruitment and selection, training and development, performance appraisals, and job analysis Often work in Human Resources Organizational Psychology Focus is on group influences on individual employees Deal with the structure of organization, communication patterns, effects of diversity, etc. Human Factors or Engineering Psychology Deals with interaction between people and machines Equipment design and safety programs Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology Wilhelm Wundt – 1879 in Germany developed the first psychological laboratory Began in US in 1892 with the founding of the American Psychological Association (APA) Cited as founders of I/O psychology Walter Dill Scott – 1901 application of psychological principals to advertising, notion of incentive pay to motivate employees, and concern with employee’s attitude Hugo Munsterberg – studied under Wundt and received a doctorate he was a proponent of selection testing and development of the first “lie detector” or polygraph Walter V. Bingham started the Division of Applied Psychology, the first academic program in I/O psychology and was responsible for his emphasis on basic research in the early days Frederic W. Taylor was an engineer who believed that scientific principles could be applied to redesign the work environment leading to greater productivity, benefits to the organization, and eventually leading to higher wages for employees Efficiency Experts Scientific Management - 1911 Chapter 1: Fundamental Principles of Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory : Chapter 1: Fundamental Principles of Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory Work methods can be scientifically designed for efficiency, which results in the ‘One Best Method’ for doing a job The best workers should be selected and trained in the new ‘One Best Method’ There should be a spirit of cooperation between management and workers; Managers and workers must share responsibility for the design and conduct of work Motivation results from monetary gain Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology World War I – April 6th 1917 Problem of classifying millions of recruits Robert M. Yerkes – 1916 reviewed hundreds of intelligence tests Tests used to identify ‘Officer Material’ Army Alpha Test > 25% of recruits were illiterate Army Beta Test Used to test if recruits were illiterate Rating men in the Army by Walter Dill Scott and Walter Bingham After the War – vocational tests were developed to increase efficiency and workers well-being James Cattell – consulting services for fee Women held the majority of positions applied psychology in the early years Marion Bills was known for wage incentive and job classification System and a job evaluation system Lillian Gilbreth was known for her time and motion studies Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology Hawthorne Studies – Elton Mayo (late 1920’s) First I/O research study to focus on understanding employees Consider employee’s attitudes, group norms, and leadership styles Began Human Relations Movement World War II Developments in testing, training, and performance appraisal Advances in equipment design Government Regulations Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology Current Concerns Legal and Social issues such as court rulings, safety standards, and fair employment Employee recruitment and retention, along with the study of future HR needs Analysis of training needs and evaluation of training programs Organizational culture Fitness, health, and stress Effect of new technology Future needs of and challenges faced by organizations Internationalization and increasing diversity of the workplace Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology Seven Critical Forces Increasing diversity in the workforce Reintegration of home life and work life Globalization – multinational organizations and customer Expanding human resource planning The shift from manufactured base to knowledge based workforce Rising employee expectations and the need to balance the costs and demands of those expectations A renewal of corporate social responsibility Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology : Chapter 1: Development of I/O Psychology Careers in Industrial/Organizational Psychology What are they?? Education and Training Requirements Minimum Educational Requirement is usually a master’s degree but varies by state and passing of a licensing test I/O psychology has reacted to and been driven by the needs of society from its beginning leading to increasing job opportunities I/O psychology is concerned with more than efficiency and productivity. Employee health, stress reduction, and the quality of work life are becoming increasingly important

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