Chapter 1 - General Psych lecture

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Published on December 11, 2008

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Chapter 1: Defining Psychology : Chapter 1: Defining Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind. Psychology: - utilizes scientific research. - is the study of behavior. - is the study of the mind. Psychology includes the study of overt and covert behavior. Chapter 1: Defining Psychology : Chapter 1: Defining Psychology Psychology is both a science and a profession. Areas of psychology: Clinical psychology - Quantitative psychology - Counseling psychology - Sports psychology - School psychology - Community psychology - Industial/Organizational psychology - Psychobiology - Cognitive psychology - Forensic psychology - Social psychology - Human factors psychology - Cross-cultural psychology Human development psychology - Personality psychology - Parapsychology Chapter 1: Graduate education : Chapter 1: Graduate education Primary Secondary Average Time Degree Emphasis Emphasis to Complete Degree Doctor of Application Research 4 – 6 years (post BA) Psychology (PsyD) Doctor of Research Application 4 – 8 years (post BA) Philosophy (PhD) Master of Varies Varies 2 – 3 years (post BA) Arts or Science (MA or MS) Chapter 1: Different mental health practitioners : Chapter 1: Different mental health practitioners Clinical psychologist: Diagnoses, treats, and studies mental or emotional problems. Has sufficient training to treat patients with severe mental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia) or minor adjustment problems (i.e., job dissatisfaction). Traditionally does not write prescriptions. Qualifications: PhD, PsyD, or MA. Counseling psychologist: Helps people deal with “everyday” problems, such as test anxiety or family conflicts. Generally does not treat patients with severe mental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia). Qualifications: PhD, PsyD, or MA. Chapter 1: Other mental health practitioners : Chapter 1: Other mental health practitioners Psychologist: A professional highly trained in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology. Qualifications: PhD, PsyD, or MA Psychiatrist: A medical doctor who has learned how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians. Can write prescriptions for patients. Qualifications: M.D + additional training (a lot!). Psychotherapist: Someone who does any kind of psychotherapy. This term is not regulated. Qualifications: None. Chapter 1: Where are Psychologists getting jobs? : Chapter 1: Where are Psychologists getting jobs? Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Psychology has its roots in philosophy, physiology, and medicine. William Wundt has been referred to as the “father” of psychology for establishing the first lab to study conscious experience. Wundt called his method for studying conscious experience trained introspection. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Trained introspection was a process that encouraged volunteers to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions. The goal of trained introspection was to break down conscious experience into “parts” or “elements”. Major weakness of trained introspection: no way to resolve disagreements – this impeded (blocked) the scientific process. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who diagnosed patients with symptoms of hysteria. Hysteria was new and manifested itself only in women in Austria. Freud could find no evidence that hysterical symptoms resulted from physiological causes. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Freud believed that his patients were experiencing bizarre symptoms such as blindness, numbness, depression, nervousness, and other symptoms because of unconscious conflict. Freud’s broad theory of personality is largely based on his experiences with hysteria in Austria. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Behaviorism - John Watson opposed studying the “mind” or “conscious experience”. - Why was Watson opposed to studying the mind (covert behavior)? Because Watson believed that the mind and conscious experience were not observable, and therefore inadequate for explaining behavior. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Behaviorism - B.F. Skinner believed that behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences – this concept has been termed “Stimulus- Response behaviorism”. - Skinner also believed that mental events (covert behavior, such as thoughts) were not needed to explain behavior. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Behaviorists believed that: - Only overt (observable) behavior could be measured and studied. - Behavior was influenced more by the environment than by thoughts. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology Reactions to behaviorism: Cognitive Behaviorism: Broader view that combined thinking (covert behavior) and environmental control to explain behavior. Behavior modifcation: Treatment that applies learning principles to help change problem behaviors. Chapter 1: History of Psychology : Chapter 1: History of Psychology The “Cognitive Revolution” Many types of evidence suggested that behaviorism was too restrictive. These included studies of child development, animal behavior, and brain studies Cognition A general term that refers to mental processes such as thinking, knowing, and remembering Chapter 1: Scientific Methods : Chapter 1: Scientific Methods Scientific methods unify the discipline of psychology A basic goal in science is critical thinking An approach to information that involves challenging assumptions systematic observations a reliance on evidence a careful scrutiny of the methods used to derive evidence Chapter 1: Scientific Methods : Chapter 1: Scientific Methods 4 main goals of Scientific & Professional Psychology: Describe Behavior Understand Behavior Predict Behavior Control Behavior Methods of Psychology : Methods of Psychology Empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation and measurement. Common sense, although useful in many contexts, does not provide evidence for a theory in psychology. Chapter 1: Methods of Psychology – Types of Studies : Chapter 1: Methods of Psychology – Types of Studies Case studies A type of research that involves making in-depth observations of individual persons. Survey A research method that involves interviewing or giving questionnaires to a large number of people. Naturalistic observation The observation of behavior as it occurs naturally in real-world settings Methods of Psychology: types of studies : Methods of Psychology: types of studies Correlational studies examine relationships between variables. Correlations are expressed as a number between -1 and +1. Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs Correlation A statistical measure of how closely two variables are associated. A correlation can range from -1.0 to +1.0. Scientific MethodsExplaining a Correlation : Scientific MethodsExplaining a Correlation Start with 3 variables, (X, Y, & Z) where X and Y are correlated: X may cause Y Y may cause X Z may cause X and Y Correlations indicate relationship patterns, not causes Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs If prediction is your primary goal, a correlational study is most appropriate Correlational Studies CANNOT be used to determine cause & effect Methods of Psychology: types of studies : Methods of Psychology: types of studies Experiments also examine relationships between variables. Experiments involve keeping some variables constant in order to observe changes in other variables. Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs Independent Variable Any variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment. The proposed cause of change in the dependent variable. Dependent Variable A variable that is being measured in an experiment. Proposed to be affected by the independent variable. Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs Experimental Group Any condition of an experiment in which participants are exposed to an independent variable. Control Group The condition of an experiment in which participants are not exposed to the independent variable. Random Assignment The procedure of assigning subjects to groups. Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs Experiments also examine relationships between variables Experiments involve keeping some variables constant in order to observe changes in other variables If cause/effect is your primary goal, an experiment is most appropriate The major drawback is they are conducted in controlled environments, artificial conditions Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs Self-report (i.e. surveys) are the most popular type of measurement used by psychologists Self-report reveals how people perceive their own behavior Scientific Methods Research Designs : Scientific Methods Research Designs To ensure your self-report measure is scientific, you must establish: Reliability (consistency) Validity (are you measuring what you say you are measuring Realibility – an objective way of determining if a self-report measure is measuring something consistently. Often expressed as a number Methods of Psychology: measurement : Methods of Psychology: measurement Validity: a (subjective) way of determining if a self-report measure is accurately measuring what it is designed to measure. Validity is: - subjective - always being established

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