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Chapter 07: Other Sensory Systems & Attention

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Information about Chapter 07: Other Sensory Systems & Attention
Education

Published on December 1, 2008

Author: alxndr01

Source: slideshare.net

Description

How the senses other than vision work and how we attend to our environment.
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Other Sensory Systems Audition, The Mechanical Senses, The Chemical Senses, & Attention

Sound & the Ear Amplitude Intensity of the sound wave Loudness: the perception of intensity Frequency Number of compressions per second measured in Hz Pitch Perception closely related to frequency The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch

Amplitude

Intensity of the sound wave

Loudness: the perception of intensity

Frequency

Number of compressions per second measured in Hz

Pitch

Perception closely related to frequency

The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch

Structure of the Ear Outer Ear Includes the Pinna & External Auditory Canal Middle Ear Includes the Eardrum, & Auditory Ossicles Inner Ear Includes the Oval Window & the Cochlea The Cochlea contains the auditory receptors When the fluid in the Cochlea vibrates it stimulates the hair cells which stimulate the Auditory Nerve Cells

Outer Ear

Includes the Pinna & External Auditory Canal

Middle Ear

Includes the Eardrum, & Auditory Ossicles

Inner Ear

Includes the Oval Window & the Cochlea

The Cochlea contains the auditory receptors

When the fluid in the Cochlea vibrates it stimulates the hair cells which stimulate the Auditory Nerve Cells

Theories of Hearing Frequency Theory Entire Basilar Membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to sound. The nerve receptors send out impulses that are tied directly to the frequency of the sounds: Frequency = Impulses Place Theory Different areas of the Basilar Membrane respond to different frequencies. High tones register most strongly at the base of the cochlea (near the oval window), lower tones mostly move the hair cells near the tip of the Cochlea

Frequency Theory

Entire Basilar Membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to sound. The nerve receptors send out impulses that are tied directly to the frequency of the sounds: Frequency = Impulses

Place Theory

Different areas of the Basilar Membrane respond to different frequencies. High tones register most strongly at the base of the cochlea (near the oval window), lower tones mostly move the hair cells near the tip of the Cochlea

Theories of Hearing Volley Principle For Pitch Discrimination: Sound waves produce a volley of impulses by auditory nerve fivers, which in turn signal high frequencies to the brain Current Theory Combines Both Frequency & Place Theories The Volley Principle is important for pitch perception in middle frequency sounds (100 – 5000 Hz) High frequency sounds (+5000 Hz) the Place Theory works Low frequency sounds (-100 Hz) the Frequency Theory works

Volley Principle

For Pitch Discrimination: Sound waves produce a volley of impulses by auditory nerve fivers, which in turn signal high frequencies to the brain

Current Theory

Combines Both Frequency & Place Theories

The Volley Principle is important for pitch perception in middle frequency sounds (100 – 5000 Hz)

High frequency sounds (+5000 Hz) the Place Theory works

Low frequency sounds (-100 Hz) the Frequency Theory works

Pitch Perception in the Cerebral Cortex Subcortical Structures Auditory information passes through several subcortical structures with an important crossover at Midbrain Crossovers enable each hemisphere of the forebrain to get its major auditory input from the opposite ear Primary Auditory Cortex Auditory information destined for the temporal lobe with cells responding to location; another part responds to tones The cortical area with the greatest response indicates what sound or sounds are heard

Subcortical Structures

Auditory information passes through several subcortical structures with an important crossover at Midbrain

Crossovers enable each hemisphere of the forebrain to get its major auditory input from the opposite ear

Primary Auditory Cortex

Auditory information destined for the temporal lobe with cells responding to location; another part responds to tones

The cortical area with the greatest response indicates what sound or sounds are heard

Hearing Loss Conduction Deafness (Middle-ear deafness) Failure of the ossicles to transmit sound waaves properly to the cochlea Nerve Deafness (Inner-ear deafness) Damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve causing permanent impairment in hearing in one or all ranges of frequencies Stimulation Deafness Caused by excessive stimulation of the hair cells Tinnitus Frequent or constant ringing in the ear(s)

Conduction Deafness

(Middle-ear deafness) Failure of the ossicles to transmit sound waaves properly to the cochlea

Nerve Deafness

(Inner-ear deafness) Damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve causing permanent impairment in hearing in one or all ranges of frequencies

Stimulation Deafness

Caused by excessive stimulation of the hair cells

Tinnitus

Frequent or constant ringing in the ear(s)

The Vestibular Senses The Vestibular Organ Comprised of 2 Otolith Organs (the Saccule & Uricle) & 3 Semicircular Canals Monitors head movements & directs compensatory movements of the eyes Otoliths lie next to hair cells & excite them when the head tilts Acceleration of the head causes the jelly-like substance in the Semicircular canals to push against the hair cells causing action potentials

The Vestibular Organ

Comprised of 2 Otolith Organs (the Saccule & Uricle) & 3 Semicircular Canals

Monitors head movements & directs compensatory movements of the eyes

Otoliths lie next to hair cells & excite them when the head tilts

Acceleration of the head causes the jelly-like substance in the Semicircular canals to push against the hair cells causing action potentials

Somatosensation Kinesthetic Sense Involves sensation of the body & its movements Touch, Pressure, etc. Includes discriminative touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle, & the position & movements of the joints Pancinian Corpuscles Detects sudden displacements or high-frequency vibrations on the skin

Kinesthetic Sense

Involves sensation of the body & its movements

Touch, Pressure, etc.

Includes discriminative touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle, & the position & movements of the joints

Pancinian Corpuscles

Detects sudden displacements or high-frequency vibrations on the skin

Pain Neurotransmitters Mild pain release is Glutamate Stronger pain release is Substance P Opioid Mechanisms Systems that respond to opiate drugs & similar chemicals block Substance P Opiate receptors in the brain bind to Endorphins Met-enkephalin, leu- enkaphalin, & beta- endorphin Endorphins inhibit pain

Neurotransmitters

Mild pain release is Glutamate

Stronger pain release is Substance P

Opioid Mechanisms

Systems that respond to opiate drugs & similar chemicals block Substance P

Opiate receptors in the brain bind to Endorphins

Met-enkephalin, leu- enkaphalin, & beta- endorphin

Endorphins inhibit pain

The Gate Theory of Pain Information Not Related to Pain Travels to the Spinal Cord & Closes “Gates” for each Pain Message Pain Gates Closed by Stimuli through the Activation of Neurons that release Endorphins in the Periaqueductal Gray Area in the Midbrain Endorphins Block the release of Substance P in the Spinal Cord & Brainstem

Information Not Related to Pain Travels to the Spinal Cord & Closes “Gates” for each Pain Message

Pain Gates Closed by Stimuli through the Activation of Neurons that release Endorphins in the Periaqueductal Gray Area in the Midbrain

Endorphins Block the release of Substance P in the Spinal Cord & Brainstem

Painful Heat Burns Detected by Special Heat Receptors Stimulated by Acids Capsaicin Chemical that stimulates heat receptors & found in hot peppers & jalapenos Causes neurons to release Substance P Eventually leads to pain insensitivity High doses can cause damage to pain receptors

Burns Detected by Special Heat Receptors Stimulated by Acids

Capsaicin

Chemical that stimulates heat receptors & found in hot peppers & jalapenos

Causes neurons to release Substance P

Eventually leads to pain insensitivity

High doses can cause damage to pain receptors

Other Aspects of Pain Pain & Emotion Pain is a sensation but how much it hurts is an emotional reaction Pain activates both the sensory pathway to the somatosensory cortex & a pathway to the hypothalamus, amygdale, & cingulate cortex These areas are important for emotional responses Sensitization of Pain Body mechanisms exist that increase pain after tissue damage Pain sensitization is the result of the body releasing histamine, NGF, & other chemicals necessary to repair the body Nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs decrease pain by reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues

Pain & Emotion

Pain is a sensation but how much it hurts is an emotional reaction

Pain activates both the sensory pathway to the somatosensory cortex & a pathway to the hypothalamus, amygdale, & cingulate cortex

These areas are important for emotional responses

Sensitization of Pain

Body mechanisms exist that increase pain after tissue damage

Pain sensitization is the result of the body releasing histamine, NGF, & other chemicals necessary to repair the body

Nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs decrease pain by reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues

Other Aspects of Pain Pain Control Morphine & other opiates are primary for serious pain Problem with opiate addiction Placebos can sometimes relieve pain or at least subjective distress Itching The receptors have yet to be identified The release of histamines produces itching Itching directs you to scratch an area removing whatever is irritating the skin Itch is not a type of pain

Pain Control

Morphine & other opiates are primary for serious pain

Problem with opiate addiction

Placebos can sometimes relieve pain or at least subjective distress

Itching

The receptors have yet to be identified

The release of histamines produces itching

Itching directs you to scratch an area removing whatever is irritating the skin

Itch is not a type of pain

Taste Stimulating the Taste Buds Taste differs from flavor Taste Receptors Modified skin cells Taste receptors located in taste buds in the papillae on the surface of the tongue Kinds of Tastes 5 types of tastes Taste Coding in the Brain Taste depends on a pattern of responses across taste fibers

Stimulating the Taste Buds

Taste differs from flavor

Taste Receptors

Modified skin cells

Taste receptors located in taste buds in the papillae on the surface of the tongue

Kinds of Tastes

5 types of tastes

Taste Coding in the Brain

Taste depends on a pattern of responses across taste fibers

Olfaction Olfactory Receptors Olfactory Cells line the Olfactory Epithelium which is responsible for olfaction Each cell has cilia where receptor sites are located Replaced every month Axons of the olfactory receptors carry information to the olfactory bulb Olfactory bulb sends axons to several specific parts of the cortex with precise connections From the cortex, information is sent to other areas that control feeding & reproduction Olfactory Disorder Anosmia: the general lack of olfaction Specific Anosmia: the inability to smell a specific chemical

Olfactory Receptors

Olfactory Cells line the Olfactory Epithelium which is responsible for olfaction

Each cell has cilia where receptor sites are located

Replaced every month

Axons of the olfactory receptors carry information to the olfactory bulb

Olfactory bulb sends axons to several specific parts of the cortex with precise connections

From the cortex, information is sent to other areas that control feeding & reproduction

Olfactory Disorder

Anosmia: the general lack of olfaction

Specific Anosmia: the inability to smell a specific chemical

Vomeronasal Sensation Vomeronasal Organ Located near the olfactory receptors Have a different structure than the olfactory receptors Pheromones Chemicals released by an animal that affects the behavior of other members of the species VMO receptor is specialized to respond to only one pheromone VMO has no receptors in humans Humans respond to pheromones Y have at least one type of receptor in the olfactory mucosa Pheromones play a role in human & animal sexual behavior

Vomeronasal Organ

Located near the olfactory receptors

Have a different structure than the olfactory receptors

Pheromones

Chemicals released by an animal that affects the behavior of other members of the species

VMO receptor is specialized to respond to only one pheromone

VMO has no receptors in humans

Humans respond to pheromones Y have at least one type of receptor in the olfactory mucosa

Pheromones play a role in human & animal sexual behavior

Subliminal Perception Below Conscious Awareness Have No Influence on Behavior Exert subtle & demonstrable effects Can slightly influence behavior Conscious & unconscious material activate the same areas of the occipital & temporal cortex Conscious material activates the prefrontal & parietal cortices The consciousness of a stimulus depends on how strongly it arouses the brain

Below Conscious Awareness

Have No Influence on Behavior

Exert subtle & demonstrable effects

Can slightly influence behavior

Conscious & unconscious material activate the same areas of the occipital & temporal cortex

Conscious material activates the prefrontal & parietal cortices

The consciousness of a stimulus depends on how strongly it arouses the brain

Visual Subliminals

Neglect Opposite of Attention Caused by certain types of brain damage Spatial (Visual Neglect) Tendency to ignore the left side of the body & its surroundings, including visual, auditory, & touch Damage to superior temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere

Opposite of Attention

Caused by certain types of brain damage

Spatial (Visual Neglect)

Tendency to ignore the left side of the body & its

surroundings, including visual, auditory, & touch

Damage to superior temporal gyrus in the right

hemisphere

ADHD Characteristics: Distractibility, fidgetiness, impulsivity, mood swings, short temper, high sensitivity to stress, & impaired ability to make & follow plans Diagnosis Tasks Choice-delay task: choice between immediate reward or a larger reward later Stop signal task: wait for a signal & make a response as soon as the signal occurs unless another signal follows the 1 st signal which means to disregard the 1 st signal Attention blink task: watch a series of black letters with one blue letter flashed on the screen – another letter is designated as the probe letter & may or may not follow the blue letter – the task is to name the blue letter & state whether the probe letter came after the blue letter

Characteristics:

Distractibility, fidgetiness, impulsivity, mood swings, short temper, high sensitivity to stress, & impaired ability to make & follow plans

Diagnosis Tasks

Choice-delay task: choice between immediate reward or a larger reward later

Stop signal task: wait for a signal & make a response as soon as the signal occurs unless another signal follows the 1 st signal which means to disregard the 1 st signal

Attention blink task: watch a series of black letters with one blue letter flashed on the screen – another letter is designated as the probe letter & may or may not follow the blue letter – the task is to name the blue letter & state whether the probe letter came after the blue letter

ADHD Possible Causes ADHD runs in families One form of dopamine receptor gene (D 4 ) slightly more common in ADHD Brain volume 95% of normals with a smaller than average right prefrontal cortex & cerebellum Brain differences inconsistent Treatments Stimulant drugs (Ritalin or amphetamines) These increase the availability of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptors Attentiveness is increased, school performance & social relationships improved, & impulsiveness is decreased Behavioral techniques are used to supplement or substitute for drugs: lists, calendars, schedules, etc. to organize time, pacing strategies, & learning to relax They reduce distraction

Possible Causes

ADHD runs in families

One form of dopamine receptor gene (D 4 ) slightly more common in ADHD

Brain volume 95% of normals with a smaller than average right prefrontal cortex & cerebellum

Brain differences inconsistent

Treatments

Stimulant drugs (Ritalin or amphetamines)

These increase the availability of dopamine at the postsynaptic receptors

Attentiveness is increased, school performance & social relationships improved, & impulsiveness is decreased

Behavioral techniques are used to supplement or substitute for drugs: lists, calendars, schedules, etc. to organize time, pacing strategies, & learning to relax

They reduce distraction

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