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Published on December 14, 2007

Author: Janelle

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Slide1:  Chapter 14 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. World History: Connection to Today Slide2:  Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 14: The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy Section 2: The Renaissance Moves North Section 3: The Protestant Reformation Section 4: Reformation Ideas Spread Section 5: The Scientific Revolution World History: Connection to Today The Renaissance in Italy:  The Renaissance in Italy Why were the Italian city-states a favorable setting for a cultural rebirth? What was the Renaissance? What themes and techniques did Renaissance artists and writers explore? 1 What Was the Renaissance?:  What Was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was an explosion of cultural achievement in Europe which lasted from the 14th-16th centuries Renaissance means rebirth. It began in Italy. 1 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy?:  Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy? The Renaissance was marked by a new interest in the culture of ancient Rome. Italy had been the center of the Roman empire. The cities of Italy had survived the Middle Ages and grown into prosperous centers of trade and manufacturing. A wealthy merchant class in the Italian city-states stressed education and individual achievement and spent lavishly on the arts. Patrons are financial supporters Medicis-family that was a patron of the arts in Florence Florence produced an amazing number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and scientists. 1 Renaissance Italy :  Renaissance Italy 1 Humanism:  Humanism At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism. Humanism was based on the study of classical culture and focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues. Humanists studied the humanities, the subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome. They believed that education should stimulate creativity. One humanist: Desiderius Erasmus called for reform of the church and for the Bible to be translated from Latin into the language of ordinary people. 1 Renaissance Artists and Writers Explored New Themes and Techniques:  Renaissance Artists and Writers Explored New Themes and Techniques Wrote self-help books to help ambitious men and women rise in the Renaissance world Rejected Gothic style Adopted columns, domes, and arches that had been favored by the Greeks and Romans Learned perspective- Technique that gives a 3-D effect and makes distant objects appear smaller. Used shading to make objects look round and real Studied human anatomy Used live models WRITERS PAINTERS ARCHITECTS 1 Which one is which?:  Which one is which? Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art :  Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art Studied the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo Paintings blended Christian and classical styles Best known for paintings of the Madonna, the biblical mother of Jesus Talented sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome Made sketches of nature and of models Dissected corpses to learn how the human body worked Masterpieces include Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made sketches for flying machines and undersea boats RAPHAEL MICHELANGELO LEONARDO 1 Section 1 Assessment:  Renaissance thinkers a) explored religious themes from the past. b) did not value individual achievement. c) explored the human experience in the here and now. d) rejected humanist ideas. Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel? a) Leonardo b) Michelangelo c) Raphael d) none of the above Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. Section 1 Assessment 1 Section 1 Assessment:  1 Renaissance thinkers a) explored religious themes from the past. b) did not value individual achievement. c) explored the human experience in the here and now. d) rejected humanist ideas. Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel? a) Leonardo b) Michelangelo c) Raphael d) none of the above Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. Section 1 Assessment The Printing Revolution:  The Printing Revolution A printing revolution took place when: In 1456, Johann Gutenberg printed the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks. Movable type was developed twenty years later. IMPACT: Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce. With books more readily available, more people learned to read. Readers gained access to a broad range of knowledge and ideas. 2 Writers of the Northern Renaissance:  Writers of the Northern Renaissance Spanish author who wrote Don Quixote, which mocks romantic notions about medieval chivalry English poet who was the towering figure of Renaissance literature Wrote 37 plays that are still performed around the world His love of words vastly enriched the English language. SHAKESPEARE CERVANTES 2 The Protestant Reformation:  The Protestant Reformation How did abuses in the Church spark widespread criticism? How did Martin Luther challenge Catholic authority and teachings? What role did John Calvin play in the Reformation? 3 The Protestant Reformation:  The Protestant Reformation In the 1500s, calls for reform unleashed forces that would shatter Christian unity. The movement is known as the Protestant Reformation. People who joined the movement for reform called themselves Protestants, for those who “protested” papal authority. 3 Abuses in the Church:  Abuses in the Church Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. Popes fought long wars to protect the Papal States against invaders. Some clergy promoted the sale of indulgences. Popes led lavish lifestyles and spent a great deal of money on the arts. The Church increased fees for services such as weddings and baptisms to finance worldly projects. Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs. 3 The Teachings of Martin Luther:  The Teachings of Martin Luther Salvation is achieved through faith alone. Luther rejected Church doctrine that good deeds were necessary for salvation. The Bible is the sole source of religious truth. Luther denied other authorities, such as Church councils or the pope. All Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible. Luther rejected the idea that priests and Church officials had special powers. 3 Martin Luther:  Martin Luther Catholic monk and professor Saw corruption in the Catholic Church Went into action after seeing Johann Tetzel sell indulgences Nailed 95 theses (or statements) to the church door in Wittenberg. Churched ordered him to recant, summoned him to the Diet of Worms, excommunicated him and made him an outlaw. Luther’s ideas spread quickly in northern Germany and Scandinavia. :  Luther’s ideas spread quickly in northern Germany and Scandinavia. Many clergy saw Luther’s reforms as the answer to Church corruption. German princes hoped to throw off the rule of both the Church and the Holy Roman emperor. Germans supported Luther because of feelings of national loyalty. Peasants hoped that Luther would support social and economic change. Why Did Lutheranism Receive Widespread Support? 3 Spread of Luther’s ideas:  Spread of Luther’s ideas Peasants rallied around Luther and revolted to end serfdom Luther denounced and supported the end of the revolt. Thousands were killed. Peace of Augsburg German princes could decide if they wanted to be Catholic or Lutheran John Calvin:  John Calvin Calvin followed most of the teachings of Martin Luther. He also preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation. In 1541, Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva. A theocracy is a government run by Church leaders. By the late 1500s, Calvinism had taken root in Germany, France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland. In several of these countries, Calvinists faced opposition and persecution from other religious groups. The most important Protestant reformer to follow Martin Luther was John Calvin. 3 Section 3 Assessment:  Martin Luther taught that a) good deeds were necessary for salvation. b) priests and Church officials had special powers. c) the Bible was the sole source of religious truth. d) the pope was the sole source of religious truth. Which of the following is not true of John Calvin? a) He believed God knew who would achieve salvation. b) He rejected the idea of predestination. c) He set up a theocracy in Geneva. d) He followed many teachings of Martin Luther. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. Section 3 Assessment 3 Section 3 Assessment:  Section 3 Assessment 3 Martin Luther taught that a) good deeds were necessary for salvation. b) priests and Church officials had special powers. c) the Bible was the sole source of religious truth. d) the pope was the sole source of religious truth. Which of the following is not true of John Calvin? a) He believed God knew who would achieve salvation. b) He rejected the idea of predestination. c) He set up a theocracy in Geneva. d) He followed many teachings of Martin Luther. Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. Reformation Ideas Spread:  Reformation Ideas Spread What ideas did radical reformers support? Why did England form a new church? How did the Catholic Church reform itself? Why did some groups face persecution? 4 Radical Reformers:  Radical Reformers As the Reformation continued, hundreds of new Protestant sects sprang up. These sects often had ideas that were even more radical than those of Luther and Calvin. One radical group, the Anabaptists, rejected infant baptism. Some Anabaptists wanted to abolish private property. Others wanted use violence to speed up judgment day. Most called for religious tolerance and separation of Church and state. 4 England and the Church :  England and the Church In 1528, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage. The pope refused Henry’s request. Henry took the Church from the pope’s control and created the Church of England. Protestant King Edward VI brought Protestant reforms to England. Queen Mary wanted to restore Catholicism to England. She had hundreds of English Protestants burned at the stake. Queen Elizabeth forged a compromise between Protestants and Catholics. 4 Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation:  Causes and Effects of the Protestant Reformation 4 Immediate Effects Peasants’ Revolt Founding of Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Presbyterian, and other Protestant churches Weakening of Holy Roman Empire Luther calls for Jews to be expelled from Christian lands Long-Term Effects Religious wars in Europe Catholic Reformation Strengthening of the Inquisition Jewish migration to Eastern Europe Increased antisemitism Widespread Persecution:  Widespread Persecution During this period of heightened religious passion, both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance. Catholics killed Protestants and Protestants killed Catholics. Between 1450 and 1750, tens of thousands of people, mostly women, died as victims of witch hunts. In some places, Jews were forced to live in ghettos, or separate quarters of the city. In other places, they were expelled from Christian lands and their books and synagogues were burned. 4 Major European Religions about 1600:  Major European Religions about 1600 4 Section 4 Assessment:  Which English monarch had thousands of Protestants burned at the stake? a) Elizabeth b) Mary c) Henry VIII d) Edward VI Which of the following was not an effect of the Protestant Reformation? a) the Catholic Reformation b) Increased anti-Semitism c) religious wars in Europe d) the invention of the printing press Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. Section 4 Assessment 4 Section 4 Assessment:  Section 4 Assessment 4 Which English monarch had thousands of Protestants burned at the stake? a) Elizabeth b) Mary c) Henry VIII d) Edward VI Which of the following was not an effect of the Protestant Reformation? a) the Catholic Reformation b) Increased anti-Semitism c) religious wars in Europe d) the invention of the printing press Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. The Scientific Revolution:  The Scientific Revolution How did astronomers change the way people viewed the universe? What was the new scientific method? What advances did Newton and other scientists make? 5 Changing Views of the Universe:  Changing Views of the Universe Until the mid-1500s, Europeans accepted Ptolemy’s theory, that the Earth was the center of the universe. This theory matched the teachings of the Church. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe. In the late 1500s, Tycho Brahe set up an observatory and provided evidence to support Copernicus’ theory. Johannes Keppler proposed that each planet moved around the sun in an oval-shaped orbit called an ellipse. Galileo Galilei built a telescope and confirmed the heliocentric model. This discovery caused an uproar and Galileo was tried before the Inquisition. 5 The Scientific Method:  The Scientific Method This new approach to science depended on observation and experimentation. 5 Scientific Advances:  Scientific Advances Anthony von Leeuwenhoek perfected the microscope and was the first human to see cells and microorganisms. William Harvey described the circulation of blood for the first time. Ambroise Pare developed an ointment for preventing infection and a technique for stitching wounds. Andreas Vesalius published the first accurate study of human anatomy. Robert Boyle differentiated elements from compounds and explained the effects of temperature and pressure on gases. Isaac Newton proposed the law of gravity. The 1500s and 1600s saw breakthroughs in many branches of science. 5 Section 5 Assessment:  What is the first step of the scientific method? a) State a conclusion. b) Form a hypothesis. c) Analyze the data. d) State the problem. Who proposed the law of gravity? a) Robert Boyle b) William Harvey c) Isaac Newton d) Ambroise Pare Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here. 5 Section 5 Assessment Section 5 Assessment:  Section 5 Assessment 5 What is the first step of the scientific method? a) State a conclusion. b) Form a hypothesis. c) Analyze the data. d) State the problem. Who proposed the law of gravity? a) Robert Boyle b) William Harvey c) Isaac Newton d) Ambroise Pare Want to connect to the World History link for this section? Click Here.

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