Chap06

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Information about Chap06

Published on July 18, 2008

Author: Dr.Ravi

Source: slideshare.net

Chapter 6: Shell Programming Shell Scripts

Using the UNIX Shell as a Programming Objectives: After studying this lesson, you should be able to: Learn about shell variables, operators Write simple shell scripts to illustrate programming logic

After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

Learn about shell variables, operators

Write simple shell scripts to illustrate programming logic

My first Shell Script vi myfirstscript.sh #! /bin/csh set directory=`pwd` echo The date today is `date` echo The current directory is $directory chmod u+x myfirstscript.sh myfirstscript.sh

vi myfirstscript.sh

#! /bin/csh

set directory=`pwd`

echo The date today is `date`

echo The current directory is $directory

chmod u+x myfirstscript.sh

myfirstscript.sh

Using UNIX Shell Scripts UNIX shell scripts are text files that contain sequences of UNIX commands Like high-level source files, a programmer creates shell scripts with a text editor Shell scripts do not have to be converted into machine language by a compiler This is because the UNIX shell acts as an interpreter when reading script files

UNIX shell scripts are text files that contain sequences of UNIX commands

Like high-level source files, a programmer creates shell scripts with a text editor

Shell scripts do not have to be converted into machine language by a compiler

This is because the UNIX shell acts as an interpreter when reading script files

Using UNIX Shell Scripts Continued As an interpreter reads the statements in a program file, it immediately translates them into executable instructions, and causes them to run After you create a shell script, you simply tell the operating system that the file is a program that can be executed This is accomplished by using the chmod command to change the files’ mode

As an interpreter reads the statements in a program file, it immediately translates them into executable instructions, and causes them to run

After you create a shell script, you simply tell the operating system that the file is a program that can be executed

This is accomplished by using the chmod command to change the files’ mode

Using UNIX Shell Scripts Continued Further, the chmod command tells the computer who is allowed to use the file: the owner (u), the group (g), or all other users (o) Shell programs run less quickly than do compiled programs, because the shell must interpret each UNIX command inside the executable script file before it is executed

Further, the chmod command tells the computer who is allowed to use the file: the owner (u), the group (g), or all other users (o)

Shell programs run less quickly than do compiled programs, because the shell must interpret each UNIX command inside the executable script file before it is executed

The Programming Shell Commonly used shell in most variant of UNIX are: Bourne Shell ( sh ), first shell developed for UNIX Bourne Again Shell ( bash ), written by programmers of Free Software Foundation, open source shell from GNU Korn Shell ( ksh ), written by David Korn, superset of Bourne shell, not widely distributed. C Shell ( csh ), written by Bill Joy, the author of vi, shared much of the C language structure. Terminal Based C Shell ( tcsh ), enhanced version of the Berkeley UNIX C shell csh

Commonly used shell in most variant of UNIX are:

Bourne Shell ( sh ), first shell developed for UNIX

Bourne Again Shell ( bash ), written by programmers of Free Software Foundation, open source shell from GNU

Korn Shell ( ksh ), written by David Korn, superset of Bourne shell, not widely distributed.

C Shell ( csh ), written by Bill Joy, the author of vi, shared much of the C language structure.

Terminal Based C Shell ( tcsh ), enhanced version of the Berkeley UNIX C shell csh

The Programming Shell All Linux versions use the Bash shell (Bourne Again Shell) as the default shell All UNIX system include C shell and its predecessor Bourne shell.

All Linux versions use the Bash shell (Bourne Again Shell) as the default shell

All UNIX system include C shell and its predecessor Bourne shell.

Shell Programming programming features of the UNIX shell: Shell variables Operators Logic structures

programming features of the UNIX shell:

Shell variables

Operators

Logic structures

Shell Programming programming features of the UNIX shell: Shell variables : Your scripts often need to keep values in memory for later use. Shell variables are symbolic names that can access values stored in memory Operators : Shell scripts support many operators, including those for performing mathematical operations Logic structures : Shell scripts support sequential logic (for performing a series of commands), decision logic (for branching from one point in a script to another), looping logic (for repeating a command several times), and case logic (for choosing an action from several possible alternatives)

programming features of the UNIX shell:

Shell variables : Your scripts often need to keep values in memory for later use. Shell variables are symbolic names that can access values stored in memory

Operators : Shell scripts support many operators, including those for performing mathematical operations

Logic structures : Shell scripts support sequential logic (for performing a series of commands), decision logic (for branching from one point in a script to another), looping logic (for repeating a command several times), and case logic (for choosing an action from several possible alternatives)

Shell Programming programming features of the UNIX shell: Shell variables Operators Logic structures

programming features of the UNIX shell:

Shell variables

Operators

Logic structures

Variables Variables are symbolic names that represent values stored in memory The three types of variables discussed in this section are configuration variables , environment variables , and shell variables Use configuration variables to store information about the setup of the operating system, and do not change them You can set up environment variables with initial values that you can change as needed

Variables are symbolic names that represent values stored in memory

The three types of variables discussed in this section are configuration variables , environment variables , and shell variables

Use configuration variables to store information about the setup of the operating system, and do not change them

You can set up environment variables with initial values that you can change as needed

Variables Continued These variables, which UNIX reads when you log in, determine many characteristics of your session Shell variables are those you create at the command line or in a shell script Environment and configuration variables bear standard names, such as HOME, PATH, SHELL, USERNAME, and PWD (Configuration and environment variables are capitalized to distinguish them from user variables)

These variables, which UNIX reads when you log in, determine many characteristics of your session

Shell variables are those you create at the command line or in a shell script

Environment and configuration variables bear standard names, such as HOME, PATH, SHELL, USERNAME, and PWD

(Configuration and environment variables are capitalized to distinguish them from user variables)

Variables Continued To see a list of your environment variables : $ printenv or: $ printenv | more

To see a list of your environment variables :

$ printenv

or:

$ printenv | more

Variables Continued 1. Typical Environment Variables HOME : pathname of your home directory PATH : directories where shell is to look for commands USER : your user name PWD : your current working directory MAIL : pathname of your system mailbox SHELL : pathname of your shell 2. Variable contents are accessed using ‘ $ ’: e.g. $ echo $HOME

1. Typical Environment Variables

HOME : pathname of your home directory

PATH : directories where shell is to look for commands

USER : your user name

PWD : your current working directory

MAIL : pathname of your system mailbox

SHELL : pathname of your shell

2. Variable contents are accessed using ‘ $ ’:

e.g. $ echo $HOME

Variables Continued A shell variable take on the generalized form variable=value (except in the C shell). $ x=37; echo $x $ 37 $ unset x; echo $x The C shell uses the set statement set variables. $ set x = 37 You can set a pathname or a command to a variable or substitute to set the variable. $ set mydir=`pwd`; echo $mydir

A shell variable take on the generalized form variable=value (except in the C shell).

$ x=37; echo $x

$ 37

$ unset x; echo $x

The C shell uses the set statement set variables.

$ set x = 37

You can set a pathname or a command to a variable or substitute to set the variable.

$ set mydir=`pwd`; echo $mydir

Variables Continued To create lists: $ set Y = (UNL 123 CS251) To set a list element: $ set Y[2] = HUSKER To view a list element: $ echo $Y[2]

To create lists:

$ set Y = (UNL 123 CS251)

To set a list element:

$ set Y[2] = HUSKER

To view a list element:

$ echo $Y[2]

Variables Continued vi myinputs.sh #! /bin/csh echo Total number of inputs: $#argv echo First input: $argv[1] echo Second input: $argv[2] chmod u+x myinputs.sh myinputs.sh HUSKER UNL CSE

vi myinputs.sh

#! /bin/csh

echo Total number of inputs: $#argv

echo First input: $argv[1]

echo Second input: $argv[2]

chmod u+x myinputs.sh

myinputs.sh HUSKER UNL CSE

Shell Programming programming features of the UNIX shell: Shell variables Operators Logic structures

programming features of the UNIX shell:

Shell variables

Operators

Logic structures

Shell Operators The Bash shell operators are divided into three groups: defining and evaluating operators, arithmetic operators, and redirecting and piping operators

The Bash shell operators are divided into three groups: defining and evaluating operators, arithmetic operators, and redirecting and piping operators

Arithmetic Operators expr supports the following operators: arithmetic operators: +,-,*,/,% comparison operators: <, <=, ==, !=, >=, > boolean/logical operators: &, | parentheses: (, ) precedence is the same as C, Java

expr supports the following operators:

arithmetic operators: +,-,*,/,%

comparison operators: <, <=, ==, !=, >=, >

boolean/logical operators: &, |

parentheses: (, )

precedence is the same as C, Java

Arithmetic Operators (example) vi math.sh #!/bin/csh set count=5 set count=`expr $count + 1` echo $count chmod u+x math.sh math.sh

vi math.sh

#!/bin/csh

set count=5

set count=`expr $count + 1`

echo $count

chmod u+x math.sh

math.sh

Shell Programming programming features of the UNIX shell: Shell variables Operators Logic structures

programming features of the UNIX shell:

Shell variables

Operators

Logic structures

Shell Logic Structures The four basic logic structures needed for program development are: Sequential logic Decision logic Looping logic Case logic

The four basic logic structures needed for program development are:

Sequential logic

Decision logic

Looping logic

Case logic

Sequential Logic Sequential logic states that commands will be executed in the order in which they appear in the program The only break in this sequence comes when a branch instruction changes the flow of execution

Sequential logic states that commands will be executed in the order in which they appear in the program

The only break in this sequence comes when a branch instruction changes the flow of execution

Decision Logic Decision logic enables your program to execute a statement or series of statements only if a certain condition exists The if statement is the primary decision-making control structure in this type of logic

Decision logic enables your program to execute a statement or series of statements only if a certain condition exists

The if statement is the primary decision-making control structure in this type of logic

Decision Logic (continued) if-then if ( expr ) simple-command if-then-else if ( expr ) then command-set-1 [else command-set-2] endif

if-then

if ( expr ) simple-command

if-then-else

if ( expr ) then

command-set-1

[else

command-set-2]

endif

Decision Logic (continued) A simple example #!/bin/csh if ($#argv != 2) then echo $0 needs two parameters! echo You are inputting $#argv parameters. else set par1 = $argv[1] set par2 = $argv[2] endif

A simple example

#!/bin/csh

if ($#argv != 2) then

echo $0 needs two parameters!

echo You are inputting $#argv parameters.

else

set par1 = $argv[1]

set par2 = $argv[2]

endif

Decision Logic (continued) Another example: #! /bin/csh # number is positive, zero or negative echo &quot;enter a number:&quot; set number = $< if ( $number < 0 ) then echo &quot;negative&quot; else if ( $number == 0 ) then echo zero else echo positive endif

Another example:

#! /bin/csh

# number is positive, zero or negative

echo &quot;enter a number:&quot;

set number = $<

if ( $number < 0 ) then

echo &quot;negative&quot;

else if ( $number == 0 ) then

echo zero

else

echo positive

endif

Decision Logic (continued) Another example: #!/bin/csh if {( grep UNIX $argv[1] > /dev/null )} then echo UNIX occurs in $argv[1] else echo No! echo UNIX does not occur in $argv[1] endif Redirect intermediate results into >/dev/null, instead of showing on the screen.

Another example:

#!/bin/csh

if {( grep UNIX $argv[1] > /dev/null )} then

echo UNIX occurs in $argv[1]

else

echo No!

echo UNIX does not occur in $argv[1]

endif

Redirect intermediate results into >/dev/null, instead of showing on the screen.

Looping Logic In looping logic , a control structure (or loop) repeats until some condition exists or some action occurs You will learn two looping mechanisms in this section: the for loop and the while loop You use the for command for looping through a range of values. It causes a variable to take on each value in a specified set, one at a time, and perform some action while the variable contains each individual value

In looping logic , a control structure (or loop) repeats until some condition exists or some action occurs

You will learn two looping mechanisms in this section: the for loop and the while loop

You use the for command for looping through a range of values.

It causes a variable to take on each value in a specified set, one at a time, and perform some action while the variable contains each individual value

The while Loop A different pattern for looping is created using the while statement The while statement best illustrates how to set up a loop to test repeatedly for a matching condition The while loop tests an expression in a manner similar to the if statement As long as the statement inside the brackets is true, the statements inside the do and done statements repeat

A different pattern for looping is created using the while statement

The while statement best illustrates how to set up a loop to test repeatedly for a matching condition

The while loop tests an expression in a manner similar to the if statement

As long as the statement inside the brackets is true, the statements inside the do and done statements repeat

Looping Logic while ( expr ) command_set end foreach var ( worddlist ) command_set end

while ( expr )

command_set

end

foreach var ( worddlist )

command_set

end

Looping Logic Program: #!/bin/csh foreach person (Bob Susan Joe Gerry) echo Hello $person end Output: Hello Bob Hello Susan Hello Joe Hello Gerry

Program:

#!/bin/csh

foreach person (Bob Susan Joe Gerry)

echo Hello $person

end

Output:

Hello Bob

Hello Susan

Hello Joe

Hello Gerry

Looping Logic Adding integers from 1 to 10 #!/bin/csh set i=1 set sum=0 while ($i <= 10) echo Adding $i into the sum. set sum=`expr $sum + $i` set i=`expr $i + 1` end echo The sum is $sum.

Adding integers from 1 to 10

#!/bin/csh

set i=1

set sum=0

while ($i <= 10)

echo Adding $i into the sum.

set sum=`expr $sum + $i`

set i=`expr $i + 1`

end

echo The sum is $sum.

Switch Logic The switch logic structure simplifies the selection of a match when you have a list of choices It allows your program to perform one of many actions, depending upon the value of a variable

The switch logic structure simplifies the selection of a match when you have a list of choices

It allows your program to perform one of many actions, depending upon the value of a variable

Switch Logic switch ( var ) case string1: command_set_1 breaksw case string2: command_set_2 breaksw default command_set_3 endsw

switch ( var )

case string1:

command_set_1

breaksw

case string2:

command_set_2

breaksw

default

command_set_3

endsw

Switch Logic #!/bin/csh if ($#argv == 0 ) then echo &quot;No arguments supplied...exiting&quot; else switch ($argv[1]) case [yY]: echo Argument one is yes. breaksw case [nN]: echo Argument one is no. breaksw default: echo Argument one is neither yes nor no. breaksw endsw endif

#!/bin/csh

if ($#argv == 0 ) then

echo &quot;No arguments supplied...exiting&quot;

else

switch ($argv[1])

case [yY]:

echo Argument one is yes.

breaksw

case [nN]:

echo Argument one is no.

breaksw

default:

echo Argument one is neither yes nor no.

breaksw

endsw

endif

Chapter Summary A high-level language must be converted into a low-level (machine) language before the computer can execute it The shell interprets UNIX shell scripts UNIX shell scripts, created with the vi or other editor, contain instructions that do not need to be written from scratch, but rather can be selectively chosen from the operating system’s inventory of executable commands

A high-level language must be converted into a low-level (machine) language before the computer can execute it

The shell interprets UNIX shell scripts

UNIX shell scripts, created with the vi or other editor, contain instructions that do not need to be written from scratch, but rather can be selectively chosen from the operating system’s inventory of executable commands

Chapter Summary Section A Continued Linux shells are derived from the UNIX Bourne, Korn, and C shells UNIX keeps three types of variables: Configuration Environment Shell The shell supports numerous operators, including many for performing arithmetic operations The logic structures supported by the shell are sequential , decision , looping , and case

Linux shells are derived from the UNIX Bourne, Korn, and C shells

UNIX keeps three types of variables:

Configuration

Environment

Shell

The shell supports numerous operators, including many for performing arithmetic operations

The logic structures supported by the shell are sequential , decision , looping , and case

Homework 1 Please refer to handout.

Please refer to handout.

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