chap 18 web

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Information about chap 18 web

Published on October 26, 2007

Author: Heng


The Rise of Russia Chapter 18:  The Rise of Russia Chapter 18 Map Exercise 18.1: Russian Expansion under the early Tsars, 1462-1548 (page 407) Russia under Peter the Great (page 509):  Map Exercise 18.1: Russian Expansion under the early Tsars, 1462-1548 (page 407) Russia under Peter the Great (page 509) 1. What city-state formed the core of the Russian Empire? 2. Where did Russia expand first? Later? 3. How would you describe Siberia? 4. What lands has Russia acquired since 1598? Map Exercise 18.2: Russian Holdings by 1800 (page 414):  Map Exercise 18.2: Russian Holdings by 1800 (page 414) 1. Using the map at the back of the book, how have geography, climate & distance directed and limited Russian expansion? 2. How might geography, climate & distance affect the governance of Russia? 3. Using the map on 325 & 409, what states probably opposed Russian expansion? Slide4:  Ivan lll (the Great) from Moscow – liberate from Mongols - used nationalism & Orthodox loyalties - by 1480, large, independent state - reduced culture & economy - left local administration alone Mongol Legacy literacy declines economy agricultural Ivan restores centralized rule - supervises church Russia is 3rd Rome Expansionism under the Tsars Ivan lV (the Terrible) - kills nobility (boyars) on charge of conspiracy Slide5:  Patterns of Expansion focus on Central Asia - To Caspian Sea & Ural Mountains 1500s – to Siberia Cossacks (peasant adventurers) - occupy new lands nobles & bureaucrats receive land grants in territories increases agricultural lands & labor sources Slide6:  slavery exists until 1700s trading connections with Asian neighbors eliminate independent Central Asia as source of nomadic invasions becomes a multicultural state Muslims not forced to assimilate to Russian culture Slide7:  Western Contact tsars carefully manage contacts with West (know they are behind) diplomatic missions establish trading contacts (with British merchants) Italian artists build churches & Kremlin Slide8:  no lasting constraints on tsar’s powers 1613 chose a Romanov to be tsar Time of Troubles boyars try to control government Sweden & Poland seize territory tsar Michael restores internal order - drive out foreign invaders expansion – Ukraine - south to Ottoman borders tsar Alexis abolishes assemblies - restores state control of church exiles “Old Believers” to Siberia Slide9:  First Westernization, 1690-1790 land empire Peter the Great - change economy & culture - imitate Western ideas - he traveled to West & brought artisans back autocratic ruler increased power of the state - western-style military - secret police hostilities with Ottomans defeat Sweden for Baltic port helps Russia become a factor in European affairs capital – St. Petersburg Slide10:  Westernization influenced politics, economics, culture bureaucracy & military reorganized - navy created - council of nobles eliminated provincial governors & town councils under royal authority law codes systemized tax system reformed (increased burden on peasants) rewards for using serfs in manufacturing Slide11:  no more importing of military needs culture reforms - change old customs - nobles shave beards, wear western style clothes increase education in technical subjects & math elite do become “westernized” - position of upper class women improves changes don’t include ordinary people Westernization encouraged autocratic rule changes resisted Slide12:  Catherine the Great change resumes under her rule (1762-1796) Pugachev peasant rebellion led to extending central authority brought enlightenment ideas to Russia nobles receive new power over serfs more interested in strong central (royal) authority banned foreign & domestic political writing (French Revolution) territories in Central Asia gained form Ottomans Slide13:  pushed colonization in Siberia & claimed Alaska explored western coast of North America helped partition Poland tsars had completed creating a strong central state still world’s greatest land empire Slide14:  Russian society actually very different from West serfdom & strong peasant culture Russian nobility important small group of great landholders lived Western style lives in cities Slide15:  Serfs before Mongols – peasants relatively free 1500s – encourage serfdom to control them 1649 – serfdom hereditary other laws tie serfs to land, give landlords more authority bought, sold, punished Slide16:  Eastern Europe peasants similar - work on large estates growing grain for export owners then bought luxury goods few rights – village governments control part of life poor & illiterate pay high taxes condition deteriorates throughout 1700s Slide17:  Trade & Economics 95% population rural few artisans (most manufacturing rural based) most trade handled by Westerners - few merchants Peter’s reforms increase trade - yet nobility prevent a strong commercial class strengths – revenue good enough for expanding empire commerce with Central Asia ag & manufacturing methods remain traditional Slide18:  Social Unrest end of 1700s - reformers criticism of backwardness urge end of serfdom peasants unhappy - blame landlords - stay loyal to tsar rebellion – Pugachev in 1770s How did the Mongol occupation affect Russian Civilization?:  How did the Mongol occupation affect Russian Civilization? Moscow princes gained political experience from being tax collectors for Mongols never reshaped basic Russian values (Mongols more interested in tributes not governing) most remained Christian local issues handled locally reduced vigor of Russian cultural life lowered literacy among priests economic life deteriorated (become purely agricultural) dependent on peasant labor What was the nature of Russian expansion under the Ivans?:  What was the nature of Russian expansion under the Ivans? focus on central Asia desire to push former Mongol overlords back south to Caspian Sea, east to Ural mountains & beyond recruited peasants to migrate to seized land (Cossacks) expansion territories have frontier quality move into western Siberia offers tsars a way to reward loyal nobles (give them estates in new territories) provides new agricultural areas & sources of labor eliminates independent central Asia adds to Russia diverse people – especially Muslim (makes it multicultural) What was the extent of Westernization under Peter the Great?:  What was the extent of Westernization under Peter the Great? streamline bureaucracy & military structure improve army’s weaponry, build navy provincial governors appointed, town councils elected systemized law codes, revise tax system build up mining & metal industries (means to maintain military on own) no urbanizing or growing commercial class cut off Russian elite from traditions, enhance state power culture – cut off beards, western style clothes, ballet provide more education in math & technical subjects improve conditions of upper class women selective changes (didn’t affect ordinary people) no wage labor, export economy economic development to support military not commercial What was the extent of Westernization under Catherine the Great?:  What was the extent of Westernization under Catherine the Great? Western style art & architecture have nobles tour West & be educated there tried to avoid cultural influences from West involvement in European affairs – partitioning of Poland looked into ideas of enlightenment, imported French philosophers reform commissions to discuss new law codes didn’t do as much Westernization as Peter What was the nature of Russian serfdom?:  What was the nature of Russian serfdom? power of nobility increases 1600 – 1700s gives government a way to satisfy nobility & regulate peasants when govt. didn’t have the means to rule peasants directly had been basically free farmers before Mongols serfs tied to land, hereditary status, born to it close to slavery, serfs could be bought & sold, punished, essentially enslave their own people whole villages could be sold as manufacturing labor did use village governments to regulate lives, rely on community ties illiterate & poor paid high taxes, owed labor to landlords or government (obrok) economic & legal situation of the peasantry deteriorated Catherine turned government of the serfs to landlords Why did Russia become economically dependent on the West?:  Why did Russia become economically dependent on the West? 95% population rural very small merchant class European trade handled by Westerners shipping by Westerners nobility prevents emergence of merchant class export of raw materials – small manufacturing agricultural methods very traditional little motivation among peasantry for improvement (never saw any of the gains) What is the basis for the culture of the Russian masses?:  What is the basis for the culture of the Russian masses? Orthodox Christianity village life serfdom agriculture taxes What characteristics did Eastern Europe share with Russia?:  What characteristics did Eastern Europe share with Russia? coerced labor used to produce grain for export Western merchants bring in manufactured goods & luxury items serfs taxed & policed by landlords intensification of estate agriculture & serf labor eastern Europe starts to be economically subordinate to the West Discuss the similarities & differences between the development of the Russian Empire from 1480-1800 & the expansion of the west during the same period.:  Discuss the similarities & differences between the development of the Russian Empire from 1480-1800 & the expansion of the west during the same period. both based on military superiority over less technically advanced people economic zones along the frontiers & a colonial system incorporating ethnic diversity resulted Russian different – created a land-based empire, lacked mercantile ships or navy failed to achieve economic parity with West did not cause demographic disaster like in the Americas did not establish economic dominance over frontiers failed to develop merchant class, state in charge of capitalizing ventures retention of an agricultural system more like dependent economic zone retained coercive labor system, depended on export of raw materials & imported manufactured goods Discuss the impact of Westernization in Russia during the 17th & 18th c. & whether the process overcame the separation of Russia & the West.:  Discuss the impact of Westernization in Russia during the 17th & 18th c. & whether the process overcame the separation of Russia & the West. introduced Western art forms, mandated Western style clothing Western style political organization used to establish a tsarist autocracy economic reforms enabled development of industry essential to military economic development based on exploitation of peasants Westernization failed to overcome separation b/t Russia & West b/c reforms only affected nobility masses rely on Orthodox Church for cultural influence retained rigid serfdom (unlike development of proletariat in West) drawn toward global trading network as a dependent zone

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