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Changing the Rules of the Game - ACM

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Information about Changing the Rules of the Game - ACM
Sports

Published on February 25, 2014

Author: BrookeHundley

Source: slideshare.net

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Female sports fans are increasing in number, but remain a largely untapped market for professional sports organizations, due to the historical divide between the genders that still exists in contemporary society. This paper argues this demographic remains unattainable due to a host of existing gender barriers. These barriers can be best defined by clear categories, including a threatened male perspective, a lack of male involvement, an antiquated definition of sports fandom and inadequate research on gender differences in sports consumption, divides among the blogging community, and a dearth of marketplace knowledge on interactive online and offline content that women find engaging. This paper addresses how each of these categories specifically limits female involvement in professional sports spectatorship and suggests ways in which these barriers can be overcome. With the right cultivation, women’s social relationship to sports may very well challenge the masculine understanding of what it means to be an “authentic” sports fan, and provide an alternative understanding to how we can utilize interactive technology to create an open community for all.
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Changing the Rules of the Game [Gender Differences in Sports Consumption and How Interactive Technology Can Empower the Female Sports Fan] Brooke Hundley Elon University 1720 Old St. Marks Church Rd Apt. 43E Burlington, NC 27215 1(719) 238-9152 bhundley@elon.edu ABSTRACT Female sports fans are increasing in number, but remain a largely untapped market for professional sports organizations, due to the historical divide between the genders that still exists in contemporary society. This paper argues this demographic remains unattainable due to a host of existing gender barriers. These barriers can be best defined by clear categories, including a threatened male perspective, a lack of male involvement, an antiquated definition of sports fandom and inadequate research on gender differences in sports consumption, divides among the blogging community, and a dearth of marketplace knowledge on interactive online and offline content that women find engaging. This paper addresses how each of these categories specifically limits female involvement in professional sports spectatorship and suggests ways in which these barriers can be overcome. With the right cultivation, women’s social relationship to sports may very well challenge the masculine understanding of what it means to be an “authentic” sports fan, and provide an alternative understanding to how we can utilize interactive technology to create an open community for all. Keywords Gender and sport spectatorship, interactive technology, sports fandom 1. INTRODUCTION Women in America have made tremendous strides towards equality in the last hundred years. The growth of female prosperity has propelled its way through society with the passage of laws equalizing the right to vote, the right to an equal pay, and even the right to play sports on a level equal to men, while simultaneously thrusting women past men in numbers of college degree holders and household breadwinners (Rosin, 2010). Women control approximately two-thirds of disposable income and influence 88 percent of all purchases (Clark, Apostolopoulou, and Gladden, 2009). Despite these shifts in the power dynamic, gender bias has continued to permeate society from classrooms to the workplace. One is hard pressed to find a more antagonistic environment or a more entrenched male culture, than in that of the sports community. While millions of female athletes have benefited from the implementation of Title IX to actively participate in sports, society has only just begun to find value in the females in attendance at professional sporting events that simply want to be part of the fan collective. 2. DISCUSSION 2.1 Gender Assumptions in Sport Over the growth of professional sports as an accessible pastime for the American family, female supporters have shown up in strong numbers, yet male devotees at these sporting events have long carried a negative bias and a sense of supremacy, when acknowledging this female presence (Crawford and Gosling, 2004). Some male sport spectators even go so far as to utilize derogatory labels for females in attendance, citing female spectatorship as strictly related to a desire to lust after the players. However, little documented evidence supports these male characterizations. These hostile reactions instead likely result from fear of losing a protected male domain to female takeover, a loss of further masculinity in an ever-changing landscape (Rosin, 2010). Crawford and Gosling (2004) investigated Manchester Storm ice hockey fans, and found few differences in knowledge and commitment between the genders, or that the physical attractiveness of players performed any significant role in attracting women to the sport. On the contrary, data from their female interviewees advised the sports community that female fans are actually incredibly dedicated in support and loyalty to their team and knowledgeable about the sport as a whole. Still, female sports fans often remain ostracized as though they are impeding on the male community, and are labeled as inauthentic and undedicated in their support time and time again by male observers. By depicting a female presence with a derogatory label such as ice hockey’s “puck bunny” (a specific name for a groupie), male sports fans degrade the value of the female fan as having no worth except for engagement in sexual promiscuity, further isolating women from the robust sports community (p.478). This isolation coupled with the perpetual inaccuracy that women are not interested in sports creates a realm of male power and privilege that feels completely off-limits to the female gender (Kane, forthcoming). Approximately 50 million women avidly follow professional sports and 58 percent (as of 2002) claim themselves as avid sports fans (Bush et al., 2005). These hefty numbers indicate the female sports fan base is not of trivial size or stature. Women are also not wanting to just watch other women compete; rather, women list the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and the National Basketball Association (NBA) prominently in their definition of sports they find most appealing. In the NFL community alone, the effects of the female purse strings can be felt as women comprise 44 percent of the NFL’s fan base and buy 70 percent of the leagues licensed products, not to mention the 40 million women who watch NFL games weekly (Bush et al., 2005). However, there are still many sports for which women are regulated to nothing more than a casual onlooker. Hoeber and Kerwin (2013) write, “it is assumed a man is a sport fan unless he says he is not. A woman is assumed to not be a sport fan, unless she proves she is one” (p. 328). The very fact that women are expected to qualify their deserved presence at a sporting event dictates their role in the sports community as one of less significance and less clout than their male counterparts. Women have different collective reasons for attending a sporting event than males, and believe appropriate fan behavior to include spending time with family, supporting a spouse or boyfriend, and socializing with other women (Hoeber & Kerwin, 2013). Men however, identify genuine sports fandom as enjoying playing sports, or acquiring sports information, in other words, actively participating in the game (Antunovic & Hardin,

2012). These seemingly insignificant gender differences create impediments to an all-encompassing definition of a true sports fan. Women then find themselves struggling to be identified as authentic while not having an understanding as to what the term truly means, apart from highly masculinized definitions. These social stigmas leech into the subconscious to the point that gender bias even materializes in female-to-female interactions questioning each other’s authenticity. In Hoeber and Kerwin’s (2013) research female sports fans stated they found themselves unwelcoming or unaccepting of other women who attended the games, making derogatory statements against females not abiding by traditional sports fan behavior, and judgmentally classifying other female spectators as inauthentic “simply by their dress, their conversations, or their presumed lack of knowledge” (p.334). This further marginalizes females, as insecurity about their own credentials with regards to fan authenticity shine through. Thus one questions whether sports will remain a fixture of the male realm forever; a protected interest against the rise of women in other areas of life. Research thus far has suggested that female fans do not fit comfortably into predetermined notions of what it means to be a sports fan, so what do female sports fans have in common and how can female interests complement rather than infringe upon male sports fan participation? Research on female and male sports consumption motives by James and Ridinger (2012) uncovers that males are more entrenched in the emotional aspects of the game, connecting with the team on an empathetic level, experiencing both joy or anguish with wins or losses, and have a deeper investment in the game due to an upbringing heavily involved in playing sports. This emphasizes the inherent technical aspects of the game as heavily coveted by the male demographic. Women, however, have a broader enjoyment of sports and can find enjoyment in cheering on a team and the camaraderie of watching sports with friends and family. Even in an era of globalization, female fans feel just as much attachment to the ‘local club’ as their male counterparts, accentuating local community as a catalyst for female sports fan growth (Pope, 2011). Both genders can find common ground in equal enjoyment of the action, drama, and escapism of sport, filling in the gender gap piece by piece. 2.2 The Importance of Men Most of the studies referenced thus far on the subject of gender biases and barriers to the growth of female sports fans have cited men and their perceptions of women as an obstacle to equality in the sports fans community. However, these same men that appear to impede the growth of female sports fans in other studies can play a vital role in the development of a love of sports in many females’ lives. Pope & Kirk (2012) explore this phenomenon in their research on three generations of female football fans. Whether it’s encouraging them to play sports to learn indispensable skills or providing opportunities for them to become involved as an active fan, male family members contribute greatly to girls’ exposure to sports culture. Male role models played an important socialization role for female football fans across the generations, with three-quarters of women in the study citing a male or males as key figures in their becoming a fan during their youth, with the father cited as the most influential figure for nearly half of all women. This speaks to the vital role that male figures can play in developing a female sports fan audience, and highlights a need for men to be involved from the adolescent stage of women to nurture an interest in sports and spark a lifelong passion. For those that miss the opportunity to be cultivated into sports fandom at an early age, males still played a dominant role. Male partners or friends are the dominant introducers of live sport and sports fandom to women. Thus, in order to overcome gender divisions in the next generation, it is vital to bring males into the fold to encourage young women to actively pursue their interests in the world of sports fandom. Familial males are not the only relationships worth drawing upon for the growth of the female sports fan market. College aged males are also important stakeholders in the influx of females to sports fandom. Research on this demographic by Wann, Schinner & Keenan (2001) showcased that male college students with a high interest in sports were most attracted to female sports fans with equally high interest in enjoyment of sport overall, while males with no interest in sport were still most attracted to females with high interest in sport and high interest in the local team. This may seem to contradict previously referenced studies on derogatory male behavior toward women at professional sporting events, but rather this research is focused on the general enjoyment of sport within personal relationship building. This study opens the door to communicating the value of women in male sports culture. Women who like sports are generally seen in a positive light among their male college-aged peers, can bond with their male peers over an understanding of the importance of the game, and can bridge the connective networking gap between males not interested in sports and the sports community. All of these elements assist in redefining the role of women and sports fandom. 2.3 Youth and the Sports Market Alongside gender, age plays a role in the adoption of sports fandom and the growth of a global sports audience, and nowhere is that more evident than in one of the fastest growing demographics in America: Generation Y. While there are no exact ages for this group, at its core are those born between 1980 and 1994. Marketers are finding more value in reaching this younger audience to shape the consumer market from an early age. Bush, Bush, Clark & Bush (2009) investigated the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) behavior among the growing female teenager segment in the sports market and found that “buzz marketing” can have a profound effect on consumer engagement, purchases, and satisfaction. With the Internet eclipsing television as the media choice for teens, and the growth of teenage females interested in sport, the utilization of viral marketing and exchanges between females inviting one another to actively participate in the sports community is pivotal. Not only are young women spending more time playing, watching and thinking about sports than generations before, they are also more apt to recommend products and services to their friends that were endorsed by their favorite athletes. A strong positive sports influence carefully constructed to encourage and empower, rather than manipulate, during these pivotal teen years could provide young women with self-confidence and leadership skills that will have them spreading the word about the importance of sports. Further research into this age demographic was orchestrated by Bednall, Valos, Adam, & McLeod (2012) in their investigation into how to motivate Generation Y to attend sporting events. Those in this demographic who grew up in a family that supported a particular team or sport were most likely to stay fans so long as their interests continue to be cultivated and other interests did not become more important. Meanwhile, for those who without that upbringing, researchers found if sports are made sufficiently entertaining by incorporating the presence of friends, rewarding attendance at previous matches, and providing a mix of social activities before and after the game, like tailgating, they could appeal to both sides of the population. Sports organizations need to promote the game, but understand that if the fan base is to grow they must look at the whole environment of the sporting event and how to integrate activities

that enhance the event before, during, and after. Once fans have an enjoyable experience, they are likely to become fans for life as past attendance was found to be the best predictor of future attendance. 2.4 Sports Marketing Mishaps Traditional sports programming has long sought after 18-49 year old males as the demographic most interested in watching sports. What began as a means of smart marketing to the sole financial decision makers of the household has transitioned into an antiquated practice as women make up a significant portion of the sports spectator marketplace. Neverson (2010) examines research on Canada’s WTSN network, a company that rose and fell solely on an outward attempt at marketing only to a female audience. WTSN was designed to provide female sports coverage constantly and solely to a female sports fan audience, resulting in a well-orchestrated failure. But when asked what contributed to the networks inability to effectively reach an audience, female media professionals cited the only problem as women not being the type to watch a female fan-focused sports network. In contrast, male media professionals referenced the problem as sports being only a relationship building activity for women, an endeavor just to spend time with their husband or boyfriend. For others, even just trying to target women exclusively conjures feelings of forcing a truce among the genders, describing the branding of ‘for women only’ as one in which women are compelled to watch to keep the network alive for their gender’s behalf. Ultimately WTSN, like many other marketing approaches, failed because it did not do enough diligent research on where the female sports market audience resides, what they want to watch, and what the barriers are to making them regular sports programming consumers. They were not the last however, as other marketing mishaps include the NHL’s “Inside the Warrior” ad campaign that was, in part, envisioned for and marketed to target female audiences (Gee, forthcoming). Even in an age of advanced scholarship and demographic tools, marketers can find themselves encompassing stereotypical gender representations and bias in their approach. Within the NHL’s “Inside the Warrior” campaign two male advertising agents failed to see past the clichéd personas of women as seeking sport only for the sexual attraction they have for the players and showcased this derogatory notion of women as the focal point of their campaign. This advertisement depicted a female persona with an inauthenticity in her fandom, lusting after the male star and giving weight to the inherent lack of knowledge on female sports fans, even among those that market directly to this demographic. This campaign marched outdated and misogynistic perceptions about the motivations behind female sports fans into the open, further serving to uphold masculine superiority within the hockey subculture. Additionally, the largely unapologetic responses from the executives highlight the inability of a bias so culturally entrenched to even be recognized by the very participants in its livelihood. Without quality research into gender differences and female desires in the sports marketplace, archaic ideologies will continue to persist and thwart the growth of female sports fans. 2.5 Sports Media, Interactivity, and Gender Sports media has changed the way viewers and sports collide, by popularizing specific sporting events, elevating the notoriety of players, and redefining how viewers can watch the game. Professional sports covers terrain from the simple gaze of a passive onlooker checking scores in a newspaper to an online experience that allows the viewer to be completely immersed within the game via an assortment of camera angles, neverbefore-seen interviews, and ‘private’ locker room dialogue (Schirato, 2012). Media interactivity is luring new audiences to the game and offering them customizable options with personalized decision-making on the content they want. This customization can be coupled with user ease in manipulating content and transferring information, that has never before been available within traditional media platforms (McMahan, Hovland, and McMillan, 2009). Sports websites offer more information than ever before to give even the most unknowledgeable person an opportunity to learn by exploring information on rules, history, teams, goals, and by extension turning casual onlookers into sports fans and consumers (Schirato, 2012). The interactive dimension of these technologies offers optimism for new outreach to largely untapped markets like female sports fans. No sporting event reaches a grander audience over multiplatform support than that of the Olympics. The 2008 Beijing Games was the most watched television event in U.S. history, and utilized an extensive collection of online sports content, with users viewing 1.3 billion pages and watching more than 75 million video streams (Tang and Cooper, 2012). Second only to the Olympics in coverage and viewers, the Super Bowl remains one of the most-watched broadcasts in the world, with over 93 million viewers tuning into the 2007 broadcast and females representing 45 percent of the total viewing audience (Clark, Apostolopoulou and Gladden, 2009). The results of Tang & Cooper’s (2012) research on the Olympics divulges that, despite differences in sports media consumption, gender neutralization resonates in amount of viewing consumption and media devices used. Perhaps this can be attributed to the Olympics being a mega-sporting event, or the compelling humaninterest stories that supersede other events. Regardless, the labeling of sports fans and defining their authenticity takes a backseat to an all-accepting environment at the Olympics. Paired alongside this data, Clark, Apostolopoulou and Gladden’s (2009) investigation into the Super Bowl viewing patterns supports this depiction of universal sports viewership. Super Bowl viewers were found to appreciate NFL games as a social experience regardless of gender. Males coveted the competitiveness of the teams playing and the love of the game itself, while women appreciated the pageantry of the event to include halftime shows and orchestrated coin tosses. These elements showcase that men and women can have shared differences in viewership but still find aspects of professional sports broadcasts that appeal to their uniqueness. Interests outside the game such as halftime entertainment or unique storytelling can serve as an entry point for females interested in, but not avid about, sports. Interactive technologies and emergent online environments are carving out new female territories like never before. Some attribute this to the asynchronous and interactive nature of the Internet as more accommodating to women than other forms of mass communication (Clavio and Kian, 2010). These new tools not only offer audiences an opportunity to dive inside a sporting event, but can also provide escapism from the everyday life. Gamification, or the integration of gaming elements into existing online spaces, has produced successful results in attracting and maintaining repeat visitors. A game design addition to the digital sports landscape has the potential to invite women into the sports space through a representative character in an environment free of stigmatization and gender bias (Royse, Lee, Undrahbuyan, Hopson, and Consalvo, 2007). Rising rapidly alongside interactive technology are social networking sites and online communities to attract sports fans to

a digital meeting space. But who is engaging with online media, social networking sites, and participating in interactive environments? Correa, Hinsley & De Zuniga (2010)’s work reveals that more than half of America’s teens and young adults use these sites and more than one-third of all Internet users engage in these activities. A new generation of up and coming digital natives may lead to more individualized customization and personalization of digital sports platforms, especially for the female consumer. 2.6 Blogging and Sports Culture Blogging has presented itself as a means to effectively transmit news, opinions, and ideas in an online setting (Clavio and Kim, 2010). Within the sports blogging environment however, there exists a dangerous fragmentation of female and male community, as well as sound territorial impulses for males to resurrect female stereotyping and create a sexualized online environment. Research by Merrill, Bryant, Dolan & Chang (forthcoming) on mainstream sports blogs, targeted towards male sports fans aged 18-49, found rampant themes among blogs and user comments including the recurring objectification of women, questioning of female sports professionals credibility and desire to seek sexual attention, and an attitude that ‘boys will be boys’ as it pertains to derogatory behavior towards women by sports professionals. This rampant misogynist and chauvinistic behavior online also highlights the continued existence of the male superiority complex as it relates to women entering into the sports space. This attitude is further heightened online where a minority of men in everyday life might produce a louder collective voice. This voice then articulates opinions one might never dare say in person rallied by the positive feedback of other males to generate a single group opinion hosted by the blogging community. It’s important to note that contributors to sites such as these will continue to impose barricades against any females who pursue involvement in the sports world unless the public at large admonishes this negative behavior. Despite the negativity and territorial behavior of many mainstream sports blogs targeting men, their growth in female use for interactive communication has begun to chip away at the ‘good old boys’ club. New sports blogs are inviting female involvement and impact by directly tailoring themselves to the female sports fan, such as within the blog network Women Talk Sports (Antunovic & Hardin, forthcoming). The most seemingly successfully blogs directed at female outreach advocate balance, health, empowerment, and personal growth. These blogs bring visibility to the experiences of female sports fans and could lead to a disruption of traditional gender norms by providing meaningful discourse for female fans. It is clear that female sports fans feel the weight of the gender divide and their delegitimized position in the sports community as these female centric blogs describe themselves as “one of the first sites to treat women as legitimate football fans,” or “a blog that aims to create a stronger (and possibly more positive) voice of female hockey fans and what makes them tick” (p.11). In many ways, female bloggers provide a definition of sport that can potentially lead to a more inclusive and empowering model. Unlike in the male domain of sports fans where women constantly have to prove their knowledge, these blogs provide a space void of male standards. Those looking to extend an inviting arm to the female community might also look to the interactive community aspect they host, providing an opportunity for female fans to connect with each other via in-person meet ups orchestrated by Twitter or Facebook. Within the sports blogging community, the use of Twitter as a micro-blogging tool is connecting sports properties and players with their fans by sharing opinions, anecdotes, events, and characteristics of everyday sports life in 140 characters or less. Twitter is a unique avenue for information distribution ahead of interactivity and offers new ways to appeal separately to each gender. Organizations like the NBA are taking notice, and have begun to develop strategies that incorporate better practices in Twitter use. The NBA lists their strategy as to “give quality content; incorporate social media offline; gamify social media efforts; personalize fans on social media; collect fan data; fansource/crowdsource; use fans to amplify message; and track, measure, analyze and adjust” (Wysocki, 2012, p.23-27). With new media reaching a level of epic proportions in users and variety, in everything from collaborative platforms like Wikipedia and blogs, to content providers like YouTube and Vine to networking sites like Facebook and Linkedin, interactive environments for the public to engage with a sports brand via creating and sharing sports content are creating an atmosphere of community and personalized involvement regardless of gender. In an attempt to meet a growing interest among females for sport content, professional sports organizations have looked for unique opportunities to bring females into the sports community in an inviting and respectful way outside of the digital environment as well. The NFL has attempted to make women lifelong fans by utilizing educational tools to offer more knowledge about the game through a series of ‘Football 101’ clinics where women have the opportunity to interact with team personnel on and off the field, receive instruction on different aspects of the game, and learn more about the lives of their favorite sports celebrities (Clark et al., 2009). These clinics create a feeling of VIP status for their female constituents with special autograph and photo opportunities, tours, receptions, and gifts, and are often focused on helping the community by tying in the organization’s charities. Those providing the clinics believe that women will feel a connection to the team having learned from the players, having worked with the charities, and having bonded with other females, and take their new avid fandom back into everyday life to bring other women into the mix. 3. CONCLUSION Women are a vast, but attainable market in the growth of professional sports and the research indicates, from social networking and blogging to marketing campaigns and VIP treatment, that sports organizations are attempting to do all that they can to covet this untapped market. However, within this market lays culturally embedded biases, stereotypical labeling, and an intimidating environment in which females feel a need to justify their presence or be met with hostility by their male counterparts. In order to effectively begin to chip away at this gender divide, we must give males a new position in the sports landscape as teachers, enticing them to let go of negative gender marginalization and encouraging them to have an active presence in the lives of young women to forge connections to sports. As active participants in growing female fans, men will not only satisfy their own desires for female companionship later in life that bond over similar interests, but also bury the antiquated definitions of what it means to be an authentic sports fan. This early tutoring, coupled with interactive online experiences and community based initiatives, will, in time, allow sports organizations to begin to grow young female sports interest through safe environments that promote self-confidence and give sports a meaningful role in the lives of young women, that it has historically only provided to men. With the right cultivation, a new generation of women might one day proudly stand alongside their male counterparts as active, welcomed, and inspired

members of the sports community. 4. REFERENCES [1] Antunovic, D., & Hardin, M. (forthcoming). Women and the blogosphere: Exploring feminist approaches to sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. doi: 10.1177/1012690213493106 [2] Antunovic, D., & Hardin, M. (2012). Activism in Women’s Sports Blogs: Fandom and Feminist Potential. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5(3), (2012): 305–322. Retrieved from: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20123343140.html [3] Bednall, D. H., Valos, M., Adam, S., & McLeod, C. (2012). Getting Generation Y to attend: Friends, interactivity and half-time entertainment. Sport Management Review, 15(1), 80–90. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2011.04.001 [4] Bush, V., Bush, A., Clark, P., & Bush, R. (2009). Girl power and word-of-mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264. doi: 10.1108/07363760510611680 [5] Clark, J. S., Apostolopoulou, A., & Gladden, J. M. (2009). Real women watch football: gender differences in the consumption of the NFL Super Bowl broadcast. Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1-2), 165–183. doi: 10.1080/10496490902837510 [6] Clavio, G., & Kian, T. M. (2010). Uses and gratifications of a retired female athlete’s Twitter followers. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 485–500. Retrieved from: http://sportspolitik.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/Clavio-and-Kian-2011.pdf [7] Correa, T., Hinsley, A. W., & De Zuniga, H. G. (2010). Who interacts on the web?: The intersection of users’ personality and social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 247-253. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2009.09.003 [14] Merrill, K., Bryant, A., Dolan, E. & Chang, S. (forthcoming). “The male gaze and online sports punditry: Reactions to the Ines Sainz controversy on the sports blogosphere.” Journal of Sport & Social Issues. doi: 10.1177/0193723512455920 [15] Neverson, N. (2010). Build it and the women will come? WTSN and the advent of Canadian digital television. Canadian Journal of Communication, 35(1), 27-48. Retrieved from: http://www.cjconline.ca/index.php/journal/article/viewArticle/2246 [16] Pope, S. (2011). “Like pulling down Durham Cathedral and building a brothel”: Women as “new consumer” fans? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(4), 471– 487. doi: 10.1177/1012690210384652 [17] Pope, S., & Kirk, D. (2012). The role of physical education and other formative experiences of three generations of female football fans. Sport, Education and Society, (aheadof-print), 1–18. doi: 10.1080/13573322.2011.646982 [18] Rosin, H. (2010, December). Hanna Rosin: New data on the rise of women. [Video file]. http://www.ted.com/talks/hanna_rosin_new_data_on_the_ri se_of_women.html [19] Royse, P., Lee, J., Undrahbuyan, B., Hopson, M., & Consalvo, M. (2007). Women and games: technologies of the gendered self. New Media & Society, 9(4), 555–576. doi: 10.1177/1461444807080322 [20] Schirato, T. (2012). Fantasy sport and media interactivity. Sport in Society, 15(1), 78–87. doi: 10.1080/03031853.2011.625278 [21] Tang, T., & Cooper, R. (2012). Gender, sports, and new media: Predictors of viewing during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(1), 75–91. doi: 10.1080/08838151.2011.648685 [8] Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The myth of the “puck bunny” female fans and men’s ice hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493. doi: 10.1177/0038038504043214 [22] Wann, D. L., Schinner, J., & Keenan, B. L. (2001a). Males’ impressions of female fans and nonfans: There really is “something about Mary.” North American Journal of Psychology, 3(2), 183. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-11562-001 [9] Gee, S. (forthcoming). “Sexual ornament” or “spiritual trainer”? Envisioning and marketing to a female audience through the NHL’s “inside the warrior” advertising campaign. Communication & Sport. doi: 10.1177/216747951349622 [23] Wysocki, M. (2012). The role of social media in sports communication: An analysis of NBA team’s strategy. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.american.edu/soc/communication/upload/Capsto ne-Wysocki.pdf [10] Hoeber, L., & Kerwin, S. (2013). Exploring the experiences of female sport fans: A collaborative self-ethnography. Sport Management Review. 16(3), 326-336. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2012.12.002 [11] James, J. D., & Ridinger, L. L. (2002). Female and male sport fans: A comparison of sport consumption motives. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25(3), 260–278. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/215871024? accountid=10730 [12] Kane, M. (forthcoming). The better sportswomen get, the more the media ignore them. Communication & Sport. doi: 10.1177/2167479513484579 [13] McMahan, C., Hovland, R., & McMillan, S. (2009). Online marketing communications: exploring online consumer behavior by examining gender differences and interactivity within Internet advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(1), 61–76. doi: 10.1080/15252019.2009.10722163

members of the sports community. 4. REFERENCES [1] Antunovic, D., & Hardin, M. (forthcoming). Women and the blogosphere: Exploring feminist approaches to sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. doi: 10.1177/1012690213493106 [2] Antunovic, D., & Hardin, M. (2012). Activism in Women’s Sports Blogs: Fandom and Feminist Potential. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5(3), (2012): 305–322. Retrieved from: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20123343140.html [3] Bednall, D. H., Valos, M., Adam, S., & McLeod, C. (2012). Getting Generation Y to attend: Friends, interactivity and half-time entertainment. Sport Management Review, 15(1), 80–90. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2011.04.001 [4] Bush, V., Bush, A., Clark, P., & Bush, R. (2009). Girl power and word-of-mouth behavior in the flourishing sports market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 257–264. doi: 10.1108/07363760510611680 [5] Clark, J. S., Apostolopoulou, A., & Gladden, J. M. (2009). Real women watch football: gender differences in the consumption of the NFL Super Bowl broadcast. Journal of Promotion Management, 15(1-2), 165–183. doi: 10.1080/10496490902837510 [6] Clavio, G., & Kian, T. M. (2010). Uses and gratifications of a retired female athlete’s Twitter followers. International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 485–500. Retrieved from: http://sportspolitik.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/04/Clavio-and-Kian-2011.pdf [7] Correa, T., Hinsley, A. W., & De Zuniga, H. G. (2010). Who interacts on the web?: The intersection of users’ personality and social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(2), 247-253. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2009.09.003 [14] Merrill, K., Bryant, A., Dolan, E. & Chang, S. (forthcoming). “The male gaze and online sports punditry: Reactions to the Ines Sainz controversy on the sports blogosphere.” Journal of Sport & Social Issues. doi: 10.1177/0193723512455920 [15] Neverson, N. (2010). Build it and the women will come? WTSN and the advent of Canadian digital television. Canadian Journal of Communication, 35(1), 27-48. Retrieved from: http://www.cjconline.ca/index.php/journal/article/viewArticle/2246 [16] Pope, S. (2011). “Like pulling down Durham Cathedral and building a brothel”: Women as “new consumer” fans? International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 46(4), 471– 487. doi: 10.1177/1012690210384652 [17] Pope, S., & Kirk, D. (2012). The role of physical education and other formative experiences of three generations of female football fans. Sport, Education and Society, (aheadof-print), 1–18. doi: 10.1080/13573322.2011.646982 [18] Rosin, H. (2010, December). Hanna Rosin: New data on the rise of women. [Video file]. http://www.ted.com/talks/hanna_rosin_new_data_on_the_ri se_of_women.html [19] Royse, P., Lee, J., Undrahbuyan, B., Hopson, M., & Consalvo, M. (2007). Women and games: technologies of the gendered self. New Media & Society, 9(4), 555–576. doi: 10.1177/1461444807080322 [20] Schirato, T. (2012). Fantasy sport and media interactivity. Sport in Society, 15(1), 78–87. doi: 10.1080/03031853.2011.625278 [21] Tang, T., & Cooper, R. (2012). Gender, sports, and new media: Predictors of viewing during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(1), 75–91. doi: 10.1080/08838151.2011.648685 [8] Crawford, G., & Gosling, V. K. (2004). The myth of the “puck bunny” female fans and men’s ice hockey. Sociology, 38(3), 477–493. doi: 10.1177/0038038504043214 [22] Wann, D. L., Schinner, J., & Keenan, B. L. (2001a). Males’ impressions of female fans and nonfans: There really is “something about Mary.” North American Journal of Psychology, 3(2), 183. Retrieved from: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-11562-001 [9] Gee, S. (forthcoming). “Sexual ornament” or “spiritual trainer”? Envisioning and marketing to a female audience through the NHL’s “inside the warrior” advertising campaign. Communication & Sport. doi: 10.1177/216747951349622 [23] Wysocki, M. (2012). The role of social media in sports communication: An analysis of NBA team’s strategy. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://www.american.edu/soc/communication/upload/Capsto ne-Wysocki.pdf [10] Hoeber, L., & Kerwin, S. (2013). Exploring the experiences of female sport fans: A collaborative self-ethnography. Sport Management Review. 16(3), 326-336. doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2012.12.002 [11] James, J. D., & Ridinger, L. L. (2002). Female and male sport fans: A comparison of sport consumption motives. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25(3), 260–278. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/215871024? accountid=10730 [12] Kane, M. (forthcoming). The better sportswomen get, the more the media ignore them. Communication & Sport. doi: 10.1177/2167479513484579 [13] McMahan, C., Hovland, R., & McMillan, S. (2009). Online marketing communications: exploring online consumer behavior by examining gender differences and interactivity within Internet advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(1), 61–76. doi: 10.1080/15252019.2009.10722163

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