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Information about change1

Published on January 15, 2009

Author: aSGuest10655


Managing Change : Managing Change Learning Outcomes : Learning Outcomes How organisations try to manage change: types & degrees of change affecting organisations at various levels: Issues, drivers and responses to these pressures. Rational, systems and power perspectives: application & limitations of these to understanding and managing contemporary org-change. Processual alternatives “Processual" perspectives: analysing change events, understanding and implementing change. Large scale and small scale change: Restructuring and strategic changes: theoretical perspectives & lessons Differentiate management problems & issues in large/small-scale programmes involving evolutionary or radical change. Making better sense of management, leadership and transformation under uncertainty Reading: Burnes (2000): Managing Change, Prentice Hall Why bother? : Why bother? Superior performance – top down, bottom up Improve quality – TQ movement For customers – to delight, not lose For competitive advantage – Porter – not standing still For energised, committed workforce Learn to act in the interests of the whole organisation How extend mastery and self-determination across the organisation To help people embrace change (change and learning) Freedoms to speak out (release creative capacity) Because the times demand it Critical threats for survival and interdependencies Adapted from Senge:Fifth Dimension Fieldbook What is to be changed? : What is to be changed? Strategies, positions, policies, programmes, ploys, patterns Performances: competitiveness, added values, responsiveness, productivities, results, innovations Alliances, sustainabilities, movement Structures and groupings Processes, work arrangements Resource allocations, savings People – individual and groups Behaviours: performances, conformities, creativities Competencies: mastery in performance Attitudes, Values, Beliefs Distributions of opportunity Orientations to externalities How is change best implemented? : How is change best implemented? Strategies With a knife, quickly, cleanly, clear up the mess afterwards systematically, efficiently in planned, controlled ways Evolutionary, stepped Radical, revolution With TLC Let it all hang out, it will all come together in the wash Politics, networking, positioning, coalitions and influences Tactics, programmes Methods, techniques Roles and skills Interventionist style: directive, non-directive Technologies to be applied The times they are a'changin' – ingredients for success : The times they are a'changin' – ingredients for success 1920-1990 Efficient manufacturing Classical organisation & methods Effective mass marketing Rapid adoption of technology Financial acumen Theory Y 1990 – the Future Distributing power while increasing self-discipline Systematic thinking skills as well developed as reductionist skills Improved conversation Voluntary followership William O'Brien, former CEO Hanover Insurance (USA) and Centre for Organisational Learning, MIT Quoted in Senge: Fifth Discipline Fieldbook Burnes: Managing Change : Burnes: Managing Change Chapters 1/2 Organisation theory and rise and fall of the rational organisation 3/4 Developments in organisation theory: new paradigms, old questions 5 Managerial choice: culture, power and politics 6/7 Perspectives on strategy development: choice and constraints 8 Approaches to change management 9-12 Case studies strategy development internal relationships external relationships 13/15 Managing choice and change Example Case Studies : Example Case Studies Apple, IBM, Sun Fire Brigade London Congestion Charge NHS – doctors, hospital organisation, performance improvement Police services e.g. Metropolitan Police Marconi Selridges, Sainsbury A school Ford, Rover, British Airways Investors in People and a participant organisation Down-sizing and outsourcing Published cases – from CJ Eurocamp New Zealand Breweries Torquay Hotels Slide 9: Guiding ideas Theory, methods, tools Innovations in infrastructure Domains of action (organisational architectures and processes) Fundamentals & fads Critical evaluation Do they work? Do they improve? Adapted from Senge: Fifth Dimension Fieldbook Mainstream theoretical perspectives : Mainstream theoretical perspectives Structural functionalism Scientific management Classical and administrative organisation theory Human relations and Psychodynamic Systems and Contingency theory Strategic choice Action research and learning Cultural, ethnographic and metaphorical Levels of change : Levels of change International National Industry-market The firm The collective/the hive The function/department The group-team The individual The supply chain The network Seminar 1 Leading Change: John Kotter 1996 : Leading Change: John Kotter 1996 1. Transforming Organizations: Why Firms Fail 2. Successful Change and the Force That Drives It 3. Establishing a Sense of Urgency 4. Creating the Guiding Coalition 5. Developing a Vision and Strategy 6. Communicating the Change Vision 7. Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action 8. Generating Short-Term Wins 9. Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change 10. Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture 11. The Organization of the Future 12. Leadership and Lifelong Learning John Kotter 1996 Why Change Projects Fail : John Kotter 1996 Why Change Projects Fail Eight common reasons too much complacency. No sense of urgency early on Failing to create a strong guiding coalitionOne person with energy/commitment is seldom enough. A coalition of corporate leaders capable of overcoming inertia/opposition. Underestimating the power of vision to direct, align and inspire Undercommunicating the vision by a power of 10 (or 100, or 1,000)People will commit to benefits & achievables. Communicate sufficient information to reach these conclusions Permitting Obstacles to block the new visionIf not anticipated or removed - reasons to slip back into comfort zones. Failing to create short term winsMany transformations take years. People become dispirited if they do not see some concrete signs of progress.  Declaring Victory too soon. Major changes take time to 'bed down'. Teething problems occur – declaring victor loses credibility Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culturetemptation to dust hands and walk away. Old habits & processes return. Methodological Issues : Methodological Issues Levels of Analysis – world, block, nation, industry, firm, function, group, individual, chain etc Disciplinary frameworks: economic, sociological, psychological, political Analytical description Normative underpinnings: Prescriptions Analytical and predictive explanation Social interpretation Purposes: understanding, prediction and influence Wilson (1992): Approaches to organisational change : Wilson (1992): Approaches to organisational change Emergent Change Planned change The process of change Implementation of change Logical incrementalism, evolution, need, commitment & shared models Strategic decisions; messy management; political process models Contextualism: implementation as a function of antecedent factors & processes Reducing resistance to change (e.g. force field analysis, participation) Organisational Forms : Organisational Forms Fixed form bureaucracy Centralised with decentralised SBUs Franchised Bureaucracy with cross dept. teams & task groups Matrix, project centred. Core-periphery firm (functional & numeric flexibility) Core primary, functional, flexible staff Periphery - short-term, part-time Servicing - sub-contractors, agencies, outsourcing Loose, collaborative network Structural Elements - Centralisation & Specialisation : Structural Elements - Centralisation & Specialisation Vision and coordination from top Strategic & implementation levels Responsibility, authority & accountability Expertise, controlled redundancy & learning Economies of scale & resource usage Dilemmas certainty and consistency flexibility, initiative & creativity simplification or multiskilling Belief in empowerment + lean, flat, flexible structures Outsourcing Centralised, decentralisation - SBUs, profit & cost centres Methodological Issues : Methodological Issues "All theories of organisation and management are based on implicit images or metaphors that persuade us to see, understand, and imagine situations in partial ways. Metaphors create insight. But they also distort. They have strengths. But they also have limitations. In creating ways of seeing, they create ways of not seeing. Hence there can be no single theory or metaphor that gives an all-purpose point of view. There can be no 'correct theory' for structuring everything we do." Gareth Morgan, Images of Organisation Morgan - metaphors for thinking about organisations : Morgan - metaphors for thinking about organisations goal-seeking machine with interchangeable parts biological organism that continually adapts to change central brain that can respond to, and predict, change centring on a set of shared values and beliefs, centring on power and conflict, as a means whereby individuals achieve their own aspirations or mutual self-interest, centring on norms of behaviour, so that the organisation is likened to a psychic prison flux and transformation instrument of domination Gareth Morgan, Images of Organisation Disciplinary perspectives : Disciplinary perspectives Psychological Decision analysis and decision making Behavioural (groups, individuals) Cognitive (knowing, learning) Sociological Structural-functionalism Social Action/Interpretive Radical (Marxists and post Marxist) Post modernism (discourse) Economic Market forces Economic efficiency Monopoly Planned economy Political Unitary/pluralism Democracy Power inequality Managerialism Anti-organisational

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