Published on March 11, 2014
“Managing, and Leading Organizational Change”
What is Organizational Change? • An alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, culture, technology, or people – A constant force – An organizational reality – An opportunity or a threat • Organizational Change – implies a creation of imbalances in the existing pattern of situation.
Change agent – A person who initiates and assumes the responsibility for managing a change in an organization
Change Is … • Inevitable • Natural • Constant • A process ADAPT OR DIE!ADAPT OR DIE!
Characteristics of change: • Results from the pressure of forces – internal & external. • Change in any part tends to effect the whole organization. • Effects at varying rates of speed and degrees of significance.
Forces of Change • External Forces – Market Conditions – Govt Laws and Regulations / Political Forces – Technology – Social Changes (Spread of education, + Govt efforts – social equality) • Internal Forces – Deficiencies in existing structure – Workforce change (Operative + Managerial) – Employee Attitude
Levels of Change • Individual Level Change • Group Level Change • Organizational Level Change
Causes of Resistance to change (Individual + Group Level) • Economic Factors • Psychological Factors • Social Factors
Economic Factors • Workers apprehend technological unemployment • Fear idealism • Fear of demotion
Psychological Factors • Maintain status quo • Apprehend boredom • Worker lazy & reluctant • Incomplete knowledge about change
Social Factors • Attack on status • Change may require new social adjustments • Resist changes for which they aren’t consulted.
Causes of Organizational Resistance to change • Organizational structure (bureaucratic structure) • Resource Constraints • Threat to Power • Sunk Costs
Education and Communication Education and Communication ParticipationParticipation NegotiationNegotiation Facilitation and Support Facilitation and Support Threat / FearThreat / Fear Manipulation and Cooptation Manipulation and Cooptation Techniques for Reducing Resistance Techniques for Reducing Resistance
Force Field Analysis / Lewin’s Change Model • Restraining Forces (forces for stability / forces against change) • Driving Forces (forces for change)
Lewin’s Change Model (Force – Field Analysis) Restraining Forces QUASI – STATIC EQUILIBRIUM Driving Forces DESIRED STATUS
Types of Change • Reactive Vs Proactive • Planned Change – application of systematic & appropriate knowledge to human affairs for the purpose of creating intelligent action and choices.
Planned Change Theory Change is more likely to be successful if it is planned using formal planning processes
Planned Change • The Process (Kurt Lewin) – Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems • Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change. • Changing: implementing the planned change • Refreezing: systematically following a change program for lasting results.
Lewin’s Three-Step Process Unfreezing Changing Refreezing
Kurt Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Movement Refreezing
Drinking & Driving Help make a change for yourself & those you love Among Youth Using Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory to Deter
Kurt Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Moving to a new level & Refreezing (Schein, 1995) can be utilized to bring change to this social issuecan be utilized to bring change to this social issue
Unfreezing Finding ways to make people let go of the old way of thinking by creating survival anxiety as well as psychological safety. (Schein, 1995) • Educate audience on what is happening today around the issue of drinking & driving- use statistics • Guest speakers (victims, family members of victims, those who chose to drink and drive) share their experiences & loss. • Visual presentation of the aftermath of an accident. • Pictures and stories of the victims who died from someone else choosing to drink and drive.
Christopher Oseguera Killed by a drunk driver “Teens burned to death in this wreck” www.duihope.org
Pfc. Ryan Owen Cootey, 18 Killed by a drunk driver Feb. 8, 1999 On February 7, 1999, ten marines left Camp Pendleton on a shuttle van. They were going to San Diego on leave. The shuttle stopped at a red light. Moments later a drunk driver, who was fleeing from the police, slammed into them with the stolen vehicle he was driving. Five seriously injured Marines were rushed to local hospitals. On February 8, Ryan Owen Cootey, passed away www.duihope.org
Moving to a New Level This occurs when the learner pass the unfreezing stage where they let go of the old way of thinking and open up to new way of thinking. • For example, youth sees the effect of drinking & driving and decide that it is not “cool” and decide to change their perceptions and actions.
At this stage the change agent must makeAt this stage the change agent must make sure the right information is available tosure the right information is available to guide learners through the right path toguide learners through the right path to change. Therefore, the educational sessionchange. Therefore, the educational session should be informative and empowering. Itshould be informative and empowering. It should also be visually appealing to youth asshould also be visually appealing to youth as well as interesting, short to the point &well as interesting, short to the point & positive.positive.
The educational session should make young people feel that they can make a difference and that they are the ones who can make a difference in this societal issue Including them in the process of change & handing over the responsibility can have a strong impact on the outcomes.
Refreezing Is to solidify the new way of thinking so that the learners will not go back to the old way of thinking. • Constant reminders: without it people will forget • Advertising & repetition of the educational presentation.
Advertising – Poster board around school halls – Billboards around town, especially at liquor stores, pubs and buses – Messages on alcohol containers about the harms of drinking & driving – At popular joint outlets/ gathering points
Media A powerful way to get themessageacrossto the youth. • Television (TV) advertising, radio commercials, newspaper articles • TV “isthemost watched medium” and “eighty percent of thepublic nominateTV astheir sourceof information” (Social ChangeMedia, 2004) • Hearing thesamemessagesconstantly will help to stick it in people'sminds.
Role Models young people are always looking up to people they admire to make choices in their own lives Actors, singers, athletes speak out against drinking and driving. Use the World Wide Web Create a web site especially for youth. For information & support
Jacqueline Saburido was taking a break from college and industrial engineering classes when she came to the United States from Venezuela to study English. A drunk driving crash changed her life completely.
• Denise survived the crash, later to have extensive surgery fifteen times, seven on her face alone. She is now disfigured and blind, with permanent brain damage Denise Wagoner hit by a drunk driver
• As long as there are drunk drivers on the road, no one is safe to be on the road. • You or your loved one may be the next victim so don’t sit back and let it happen • Take action now! Help prevent drinking and driving.
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