Champagne The Extraordinary Wine

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Information about Champagne The Extraordinary Wine

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: karishmadang1



This presentation elucidates the following line on the basis of terroir, grape variety, production process, etc :

'Champagne only comes from Champagne, France'

CHAMPAGNE “Champagne only comes from Champagne, France.”

Popularity Kings Romance Lifestyle Holy Wine Belle Epoque- Started the world exhibition in 1889

La Champagne (the province) Champagne is not merely a type of wine; it is a special region 90 miles northeast of Paris with a long tradition of winemaking expertise. In this unique location, one-of-a-kind cool climate and chalky soil combine to produce the only grapes in the world can yield the Champagne of legends. From vine to glass, the Champagne region’s distinctive history, land, climate, and strict regulations blend together to create the one and only sparkling wine that can bear the Champagne name. (source: accessed on 14/04/2010 at 12:00pm)

Champagne Viticole (the wine- producing area) The viticulture boundaries of Champagne are legally defined and split into five wine producing districts within the administrative province with the vineyards spread over an area of approximately 80,000 acres of which about 75,000 acres are actively used for grape growing. (Source: accessed on 25/08/09 at 2:57pm; accessed on 11/04/2010 at 7:28pm)

The five main regions: • • • • La Montagne de Reims: lies along the slopes between the plateau and the valleys of the Ardre and the Vesle throughout a National Regional Park. Has deep layer of crustaceous chalk under a thin layer of topsoil- perfect for grape growth Boosts of several Grand and Premier Cru wines Primary grape variety: Pinot Noir La Côte des Blancs: • the vineyards from Epernay (in the north) down to the town of Sézanne. • chalky subsoil • Primary grape variety: Chardonnay

• • • • La Vallée de la Marne: vineyards lie on both sides of Marne River, following its curves as it meanders from Aÿ to beyond ChâteauThierry. predominantly chalky area with a thin layer of topsoil which provides perfect drainage for the vines and also an excellent base which reflects the heat of the sun to help ripen the grapes largest grape-growing district. Primary grape variety: Pinot Meunier La Aube (Côte des Bars and Montgueux) • Vineyards situated south of Epernay, near the city of Troyes in the low hills between the river Seine and the river Aube. • Primary Grape variety: Pinot Noir

La Côte de Sézanne • Sézannais is a rapidly developing area16kms southwest of Côte des Blancs. • Primary grape variety: Chardonnay (source: accessed on 14/04/2010 at 11:57am)

Terroir • The Champagne wines owe their inimitable character to the unique terroir of Champagne. The region was--and still is--a difficult place to produce still wine. • The climate(continental and oceanic) is such that grapes struggle to ripen and the basic wines that are produced are extremely thin and acidic. The weather is kind enough to make potable still wine only two or three years per decade. • The mainly limestone subsoil provides the vine with constant natural irrigation. Limestone is conducive to good drainage, chalk is an excellent water reservoir and temperature regulator.

Le Champagne (the wine) • Champagne has been lauded in poetry for centuries and celebrated in song. It has been called the ordinary wine of Kings as well as the Devil's wine because of its explosive nature. • The sparkle in Champagne was neither discovered nor invented, it is a natural phenomenon that occurred when Champagne was put into bottles. The result is an elegant sparkling wine with myriad tiny, gentle bubbles, complexity of flavors, and a lengthy finish. (source: accessed on 25/08/09 at 2:55pm) Refer Notes

The typical blend of Champagne is two-thirds black grapes (Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier) and one-third white (Chardonnay). • Pinot Noir: A black grape variety with white juice grown mainly on the slopes of the Mountain of Reims and Cote des Bar.accounting for 35% of the acreage, it gives Champagnes their aromas of red fruits, as well as their strength and body. • Pinot Meunier: Another black grape variety with white juice. It is grown mainly in the Valley of Marne and is characterized by its suppleness and spiciness. It gives Champagne its roundness and fragrance. It is easier to grow and is less prone to frost damage. Accounts to 40% of the total acreage. • Chardonnay: the rest 25% plantation is this white grape variety mostly planted in the Cote des Blancs. It provides the wines with their finesse as well as their floral, and sometimes mineral overtones. (source: accessed on 14/04/2010 at 11:53am)

Other Grape Varities • • • • • Arbanne Petit Meslier Pinot Blanc Fromenteau Gamay

The Vines • The vines of Champagne are monitored strictly. The authorized three pruning systems are designed to limit the yield of the vines and to ensure that the grapes grow close to the ground. • From the winter until August, successive tasks include pruning, ploughing, tying, de-budding and finally trimming. Much of this is done by hand. The weather decides the dates of the harvest, which varies according to the village and the grape varieties. • Typically, the harvest takes place in Autumn, a hundred days after the flowering of the vine. During the harvest, grapes are carefully picked by hand and sorted to remove any damaged fruit. Only the best bunches are picked and as quickly as possible, the grapes are then pressed in large low presses. Refer Notes

• Once a generation, the vines of Champagne are replanted in order to guarantee strong, high-quality harvests. While older vines do exist, the average age of a vine in Champagne is approximately 20 years of age. (source: accessed on 14/04/2010 at 11:28am) • Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of fungal disease and early spring frost. ( source: accessed on 11/04/2010 at 7:32pm)

Vine Festivals La Saint Vincent: Honors the patron saint of growers on January 22nd. Dressed in traditional clothes and carrying colourful staves bearing the statue of Saint Vincent, the growers walk in procession to a solemn mass in each village. Afterwards, they discuss the merits of the past harvest and also pray for plentiful future harvests at a traditional banquet. Le 'Cochelet': Celebrates the last day of the harvest. Growers and grape pickers gather for a feast of potée champenoise, a traditional local dish of meat, cabbage, and other vegetables. (source: acessed on 14/04./2010 at 11:26am)

Producing Sparkling Wines There are typically 4 ways of producing Sparkling Wines namely: • The Methode Champenoise (the Methode Traditionel) • “Transvasage" method • “Cuve Close” • Simple injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) Refer Notes

(source: accessed on 15/04/2010 at 11:15pm)

How Champagne is made ? Harvest First Fermentation Blending Second Fermentation Riddling Disgorgement and Dosage Refer foot notes for detailed explanation

Champagne Styles and Classification • • • • • • • Non-vintage Vintage De-luxe Cuvées Blanc de Blancs Blanc de Noirs Champagne Rosé Champagne Sweetness (Brut; Extra Sec; Sec; Demi-Sec; Doux) Refer the notes

Dom Pérignon • Pierre Pérignon was a Benedictine monk – 1688 appointed treasurer at the Abby of Hautvillers; located near Epernay. Herein he was entrusted the job for managing the cellars and wine making. • Although Pierre was not able to prevent the bubbles, but he did develop the art of blending. He not only blended different grapes, but the juice from the same grape grown in different vineyards. Not only did he develop a method to press the black grapes to yield a white juice, he improved clarification techniques to produce a brighter wine than any that had been produced before. To help prevent the exploding bottle problem, he began to use the stronger bottles developed by the English and closing them with Spanish cork instead of the wood and oil-soaked hemp stoppers then in use. (source:,1 acessed on 11/04/2010 at 7:11pm )

The Champagne Women • 18th century: Nicole- Barbe Clicquot-Ponsardin installed the process of REMUAGE. Louise Pommery popularized the brut style of Champagne; • 20th century: Marie Louise Lanson de Nonancourt (Champagne Laurent Perrier) and Madame Jacques Bollinger; continued to exert a profound influence over the industry. • 21st century: Carol Duval-Leroy and Anne-Charlotte Amory; run major Champagne houses respectively (Duval-Leroy House, Champagne Piper-Heidsieck). Refer Notes

Other La Champagne Wines • Bouzy Rouge (from the Grand Cru vineyards, Bouzy) is a, pinot noir based, well known still wine of the region. • Rosé des Riceys AC They are the true rosé wine produced from the pinot noir grape; fermented either in stainless steel tanks for early drinking or in wood allowing longer ageing.The rosé has aromas of ripe strawberries, raspberries and blueberries, hazelnuts and violets. When allowed to develop over a period of years, these aromas will develop with exotic, spicy overtones. They have a distinctive taste known to the French as goût des Riceys. (Source: accessed on 15/04/2010 at 11:30pm)

• The regional vin de liqueur is called Ratafia de Champagne. This perfect companion for aperitifs or desserts(a crème brûlée, a tiramisu with red fruits) offers a note of sweetness and an irresistible, complex aromatic range. • The pomace from the grape pressing is used to make Marc de Champagne(brandy), and in this case the production does not compete with that of Champagne, since the pomace is a by-product of wine production. This product is commonly used for making chocolate truffles. (source: acessed on 11/04/2010 at 7:55pm)

Appellation • The Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne (CIVC) is a semi-public body set up under the aegis of the French Government to co-ordinate the common interests of winegrowers and houses in Champagne. Among its key duties are the promotion and protection of the Champagne appellation around the world. It also focuses on enhancing technical's qualities in the vineyard and the wine. (source: on 16/04/2010 at 2:15pm) Refer notes

• The Appellation of Controlled Origin (AOC) system (1935) is key to differentiating Champagne from sparkling wines. The unique terroir of the Champagne region and the strict regulations in place ensure only wines following the exacting standards defined over centuries are given the name "Champagne.“ These rules cover all stages of the wine's development, from vineyard cultivation to final bottling, and are enforced under France law. • Coteaux Champenoise Appellation Contrôlée covers the same grapes and area as of sparkling Champagne production, but covers only still wines. • The rarely seen Rosé des Riceys AC covers Pinot Noirs for Rosé wines from the most southerly Champagne vineyards of the Aube.

Style of champagne Alcohol content Name of the wine and A.O.C Year of production Name and address of the producer Name of the Champagne House Country of origin Bottle size

Champagne Houses Refer notes

Food and Champagne "A meal without wine is like a day without sunshine.” Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste (1825)

Food Harmony • Sparkling wines pair well with salty, fried and vinegary foods and can take some spice as well. • Appetizers: Brie, mild cheddar, Colby, edam and gouda cheese, almonds, smoked salmon, salami, prosciutto, stuffed mushrooms, foie gras, salads potato chips and buttered popcorn. • Main dish: Caviar, Lobster, scallops, shrimp, sushi, oysters, fried chicken. • Dessert: Strawberries, fruit tarts, fruit or rice pudding, almond or shortbread cookies. (source: _a_wine_club#ixzz0l60Dt398 accessed on 16/04/2010 at 11:30pm)

Regional Foods Best Paired With Champagne • Agneau à la champenoise (stuffed shoulder of lamb with tomatoes) • Pork chops grilled. • Game: wild boar, guinea fowl, pheasant. • Fish: eel, trout • Pork: ham, salami, andouillete (a spicy regional sausage from Troyes), • Coq au Champagne (chicken in champagne) • Carbonnade de boeuf (beef braised in onions and beer) • Boudin blanc (white pudding)

Suggested Champagne Pairing Krug Grande Cuvée NV Tight, fresh, slightly toasty and aromatic with lovely lemony freshness. Some herby complexity. The palate is wonderfully bright and pure with tight lemony fruit, as well as subtle toastiness. Really refined and sophisticated, this is just beautiful. Heidsieck Brut Héritage NV Champagne Toasty, yeasty nose. Good depth of flavour on the herb-tinged, toasty palate. Bollinger Special Cuvée NV, Champagne Quite deep coloured. Lovely classy, intense nose shows savoury bready notes and a touch of lifted acidity, with a complex toasty edge. The palate is very full flavoured with great intensity and almost austere savouriness. Impressive stuff.

• Champagne Devaux Cuvée Rosé NV Lovely salmon pink colour. Very fine nose of herbs, toast and soft strawberry fruit. The palate is quite broad with delicate balance, nice fruitiness and a creamy, bready texture. There’s even a bit of grip on the finish. • Heidsieck & Co Monopole Rosé Champagne NV Herby, yeasty edge to the nose. Palate has nice herb-tinged fruit with some strawberry sweetness. Tangy acidity keeps things fresh. • Moët et Chandon Vintage 1999 Champagne, France Full, attractive nose of herb-tinged, slightly sweet fruit with a richness to it. Hints of caramel and vanilla. The palate is forward and classy with some vanilla richness and nice balance. Good concentration and a distinctive herbal edge.

Champagne Trends • ICSWI is the first and only Conference dedicated to be “produced in the independent spirit” Champagnes and Sparkling Wine (C&SW) from all over the world and the only seamlessly interwoven public / industry conference entirely dedicated to the focus on Sparkling wines. (source: accessed on 11/04/2010 at 11:55pm) • A remarkable growth can be seen in the consumption pattern of Champagne. This is because of the increased consumer disposable income, marketing strategies like discounted rates, improved quality of the wine and scientifically studied health benefits.

• Effervescence is an important aspect of Champagne. Thus the shape of the Champagne glasses are too being focused. • Beertopia- a unique new product with combination of beer and Champagne. • Non-Dose, Brut Integral, Ultra Brut, Brut Sauvage and Sans Sucre. Refer notes

Bibliography • • • • Foulkes, C. (2001) Larouse Encyclopedia Of Wine (2nd Edition), Hamlyn Walton, S. (2001) The World Encyclopedia Of Wine (2nd Edition), Lorenz Books Unknown Author. (1988) A Celebration of CHampagne, Mitchell Beazley McCarthy,E. Champagne For Dummies, IDG Books Worldwide Inc. • • • • • • • • • • • accessed on 14/04/2010 at 12:00pm accessed on 25/08/09 at 2:57pm; accessed on 14/04/2010 at 11:57am accessed on 14/04/2010 at 11:53am acessed on 12/04/2010 at 01:18am accessed on 12/04/2010 at 00:50am accessed on 12/04/2010 at 11:07am) accessed on 12/04/2010 at 4:57pm accessed on 15/04/2010 at 11:30pm accessed on 14/04/2010 at 00:15am accessed on 16/04/2010 at 11:30pm 2/08/2009 at 2:08 pm 1/08/2009 at 11:30pm 1/08/2009 at 11:30pm 2/08/2009 at 2:38 pm 2/08/2009 at 2:50pm 02/08/2009 at 2:55pm 25/08/09 at 3:30pm accessed on 11/04/2010 at 11:55pm • • • • • • • •

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