Published on September 7, 2013
Challenges of TRANSLATIO N m n RAJU అనువాదము μετάφραση ಅನುವಾದ перевод अनुवाद Übersetzung અનુવાદ traduzione অনুবাদ översättnin भाषांतर करणे翻译 ெமாழிெபயரபப 翻訳
mnRAJU Challenges of Translation What is Translation? Why Translation? What is Good Translation? Skills of Translation Kinds of Translation Challenges of Translation
mnRAJU What is Translation? the skilful art of re-creating an equivalent message of a work of art originally created in one language in another language. equivalent, sensitive and natural
mnRAJU Translating is Connecting Translation is an intimate encounter between Two creative souls Two languages Two cultures Two styles Two spaces Two generations
mnRAJU Why Translation? Living languages in the world - 6,912 Languages spoken in India - about 1,600 Indian languages spoken by more than 10,000 Indians - 211 The 1948 UN Universal Declaration Of Human Rights has been translated into the most (321) languages and dialects. Country with the most languages spoken: Papua New Guinea (841) Language with the most words: English (approx. 250,000 distinct words) Language with the fewest words: Taki Taki, also called Sranan (only 340 words)
mnRAJU Why Translation? • To ‘affect’ larger audiences • Equitable access to information • Social justice & life-saving needs • Promoting mother tongues • Reviving dead/dying languages • Historical changes in languages • Greater financial rewards
mnRAJU A Good Translator ₌ Bilingual, Bicultural Proficiency ₌ Transparency in grammar, syntax and idiom ₌ Thorough Perception of theText/Content ₌ Loyalty to Intention, emotion, style ₌ Artistic Correspondence ₌ Fidelity to Detail and Faithfulness toText ₌ Aesthetics Matching the Original
mnRAJU If a translation is beautiful, it is not faithful; and if it is faithful, it is not beautiful. - Russian axiom Ad verbum vs ad sensum Metaphrase or paraphrase?
mnRAJU The Ordeal of Translation Few foreign masterpieces can have suffered more than Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin from the English translator’s failure to convey anything more than– at best–the literal meaning. It is as if a sound-proof wall separated Pushkin’s poetic novel from the English-reading world.There is a whole magic which goes by default; the touching lyrical beauty, the cynical wit of the poem; the psychological insight, the devious narrative skill, the thrilling compulsive grip of the novel; the tremendous gusto and swing and panache of the whole performance. - Samuel Johnson
mnRAJU Translation Skills Comprehension Interpretation Re-wording (writing) − Synonymy − Transfer − Reduction − Expansion − compensation Equivalence − literal where possible − paraphrastic where necessary
mnRAJU Kinds of Translation Machine Translation Dictionary/Grammar approach Statistical Matching approach Crowdsourcing approach
mnRAJU Disasters of Machine Translation
mnRAJU Machine Howlers “Please Don't Make MeToo Happy” To Spanish and back to English: I RequestTo Me NotTo GoToo Much Behind Lucky Person To German and back to English: PleaseTo Me Do Not Go BackToo Lucky To Italian and back to English: I PrayTo Me NotTo Go BehindToo Much Fortunate To Portuguese and back to English: I Pray Me NotTo GoToo Much Behind Fortunate To French and back to English: Please Not ReturnTo MeToo Happy
mnRAJU Translation – Some Challenges Linguistic untranslatability Cultural untranslatability Source text Illegible/unreadable Misspelled Unfinished/fragmentary Unintelligible/incomprehensible Language Idioms & coinages Acronyms & abbreviations Slang & archaisms Grammar, syntax, punctuation Proper nouns Ambiguities Time, effort and Expenditure
mnRAJU Challenges of Translation ≠ Lexical ≠ Structural ≠ Cultural ≠ Ethical ≠ Political ≠ Ambiguity
mnRAJU Lexical Challenges Words Idioms Phrases Collocations Contextualizing lexical items ≠ Bilingual/Translating dictionaries
mnRAJU Astounding Alternatives Choice depends on context and topic Two trucks loaded with thousands of copies of Roget's Thesaurus collided as they left a New York publishing house last Thursday, according to the Associated Press. Witnesses were aghast, amazed, astonished, astounded, bemused, benumbed, bewildered, confounded, confused, dazed, dazzled, disconcerted, disoriented, dumbstruck, electrified, flabbergasted, horrified, immobilized, incredulous, nonplussed, overwhelmed, paralyzed, perplexed, scared, shocked, startled, stunned, stupefied, surprised, taken aback, traumatized, upset. . . .
mnRAJU Structural Challenges Grammatical particles like articles tenses case markers number gender etc. are not identical in every language.
mnRAJU Cultural Challenges Cultural variation leads to linguistic variation Terms deeply rooted in culture No equivalents in target culture/language
mnRAJU Ethical Challenges Translator’s ethical attitudes Personal values and beliefs Errors in the source text Dangers of misinterpretation
mnRAJU Political Challenges Generating meanings not inherent Using for political ends (Confucius used secular texts for philosophical purposes)
mnRAJU Ambiguity Challenges Linguistic Diction Structure Thematic Hazy thought Inept rendition I saw an Indian dance.
mnRAJU Indian Literature in Translation multi-lingual nation diverse social, cultural factors wide variety of themes, genres official language State funded agencies Sahitya Academy National Book Trust
mnRAJU Translation Humor In a Paris hotel elevator: Please leave your values at the front desk. In a Norwegian cocktail lounge: Ladies are requested not to have children in the bar. In an Acapulco hotel: The manager has personally passed all the water served here. In a Bucharest hotel lobby: The lift is being fixed for the next day. During that time we regret that you will be unbearable. Outside a Hong Kong tailor shop: Ladies may have a fit upstairs. In a Copenhagen airline ticket office: We take your bags and send them in all directions.
mnRAJU Future Focus • How are Cyberspace and electronic translation shaping up the locus of translation production? • What role should the translator play amidst the increasing emergence of computer translation software? • Should translators modify traditional theories or come up with new theories of translation to meet the new challenges? • What role do translators play in a global cultures? • What are the future prerequisites for building a career in translation? • How are shifts in technology, international politics and economics translated in a manner which preserves the cultural identity of the source and target languages? • What are the limitations of translation and interpretation activities on each nation compared to the global scenario? • What is the role of mass media in advancing proper translations?
mnRAJU Exercise 1 Translate this sentence into your mother tongue.
mnRAJU Send your comments to firstname.lastname@example.org This slideshow is available at www.authorstream.com/tag/lionnagaraju www.slideshare.net/lionnagaraju Thank You
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