Published on March 6, 2014
Challenges of Developing Terminology in Two Different Cultures: Structural & Vocabulary Issues Shu-Jiun (Sophy) Chen, Academia Sinica 2013.08.08 Presentation for GRI Colleagues
What Are Structural Issues in an AAT Context? The way we classify, organize and arrange terms
What Are Structural Issues in an AAT Context? The AAT reflects our perspectives/viewpoint on the world It reflects our cultural preferences It reflects our real-life linguistic needs
What Are Structural Issues in an AAT Context? The AAT can be used to guide users in enhancing their knowledge of specific topics and concepts, and can even affect their views on and perception of these concepts.
What Are Structural Issues in an AAT Context? In terms of Chinese and English mapping, we have noticed some definite patterns in the structural issues which arise. Today, I’d like to highlight one of these patterns.
The First Structural Issue Pattern There is a conflicting structural arrangement between Western and Chinese cultures….. To begin, the case of ceramic glazes
In the context of Western cultures, people tend to classify ceramic glazes • by composition alkaline glaze, blue-and-white, Bristol glaze, celadon, lead glaze • by form clear glaze • by technique blister glaze, crystalline glaze, matte glaze, overglaze, sang de boeuf
However, from a Chinese perspective, curators and research studies tend to classify ceramic glazes by color under different colors with varying compositions, forms and techniques
Tea dust glaze Red glaze Six Conjoined Vases with Tea Dust Glaze Ch‘ien-lung Reign (1736-1795), Ch’ing dynasty (16441911) 清 乾隆 茶葉末六聯瓶 Monk's Cap Ewer with Ruby Red Glaze, Hsüan-te Reign (1426-1435), Ming dynasty (1368-1644) 明宣德 寶石紅僧帽壺
Blue-and-white Blue-and-white Flat Vase with Figures Yung-lo Reign (1403-1424), Ming dynasty (13681644) 明 永樂 清花人物扁壺 Underglaze red Vase with Underglaze red Jia-jing Reign (1522-1566), Ming dynasty (1368-1644) 明 嘉靖 釉裡紅菊花玉壺春瓶
Enamels on blue ground Enamels on yellow ground Pot Ch‘ien-lung Reign (1736-1795), Ch’ing dynasty (16441911) 清 乾隆款 藍地琺瑯彩瓷壺 Vessel 1744-, Ch‘ien-lung Reign , Ch’ing dynasty (16441911) 清 乾隆窯 琺瑯彩黃地福壽花卉瓶
The Problem Includes • • Some terms shared by Western & Chinese cultures. Where should these terms be located within the hierarchical structure of the AAT? Some terms are arranged in different FACETS by Western & Chinese cultures
Ceramic Glaze by color vs. composition/origin vs. form vs. technique (Underglaze enamels)
The Problem Includes • Some terms do not even have an exact equivalence. Is “Famille Rose” equivalent to “Fencai”(Powdered Colors), “Yangcai”(Foreign Colors) or “Falangcai”(Painted Enamel)?
Fencai (Powdered Color) Famille rose National Palace Museum British Museum 1736-1795, Ch‘ien-lung Reign , Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) 清 乾隆 粉彩蟠桃天球瓶 Vase 1736-1795, Ch’ien-lung Reign, Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911)
(Foreign Colors) Yangcai Famille Rose National Palace Museum (Taipei) British Museum 1742-, Ch‘ien-lung Reign , Ch’ing dynasty (16441911) 清 乾隆 磁胎洋彩玉環蒜頭瓶 Gall-bladder vase in yangcai enamels with figures décor, 1736-1795, Ch’ien-lung Reign, Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) 磁胎洋彩人物膽瓶 1736-1745, Ch’ien-lung Reign, Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) plate
Yangcai (Painted Enamel) Falangcai Famille Rose National Palace Museum National Palace Museum (Taipei) British Museum 1736-1795, Chien-lung Reign, Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) Dish in falangcai (painted) enamel on green ground with incised pattern of flower brocade and flowers of the four seasons décor 磁胎畫琺瑯四季花綠地四寸碟 1723-1735, Yong-zheng Reign, Ch’ing dynasty (1644-1911) Bowl. Flowers. Made of famille rose, red, yellow, green enamelled ceramic, porcelain.
Types of Chinese Porcelain Imperial Kilns 官窯 Commercial Kilns 民窯 For Domestic Market Chinese Export Wares Fencai (powdered colors) 粉彩 x ○ (3) ○ (4) Yangcai (Foreign Colors) 洋彩 ○ (1) x x Falangcai (Painted Enamel) 琺瑯彩 ○ (2) x x Famille Rose refers to the style of porcelain made in China characterized by the inclusion of an opaque enamel color that ranges from pink to purplish rose. The pigment itself is called Purple of Cassius, which was taken to China by Jesuit missionaries around 1685. The style reached its peak during the reign of Yung Cheng (1723-1735), after which it became increasingly commercial and largely for export to Europe. The style also occurs in German faience and English porcelain. Famille Rose might refer to (1),(2), (3) & (4) types of Chinese porcelain. However, the current structure of the term in the AAT, where it is listed under <Chinese Export>, might only be limited to Type (4).
The Problem includes • We might need to extend the context of the notes belonging to each term, so Chinese cultural references can be included.
STYLE FACET: Ming (ID: 300018438) Yongle (ID: 300018443) Ming imperial kiln style AGENT FACET: musicians (ID: 300025666) OBJECT FACET: vase paintings (ID: 300033668) landscapes (representations) (ID: 300015636) MATERIALS FACET: Blue-and-white (ID: 300266670) vase paintings (ID: 300033668) Note: Refers to twodimensional decoration applied to pottery by using paint made of metallic oxides or other pigments held in suspension in slip or another medium. The term is particularly used to refer to Ancient Greek red- and black-figure works. Blue-and-white flat vase with figures Yung-lo Reign (1403-1424), Ming dynasty (1368-1644) 明 永樂 清花人物扁壺
Landscape: no Chinese translation in the AAT
The closest entry in the AAT is 風景畫家, or “landscapists”
風景畫 (feng jing hua) • Feng jing hua (literally, “scenery painting”) is a term which entered Chinese during the twentieth century as a direct translation of the term “landscape painting.” It is the term used for a distinctly Western form of landscape, and not for traditional Chinese landscape depictions.
Feng jing hua: Western-style Landscape Painting 趙無極 Zao Wou-Ki, Paysage à Hangzhou (Landscape at Hangzhou), 1946. Private Collection, Paris. Oil on canvas.
Shan shui: Microcosm 郭熙 (Guo Xi), 早春 (Early Spring), 1072 (Northern Song dynasty). National Palace Museum, Taipei. Hanging scroll.
Shan shui: Landscape of the Daoist Immortals 王希孟 (Wang Ximeng), 千里江山 (A Thousand Li of Rivers and Mountains), 1113 (Northern Song dynasty). Palace Museum, Beijing. Handscroll.
Currently, there are no specific references to 山水 (shan shui) in the AAT. Instead, there is a reference to 青綠山水 (qing lü shan shui, blue-andgreen landscape painting), covering only one aspect of the term.
Shan shui: Portrait 沈周 (Shen Zhou), 蘆山高 (Lofty Mount Lu), 1467 (Ming dynasty). National Palace Museum, Taipei. Hanging scroll.
Proposed Solution • Add shan shui to the AAT as a new, separate child term under <landscape painting>. – This would facilitate retrieval for users, enabling them to access entries on and to understand the differences between different types of landscape painting.
Proposed Solution • Add shan shui to the AAT as a new variant term for <landscape painting>. – This would facilitate retrieval for users by: • Allowing users searching for the term <landscape painting> to access information on and images related to <shan shui>. • Allowing users searching for the term <shan shui> to access information on and images related to <landscape painting>.
• Draft a new scope note to clarify the specific history and allegorical functions of shan shui.
Sample shan shui Scope Note • 山水畫 shan shui hua: A Chinese landscape painting style typically depicting mountains and bodies of water, often in an allegorical manner. Shan shui hua produced during the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127) was monumental in scale, while Southern Song (1127-1279) shan shui hua was more intimate, providing horizontal, misty views of lakes and rivers. Shan shui hua can assume multiple symbolic dimensions, serving as a microcosmic illustration of the universe or a form of portraiture.
Toward Taiwanese Digital Art History Chen Cheng Po Project
The initial idea of the project is to showcase the application of controlled vocabularies, especially when Academia Sinica/TELDAP has richly invested in the Chinese version of the AAT
Academia Sinica received the archival collection of Chen Cheng Po (1895-1947), a famous modern painter in Taiwan. The digital archival collection includes works of art, letters, diaries, postcards, newspaper articles, manuscripts, artifacts, photos…etc.
Suzhou 1929 89.4 × 115.5 Taipei Fine Arts Museum
Teacher 廖繼春 田邊至 陳清汾 楊三郎 岡田三郎助 Classmate Founders 范洪甲 Studies in Tokyo 鹽月桃甫 Friends 鄉原古統 Teaching in Shanghai 王濟遠 Coworkers Taiwan Western Art Association Chen Cheng Po 李石樵 立石鐵臣 Exhibitions in Taiwan 藍蔭鼎 潘 玉 良 汪亞塵 顏水龍 石川欽一郎 Student 袁 樞 真 李梅樹
Wang Jiyuan, Nude CoWorkers Pan Yuliang, Nudes and 袁 Masks 樞 真 Chen Cheng Po 潘 玉 良 Student 1929 Qingliu Wang Yachen, Goldfish Yuan Shuzhen, Colors of Mt. Huagang 1931 Canal 1932 Nude Lying Beside a Pool
Hangzhou (TGN ID: 7001806) 1917-1919 Suzhou (TGN ID: 7018059) 1929 89.4 × 115.5 Label text derived from Gamble's handwritten Drying Dyed Cloth notes Digital Collections, Duke University Library Date 1917-1919 documentary photographs by Sidney D. Gamble (1890-1968) http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/gamble_176-989/
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