Challenges in Water Crisis

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Information about Challenges in Water Crisis

Published on September 6, 2008

Author: hosinnchye


Slide1:  On Meeting the Challenges of A Water Crisis Slide2:  Talking Points Brief overview of Malaysia’s water industry Pertinent water resource issues and challenges Building a water literate urban society Slide4:  Why such Critical Concerns? Water resource demand has surpassed sustainable levels of supply in many areas. Economic development has degraded water quality and the natural environment. New water resources are increasingly expensive to develop. Funding has become a serious limiting factor. Slide5:  Why such Critical Concerns? Deteriorating quality and quantity of water has adversely affected our ecosystems. Inadequate knowledge base and support in integrated technically sound management. Inadequate public awareness, support and commitment in sustainable water use. Global warming will deepen water crisis making it intolerable. Slide6:  Overview of Malaysia’s Water Industry Nationalization of Malaysia’s Water Assets Slide7:  Evapo-transpiration from oceans and plants Rain falling on water catchment areas Dams and impoundments Water treatment plants Service reservoirs Sewerage and sludge treatment plants Treated effluents discharged into rivers and seas Water supply reticulation and sewer network Key Components of the Water Industry 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Value Chain Slide8:  Main Challenges of 9th Malaysia Plan for the Water Sector To deliver facilities or services of a high quality To ensure an efficient and effective delivery system to meet the rising aspirations of the people To optimize the use of water resources as well as protecting the environment Slide9:  Rehabilitation of Water Supply Systems Modernization of Water Supply Systems Water Resources Development Water Treatment & Distribution Inter-State Raw Water Transfer Five strategic action plans under the 9th Malaysia Plan Slide10:  WATER SERVICE SECTOR Ministry of Energy, Water and Communication (to improve water services sector) Water supply services (formerly Ministry of Works) Sewerage services (formerly Department of Sewerage Services, Ministry of Housing and Local Government) WATER RESOURCE SECTOR Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (to improve water quality and aquatic resource conservation). Surface water drainage control and flood forecasting (DID, formerly under Ministry of Agriculture) Groundwater resources (Department of Mineral and Geoscience) Restructuring of Federal Ministries* * 27 March 2004 Slide11:  Water Service Industry Act (2006) National Water Services Commission Act (2006) Passing of two important Bills (Both Bills were passed on 10 May 2006. They provide a policy and legal framework for the regulation of the water supply industry.) Setting the enabling environment With Constitution Amendments (2005) Slide12:  To provide for and regulate water supply services and sewerage services. To establish a licensing and regulatory framework for regulatory intervention to promote the national policy objectives for the water supply services and sewerage services industry. The Act does not encroach nor does it affect the general application of existing laws on environmental quality and land matters and existing State powers over the water source. Water Services Industry Act (2006) Slide13:  The National Water Services Commission Act (2006) enabled the establishment of a corporate body, named “Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara “ (SPAN). SPAN is empowered to supervise and regulate the water supply services and sewerage services and to enforce the water supply and sewerage services laws and related matters. National Water Services Commission Act Slide14:  SPAN as an Economic & Technical Regulator of the Water Industry SPAN will oversee, regulate, monitor and maintain uniformity in the country’s water sector. It will address issues such as poor water quality, no supply, loss in earnings due to non-revenue water via leaks, water thefts and unpaid bills and the disparity in tariffs among states and poor enforcement. Slide15:  Water Asset Management Company (WAMCo or PAAB*) PAAB addresses the funding requirement of the water industry. It builds infrastructures (e.g. dams, weirs, treatment plants, etc.) to tap raw water and lease them to service providers. The service providers are to focus on just operations and maintenance only. * Pengurusan Aset Air Berhad, Ministry of Finance Slide16:  Responsible W.S. Institutions Slide17:  Current Water Sector Regulatory Structure Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications Concession Holders Ministry of Finance PAAB Licensed Operators Builds and owns water services infrastructures SPAN Regulates, Monitors Issues licenses Water Assets Slide18:  Federal Government takes over control and regulation of water supply and sewerage services from States. Water supply and sewerage services will be jointly regulated. Certifying agencies will be set up to approve plans, certify contractors and monitor compliance with subsidiary legislation. All water industry players must be licensed to treat water, distribute it and own a facility. Impacts on the Water Service Industry Slide19:  Current concession holders can migrate to the licensing system by re-negotiating their agreements with the Commission within a specific limit of time (deadline 31 Dec 2009). Targets will be set for service providers on non-revenue water, handling of consumers, compliance with water qualities requirements, etc. Impacts on the Water Service Industry Slide20:  Revenue – Cost Deficit Source: SPAN 2007 Slide21:  “Planning for well-being rather than calamity” Water Resource Issues and Challenges Slide22:  How should we perceive water? As a finite natural resource As a strategic resource As a limiting factor to economic growth As our life-line Slide23:  Basic needs (safe and clean water supply) Ecosystem protection (water pollution) Urban water supply (domestic, commercial and industrial uses) Securing food supply (water irrigation) Industrial needs (wastewater treatment, recycling for non-portable use) Hydro-electric power generation Challenges to Life and Well-Being Slide24:  Risk management (erosion, floods, storms, droughts, climate change) Sharing water resource (fair policies) Valuing water (pricing, equity, poverty line) Enhancing knowledge base and disseminating information Governing water wisely (institutional capacity, civil society participation, urban decentralization) Management Challenges Slide25:  Water Resource Issues in Malaysia Pollution Dams Inter-State Raw Water Transfer Non-Revenue Water Water Conservation Strategies Integrated River Basin Management Watershed Protection Public Awareness, Education & Empowerment Slide26:  Source: Malaysia Water Industry Guide (2007) Slide27:  Pahang - Selangor Raw Water Transfer Slide28:  Kedah-P.Pinang Inter-State Raw Water Transfer Securing water for Pulau Pinang Water Catchment Area Supplies 80% of Penang’s water need Note: P. Pinang consumed 262 x 106 m3 water in 2007. Slide29:  Causes: 1) Leakages 2) Meter under-registration 3) Pilferages Slide30:  Examples of Average Domestic and Industry Water Tariffs (RM/m3 calculated for first 35 m3) Source: Malaysian Water Association (2004) * revised tariff year Note: (a) Higher rates for higher consumption to discourage wastage (b) Cross-subsidy for domestic consumers by industrial consumers (c) Very low “lifeline” rate to accommodate lower-income consumers Slide31:  Urban Water Demand Management Water restrictions (short-term) Water conservation (long-term) Best practice water pricing Water use efficiency Water recycling, harvesting rainwater Demand management is an important element of the water industry. It aims to reduce water loss and increase water-use efficiency. Ways to achieve this include: Slide32:  Our Shared Vision Our freshwater ecosystems are safeguarded in a way that is consistent with the socio-economic aspirations of our people through innovative use of science and technology to conserve the rich aquatic resources in the interest of sustainable development. Integrated River Basin Management:  Enhancing the sustainable development of water resources and the aquatic environment An Integrated Approach Integrated River Basin Management RESOURCE-USE PROBLEMS Slide34:  “… improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems.” Definition of “Sustainability” Source: IUCN / UNEP / WWF. Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. (Gland, Switzerland 1991) Slide35:  Sustainable Development The challenge of sustainable development arises from these two major converging trends Impact = Population x Consumption x Technology Diminishing margin for action Sustainability Decline in resource availability and ecosystems Slide36:  Rivers and their Watersheds water capacitors, buffers and connectors nutrient regulators. life support habitats cradles of biodiversity They perform many vital functions as: stabilizers of local climatic conditions Slide37:  PROCESSES Physical Chemical Biological FUNCTIONS Hydrological Biogeochemical Ecological ATTRIBUTES Biodiversity Natural heritage Cultural heritage Scientific value Knowledge pool Inter-relationship between ecosystem structure, processes, functions, attributes and values RIVER BASIN / WATERSHED ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE 1. Geomorphology 3. Hydrology 2. Soil 4. Microbes, plants & animals Slide38:  TIME ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Disturbance Recovery Measure of Resistance Normal multiple states operating range Measure of Resilience Response of ecosystem structure and function to a disturbance Degradation (No Recovery) Slide39:  Freshwater Research National authorities and resource managers need sound scientific data and timely information on which to base their projections and decision-making. Slide40:  Elements of a Freshwater Research Strategy for meeting Critical National Water Needs The Fundamental Challenge: The national need to build an ever-improving predictive understanding of water resources and freshwater ecosystems. The Response: A national strategy for freshwater: Research / Applications / Technology Transfer / Education and Outreach The Strategic Goal: To ensure that water resources decision makers have adequate and timely information to protect, utilize, and enhance the nation’s water resources National Freshwater Issues: Biological Impoverishment / Altered hydrological regimes / Risks to human health and quality of life Slide41:  Integrating freshwater research priorities with management needs How can we predict environmental change resulting from alterations in the hydrologic regime? How can we ascribe economic values to our aquatic ecosystems not only in terms of the goods and services they provide but also the equally important non-use values (e.g. bequest value)? How can we build a research network that facilitates rapid and effective response to tackling new emerging water resource issues? … and so on. Slide42:  RESEARCH ELEMENTS IN WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Research on modified hydrologic flow patterns and their effects Research on physical, chemical and biological properties Research on ecological properties MODELLING Integrated research on controlling processes MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS EVALUATION Are mitigation efforts meeting management objectives and targets? NO NO YES Slide43:  On building a water literate urban society To modify water-use behavior To encourage voluntary water conservation Slide44:  Public Awareness and Education Activities Education programmes (printed, multimedia, CDs) Participative planning (EIAs, urban dev. projects) Learning with NGOs (e.g. MNS, WWF, WI, WWP) Competitions, awards, recognition programmes Demonstration cities and information centers Face-to-Face marketing with major water users Social marketing campaigns, news media, TV Published materials (“How to” series) School programmes (projects, posters), etc … Slide45:  Parting Shot On moving us from awareness to acceptance, then commitment Slide46:  Levels of Commitment (Patterson-Conner Model) Slide47:  Six Messages from Fullan about Change If people cannot find meaning in any reform it cannot have an impact. Existing strategies will not get us to where we want to go. Although short-term gains can be achieved by standards-based reform it is deadly if the conclusion is that organizations should do more of the same. The ‘learning organization/community’ is more than a cliché. It has to be pursued actively. We need to consider the collective good. We have to learn to live with change. Slide48:  Thank You

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