Published on February 18, 2014
Digital Re-print January | February 2014 Challenges in producing gluten-free baked goods Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk
F &Feed millinG technoloGy 36 | January - February 2014 Grain Challenges in producing gluten-free baked goods Figure 1: Effects of different gluten-free premixes on the colour of the crumb by Martina Mollenhauer and Lutz Popper, Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co. KG, Ahrensburg, Germany G luten-free has become a popular catchword. For a small section of the population it is synonymous with a strict diet, whereas others regard it as a lifestyle trend. What is really behind it, and what challenges does baking without gluten present? disease, but no antibodies can be detected in the blood. Nor is there any damage to the bowel mucosa. Relief can also be achieved with a gluten-free diet. Many of the persons affected tolerate small amounts of gluten again after a few weeks and can gradually determine their individual limit. The literature describes a number of disorders which make a gluten-free diet desirable or essential, namely allergy, coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity. The market Wheat allergy Medically speaking, wheat allergy is immune-mediated and can be detected by means of antibodies in the blood. The body usually reacts to the gliadins in the wheat protein. In the Western world the incidence is estimated to be 0.1-0.5 percent of the population. In most cases a diet totally free of gluten is unnecessary, since rye, barley and oats are well tolerated. Coeliac disease Coeliac disease is also an immune-mediated disorder; the cause in this case is the gluten proteins in the grain. The mucous membrane of the bowel is damaged and the uptake of nutrients impaired. In severe cases the symptoms include constant diarrhoea and nutrient deficiency resulting in weight loss. The incidence of coeliac disease is estimated at 0.2 – 1 percent of the population. However, as only 0.1 percent of the cases are diagnosed, there is a very wide margin of error. Under a strictly gluten-free regimen the bowel mucosa can recover, and the symptoms recede within a few weeks. Gluten sensitivity Gluten sensitivity is also fairly rare, affecting 2-3 percent of the population. Gluten sensitivity was not defined as a medical disorder until 2012. It is also termed noncoeliac gluten intolerance. The symptoms are similar to those of the allergy and coeliac ly by the FDA in the USA, ‘gluten free’ products have been defined as containing a maximum of 20 mg/kg of gluten. This low level necessitates complete separation of the production lines and storage facilities from those used for normal wheat products, or requires specialist firms that use no wheat products at all. The challenge to the baking industry in the production of gluten-free goods lies in the fact that the most important functional component, namely gluten, is missing. With its ability to form a network, gluten is responsible for the elasticity of the dough, its water-binding capacity and many aspects of the texture of the finished goods. While the gliadins determine the viscosity and extensibility of the dough, the glutenins strengthen the cell structure. In both yeast-raised and The total number of consumers with a medical indication for a gluten-free diet is about 2-4 percent. If members of these persons’ households and those who choose gluten-free nutrition as a lifestyle are included, the potential for gluten-free products increases to nearly 10% of the population. In recent years, all manner of different reports and publications have caused many consumers to think a gluten-free diet is more healthy in general. In his book “Wheat Belly”, William Davis Table 1: Premixes for gluten-free baked goods goes as far as to claim that Usage the consumption of wheat is Product level Description harmful in all cases. in % Surveys have shown that many consumers choose a TopBake Rice With seeds for rice bread 100 gluten-free diet as a means of Bread with a typical bread flavour losing weight, and mistakenly TopBake Rice 100 Allergen-free rice bread describe the products as “low Bread AF carb”. Although there is much With sour dough, for discussion of the reasons for TopBake Rice 100 allergen-free rice bread with buying gluten-free products, Bread QSD a dark, aromatic crumb we have found that only a TopBake WA 0.02 Enzyme/fibre complex for a small proportion of the buyers Pure (Rice)* -0.1 more succulent crumb suffer from gluten intolerance or have an affected relative TopBake Fresh 0.005 Enzyme complex to prolong 60 (Rice)* -0.02 the shelf-life living with them. If we examine the newly launched products Hydrocolloid for dough TopBake Rice (NLPs) on the supermarket 5 stability and enhanced crumb Concentrate shelves we find that glutenstructure free products constitute a Versatile mixture for Madeira TopSweet Cake trend that continues to prom100 cake, shortcake biscuits, Mix Rice ise good growth rates. doughnuts and wafers Product development In the EU, in the Codex Alimentarius and more recent- TopSweet Sponge Cake Rice 100 For light sponge gateau bases; simple to use *(Rice) stands for the gluten-free version of these products
37 | January - February 2014 Grain Hydronix Moisture Sensors Save You Money &Feed millinG technoloGy EXCELLENCE IN YEAST – EXCELLENT IN FEED Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors are designed and manufactured in the UK and provide accurate and cost effective moisture measurement and control in feed meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses. Hydro-Probe XT The Hydro-Probe XT has been speciﬁcally designed to measure moisture in organic materials, typically being installed in or underneath silos or in the material on a conveyor. e ad Ge any • Made in G in REAL BREWERS‘ YEAST in G ermany • M a de Hydro-Mix VII Biolex® MB40 acts prebiotic for immunity & resistance optimizes digestion processes Hydronix sensors include: • • • • • • • Digital technology with precise linear output Wide moisture measurement range Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors Choice of measurement modes Leiber GmbH Hafenstraße 24 49565 Bramsche Germany Not affected by dust or colour Different installation options Temperature stable Tel. +49 (0)5461 9303-0 Fax +49 (0)5461 9303-29 email@example.com www.leibergmbh.de firstname.lastname@example.org www.hydronix.com GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 13/01/2014 10:00:18 in G e r m a n y• M erm M ade i n G e rm y • an an ad e •M Both sensors offer a choice of digital measurement modes enabling the producer to select the best option for the material being measured. rm y The Hydro-Mix VII is a ﬂush mounted sensor that is ideally suited to installation in mixers, augers or the inlet / outlet of grain dryers. F
&Feed millinG technoloGy 38 | January - February 2014 Grain not clear. The cereal itself is certainly gluten-free, but in the course of the production and processing chain it quite often becomes contaminated with gluten. So oat products are frequently not recognized as gluten-free. Bread and rolls In the production of bread and rolls it is possible to work with either doughs or batters. In order to use standard equipment we have specialFig. 2: Comparison of ized in the use of doughs and a gluten-free sponge developed recipes based on base (left) with a sponge readily available rice flours and containing gluten starches. The first challenge we faced chemically raised goods, this interaction has was to seek functional ingredients that result an important effect on leavening and the in a crumb structure similar to that of bread. formation of the crumb; In gluten-free prod- Since the gluten network is lacking, various ucts the effect must be achieved with other hydrocolloids and vegetable fibres were ingredients, otherwise there is a risk that the tested in order to create a stable dough and volume will be much smaller and that the enable the formation of a crumb structure. As machinability is a further important crumb will lose its elasticity and become dry factor in industrial production, special considand rubbery. The raw materials available as an alterna- eration was given to it in our development tive to wheat, rye, barley and spelt flour are work. The tests showed that HPMC (hydroxygluten-free cereals such as maize, rice, millet or buckwheat and also the pseudo-cereals propylmethylcellulose, E 464) combined amaranth and quinoa. Instead of the flours with vegetable fibres from grain, leguminous themselves, the starches or suitable mixtures plants or psyllium achieves the necessary of these are used. The status of oats is stability and water binding capacity. We have presented this combination as TopBake Rice Concentrate with an optimized mixture ratio. Depending on the choice of raw materials and the products to be baked, approximately 5% is used in the starch and gluten-free flour base. Because of their high starch content and the greater mobility of the water in such systems, gluten-free bakery products tend to become stale very quickly. The crumb soon becomes dry and hard, and the bread is no longer pleasant to eat. For sliced bread, especially, and for pack sizes too large to be consumed within one day, we recommend using TopBake Fresh 60. This enzyme helps to prevent staling and keeps the crumb elastic. As with all other raw materials, care is taken to ensure that the carriers are gluten-free. In addition to the anti-staling enzyme, TopBake WA Pure can be used to optimize bread and rolls and achieve a moister crumb. This enzyme and fibre complex achieves good water binding in the crumb and creates a succulent mouth feel. Both TopBake WA Pure and TopBake Fresh 60 are used by companies that wish to enhance their own formulations. Since the quality of gluten-free bakery products has improved continuously in recent years, such “on top” ingredients help to maintain competitiveness. Ready-mixed flours As we have already said: the upper limit of 20 ppm gluten makes very considerable I NEVER WORRY ABOUT ACTION, BUT ONLY INACTION. —Winston Churchill Are you ready to take action against food contamination and product recall risk? Wenger’s food safety and hygienic procedures should play a leading role in your production. Consider just a few of our solutions: • Corporate Project Services, an entire division dedicated entirely to food safety management systems. ? • Equipment with less potential for cross contamination and product accumulation. • Closed-loop systems and improved product transfer to reduce “fugitive” dust. • High-Intensity Preconditioner for improved pasteurization and sanitation. • Machine designs that allow easier cleaning and product inspection. • Automatic control systems with tracking, traceability and recording. Contact us now for safety measures customized for your production. Turning ideas into opportunities. PROgREssIVE FEED PROCEssINg v F safe What will tomorrow bring wenger.com BELgIUm Wenger14.SafetyFEED.210x147.indd 1 TAIWAN BRAsIL ChINA TURkEY INDIA 1/23/14 11:22 AM
39 | January - February 2014 demands on the production and storage of raw materials and finished goods. The gluten-free cereals have to be stored and processed separately. In the production chain, regular controls and analyses of the intermediate products, ingredients, and of course the end products, have to be carried out in order to guarantee the absence of gluten. That is one of the reasons why the products are expensive. Various ready-mixed flours for rice bread are therefore available for reducing the risk of contamination as far as possible. These products only require the addition of yeast, vegetable oil and water. The product group facilitates handling, logistics, storage and controls at bakeries. That brings us to the next challenge: products based on rice have a characteristic but rather bland taste which scarcely compares with that of wheat bread. A mixture for typical rice bread is available under the name TopBake Rice Bread AF, AF standing for allergen-free. In the choice of the raw materials, care was taken to avoid all known allergens. The colour of the crumb of bread made solely from rice is very light; this is much appreciated in Asia, whereas Europeans tend to regard it as non-typical. TopBake Rice Bread QSD was developed in order to modify both the flavour and the colour profile. Use of a gluten-free sour dough makes the crumb darker and enhances the flavour (Figure 1). To achieve a flavour more typical of wheat bread, a mixture containing roasted seeds is available. TopBake Rice Bread has excellent sensory properties, but because of the seeds it contains some raw materials capable of causing allergies. Pastry goods Whereas bread and bread rolls are staple foods and therefore take priority in the basket of goods purchased and in development work, it should not be forgotten that the affected persons wish to enjoy pastry goods too. In this case the absence of gluten is less critical. In TopSweet Cake Mix Rice a raw material is available with which numerous products such as Madeira cake, shortcake biscuits, doughnuts or wafers can be made. When the ingredients were selected, importance was attached to universal use. Since the mixture already contains baking powder, emulsifiers, flavourings and sugar, no gluten-free raw materials have to be purchased specially, a fact that simplifies the manufacturer’s raw material logistics. Variations in the products can be achieved simply by adding egg, milk, fat etc. For light, beaten sponge gateau bases, a combination of rice flour and corn starch was chosen as the basic raw material. This results in a more pleasant, yellow colour than that of normal wheat flour sponges (Figure 2). The texture is light and the crumb succulent, similar to that of wheat-based products. Only whole egg and water have to be added. All in all, it may be said that the choice and quality of gluten-free products has improved considerably in recent years. This is due not least to the wider range of ingredients and additives available which have been developed specifically to solve the problems associated with gluten-free products (Tab.1). In the baking industry, ready-mixed flours offer manufacturers the certainty that the raw materials are “gluten-free” by definition, and they thus reduce the complexity of the supply chain and the cost of analyses. By doing so they open up an interesting possibility of participating in this growing market segment. Grain &Feed millinG technoloGy Maximize your process with lowest operational costs PELLET MILL • Low energy consumption • Low maintenance costs and excellent durability • Largest effective die surface • High lifetime of die and rollers References: Anon., 2013. Das BMBF-Leitprojekt Zöliakie. www.backzutatenverband.de/ index.php?article_id=58 Dar, YL, 2013. Advances and Ongoing Challenges in the Development of Gluten-free Baked Goods. Cereal Foods World 58(6), 298-304 Elgeti, D, Jekle, M, Becker, T, 2012. Beeinflussung der Qualität von glutenfreien Broten mit Pseudocerealien durch Amylase. 1. Frühjahrstagung des WIG, Freising, 29.03.2012 Gaesser GA, Angadi, SS, 2012. Gluten-Free Diet: Imprudent Dietary Advice for the general Population? Acad. Nutr. Diet. 112(9), 1330-1333 Dieterich, W, 2013. Wenn Weizen nicht vertragen wird. Mehlreport 22, Verband deutscher Mühlen w w w. a a r s e n . co m F
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