Published on January 13, 2016
1. EMBEDDED COMPUTING T S PRADEEP KUMAR http://www.pradeepkumar.org
2. Characteristics of Embedded Computing • To provide sophisticated • Complex Algorithms • User Interface • To meet deadlines • Real time • Multi rate • Costs • Manufacturing cost • Power and Energy
3. Why use microprocessors? Microprocessors are a very efficient way to implement digital systems. Microprocessors make it easier to design families of products that can be built to provide various feature sets at different price points and can be extended to provide new features to keep up with rapidly changing markets.
4. Why use microprocessors? Microprocessor executes program very efficiently. Some times one instruction per cycle. Sometime several instructions per cycle using multicore processor Second, microprocessor manufacturers spend a great deal of money to make their CPUs run very fast. They hire large teams of designers to tweak every aspect of the microprocessor to make it run at the highest possible speed.
5. Why use microprocessors? • Microprocessors are a very efficient way to implement digital systems. • Microprocessors make it easier to design families of products that can be built to provide various feature sets at different price points and can be extended to provide new features to keep up with rapidly changing markets. • Microprocessor executes program very efficiently. Some times one instruction per cycle. Sometime several instructions per cycle using multicore processor • Second, microprocessor manufacturers spend a great deal of money to make their CPUs run very fast. They hire large teams of designers to tweak every aspect of the microprocessor to make it run at the highest possible speed.
6. Challenges in Embedded Computing • How much hardware do we need? • How do we meet deadlines? • How do we minimize power consumption? • How do we design for upgradability? Does it really work? • Complex testing • Limited observability and controllability • Restricted development environment
7. Performance in Embedded Computing • CPU - The CPU clearly influences the behavior of the program, particularly when the CPU is a pipelined processor with a cache. • Platform: The platform includes the bus and I/O devices. The platform components that surround the CPU are responsible for feeding the CPU and can dramatically affect its performance. • Program: Programs are very large and the CPU sees only a small window of the program at a time. We must consider the structure of the entire program to determine its overall behavior. • Task: We generally run several programs simultaneously on a CPU, creating a multitasking system. The tasks interact with each other in ways that have profound implications for performance. • Multiprocessor: Many embedded systems have more than one processor— they may include multiple programmable CPUs as well as accelerators.
8. Computer Specifications Processor Core i3 Variant 370M Clock Speed 2.4GHz Cache 3MB L2 Cache System Memory 2GB DDR3 Graphics Processor Intel HD Graphics Hard Disk 500GB SATA Disk Ports RJ45, HDMI, USB, COM, ThunderBolt Network Wi-Fi 802.11, Bluetooth
9. Random Access Memory (RAM)
11. Cache Memory
12. Computer Function Wednesday, January 13, 2016 PRADEEP KUMAR TS 12
13. Computer Function • Program Counter • Contains the address of the next Instruction • Instruction Register • Contains the address of the current instruction • Memory Buffer Register (MBR) • contains the data to be written into memory or receives the data read from memory. • Memory Address Register (MAR) • specifies the address in memory for the next read or write
14. Computer Function • I/O Address register • specifies a particular I/O device • IO Buffer register • is used for the exchange of data between an I/O module and the CPU. • Memory Module • consists of a set of locations, defined by sequentially numbered addresses. • IO Module • An I/O module transfers data from external devices to CPU and memory, and vice versa. It contains internal buffers for temporarily holding these data until they can be sent on..
15. Computer Function • Processor-memory • Data may be transferred from processor to memory or from memory to processor. • Processor-I/O • Data may be transferred to or from a peripheral device by transferring between the processor and an I/O module. • Data processing • The processor may perform some arithmetic or logic operation on data. • Control • An instruction may specify that the sequence of execution be altered. For example, the processor may fetch an instruction from location 149, which specifies that the next instruction be from location 182. The processor will remember this fact by setting the program counter to 182.Thus, on the next fetch cycle, the instruction will be fetched from location 182 rather than 150.
16. Family of Microcontrollers Intel 4004 • first single-chip microprocessor • Introduced November 15, 1971 • Clock rate 740 kHz • 0.07 MIPS • Bus Width 8 bits (multiplexed address/data due to limited pins) • PMOS • Number of Transistors 2,300 at 10 µm • Addressable Memory 640 bytes • Program Memory 4 KB (4 KB) • One of the earliest Commercial Microprocessors • Originally designed to be used in Busicom calculator
17. Intel 4004
18. Family of Microcontrollers • 8008 • Introduced April 1, 1972 • Clock rate 500 kHz (8008–1: 800 kHz) • 0.05 MIPS • Bus Width 8 bits (multiplexed address/data due to limited pins) • Enhancement load PMOS logic • Number of Transistors 3,500 at 10 µm • Addressable memory 16 KB • Typical in early 8 bit microcomputers, dumb terminals, general calculators • Developed in tandem with 4004 • Originally intended for use in the Datapoint 2200 microcomputer • Key volume deployment in Texas Instruments 742 microcomputer in >3,000 Ford dealerships
19. Family of Microcontrollers 8080 • Introduced April 1, 1974 • Clock rate 2 MHz (very rare 8080B: 3 MHz) • 0.64 MIPS • Bus Width 8 bits data, 16 bits address • Enhancement load NMOS logic • Number of Transistors 6,000 • Assembly language downwards compatible with 8008. • Addressable memory 64 KB • Up to 10X the performance of the 8008 • Used in the Altair 8800, Traffic light controller, cruise missile • Required six support chips versus 20 for the 8008
20. Family of Microcontrollers 8085 • Introduced March 1976 • Clock rate 3 MHz • 0.37 MIPS • Bus Width 8 bits data, 16 bits address • Depletion load NMOS logic • Number of Transistors 6,500 at 3 µm • Binary compatible downwards with the 8080. • Used in Toledo scales. Also was used as a computer peripheral controller – modems, harddisks,printers, etc... • CMOS 80C85 in Mars Sojourner, Radio Shack Model 100 portable. • High level of integration, operating for the first time on a single 5 volt power supply, from 12 volts previously. Also featured serial I/O,3 maskable interrupts,1 Non-maskable interrupt,1 externally expandable interrupt w/,status,DMA.
21. Intel 8051 • The 8051 architecture provides many functions (CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O, interrupt logic, timer, etc.) in a single package • 8-bit ALU, Accumulator and 8-bit Registers; hence it is an 8- bit microcontroller • 8-bit data bus – It can access 8 bits of data in one operation • 16-bit address bus – It can access 216 memory locations – 64 KB (65536 locations) each of RAM and ROM • On-chip RAM – 128 bytes (data memory) • On-chip ROM – 4 Kbyte (program memory) • Four byte bi-directional input/output port • UART (serial port) • Two 16-bit Counter/timers • Interrupt priority • Power saving mode (on some derivatives)
22. Intel 8051
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