Published on May 20, 2009
Chapter 9 Production (2) Food and Beverage Operations Tuesday, May 19, 2009 1
Chapter Outline • Functions & principles of food production • Preparation and cooking methods for fruits & vegetables • Four characteristics of meat & poultry and their cooking methods • Preparing fish, eggs and diary products Tuesday, May 19, 2009 2 Misenplace: Primary Purpose is to hold and prepare food ready to cook quickly
Chapter Outline (cont.) • Ingredients for baked products • Serving coffee and tea • Concerns and controls in food and beverage production Tuesday, May 19, 2009 3
Production Planning • Incorporate quality standards • Determine quantity of menu items • Forecasting with sales history records Tuesday, May 19, 2009 4
Three Food Production Functions Food Production Activities Preparing Cooking Holding Tuesday, May 19, 2009 5
Why Food is Prepared? • Develop, enhance, or alter flavor • Improve digestibility • Destroy harmful organisms Tuesday, May 19, 2009 6
Cooking Methods • Moist-Heat (water + another liquid) – Boiling: in 212F (100C) water. – Poaching: in liquid below the boiling point of water. – Simmering: in liquid that is below its boiling point – Steaming: using water converted to an invisible vapor or gas by heating it to the boiling point. – Stewing: simmering small cuts of poultry or meat in a thickened liquid Tuesday, May 19, 2009 7
Cooking Methods (cont.) • Dry-Heat (hot air+ hot fat) – Baking: cooking with dry heat in an oven – Roasting: baking of meat and poultry – Broiling: at a high temperature on a rack – Barbecuing: broiling, grilling, or roasting – Griddling: on a solid heated surface, usually with small amount fat. – Frying: Cooking quickly in fat. Tuesday, May 19, 2009 8
Basic Food Production Principles • Begin with quality food • Make sure food is clean • Make sure food is handled properly • Use proper seasonings • Use the right preparation techniques and equipment Tuesday, May 19, 2009 9
Basic Food Production Principles (cont.) • Follow standard recipes • Do not cook in quantities that are larger than necessary • Serve food asap after preparation • Serve hot food hot and cold food cold • Make every presentation something special • Never be satisfied with a less-than- excellent product Tuesday, May 19, 2009 10
Preparing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Fresh Fruit Fresh Vegetables Availability and costs Structure Precautions and Classifications procedures Storage Storage Tuesday, May 19, 2009 11
Classification of Vegetables • Roots-sweet potatoes, beets, carrots, parsnips, and turnips • Tubers or underground stems-potatoes • Bulbs-onions, garlic, and leeks • Stems-celery, rhubarb, and asparagus • Leaves-lettuce, spinach, and cabbage Tuesday, May 19, 2009 12
• Flowers-cauliflower, broccoli, and artichoke • Pods and seeds -green beans, peas, and lima beans • Sprouts-soybeans and alfalfa • Vegetable fruits- tomatoes, eggplant, squash, okra, peppers, and cucumbers Tuesday, May 19, 2009 13
Common Types of Salads • Tossed salads • Cabbage slaws • Pasta salads • Molded salads • Fruit salads • Hot vegetable salads • Protein salads Tuesday, May 19, 2009 14
Cooking Methods for Fruits & Vegetables • Steaming • Baking • Frying • Microwaving • Boiling • Vacuum processing • Sautéing Garnishes Tuesday, May 19, 2009 15
Tuesday, May 19, 2009 16
Common Beef Cuts Diagram Characteristics of Meat • Muscle fiber • Connective tissue • Fat • Bone Tenderness Tuesday, May 19, 2009 17
Cooking Methods for Meat • Roasting • Broiling • Pan broiling • Frying • Braising • Simmering • Pressure cooling and steaming Tuesday, May 19, 2009 18
Preparing fish • Types of edible fish Finfish Shellfish Mollusk – Oysters, clams, scallops, mussels Crustaceans -Lobsters, shrimp, crabs • Cooking methods Tuesday, May 19, 2009 19
Cooking Uses for Eggs • Binding and coating- eggs help make ingredients stick together • Leavening agent –beaten egg whites increase a product’s volume and make it lighter • Emulsifying agent –egg yolks are used to prevent the separation of ingredients Tuesday, May 19, 2009 20
Cooking Uses for Eggs (cont.) • Interfering substance – eggs prevent ice crystals from combining to create a larger mass • Clarifying agent- egg whites trap particles so they can be removed Tuesday, May 19, 2009 21
Dairy Products • Pasteurization – a process of controlling heating that destroys bacteria to make milk safe to use • Homogenization - a process that breaks up fat particles so they will remain suspended in the milk. This prevents milk from separating into fat and liquid parts. Tuesday, May 19, 2009 22
Common Baking Ingredients • Flour –made by grinding and sifting wheat, rye, barley, or corn • Leavening agents –used to make dough light and porous by incorporating air or by forming gas • Fat- creates a tenderizing effect by coating flour particles and preventing them from coming together Tuesday, May 19, 2009 23
Common Baking Ingredients (cont.) • Liquids-used to hydrate starch and gluten; used to dissolve salt, sugar, and baking powers • Eggs-used to incorporate air into batter, add flavor and color, and add rigidity to structure of baked products • Sugar-adds sweetness, creates a browning effect, and serves as a yeast food Tuesday, May 19, 2009 24
Which of the following typically can change baking times and temperatures? • a. the brand of butter used • b. time of day • c. the mixer used in production • d. altitude Tuesday, May 19, 2009 25
Preparing Coffee and Tea • Coffee ▫ Urns ▫ Automatic coffee- maker ▫ Procedures • Preparing and serving tea Tuesday, May 19, 2009 26
Primary Concerns and Control • Make quality ingredients available for production • Ensure quality requirement are met Tuesday, May 19, 2009 27
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