Ch9 twentieth century pess

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Information about Ch9 twentieth century pess

Published on April 30, 2008

Author: Marcell


CH. 9 TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT:  CH. 9 TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATION:  THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATION The New Physical Education focused on developing the whole individual through participation in play, sports, games, and natural, outdoor activities. This new curriculum was influenced by educational and psychological theory that was developing at that time using children’s play and other natural activities for learning. 2 THEMES EMERGED MIDDLE OF 20TH c.:  2 THEMES EMERGED MIDDLE OF 20TH c. 1. Education “through” the physical def.: it included learning through the physical realm Education “of” the physical def.: to develop individuals’ physical fitness and sport skills THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS:  THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS   MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE:  MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE The Play Movement – the importance of play for children especially outside the schools. Playgrounds and parks provided for all. Women’s Physical Education – focused as preparing teachers but against competitive athletics. 1st female pres. of PE association was 46 years after it was established. Education “of” the Physical – to develop individuals’ physical fitness and sport skills. More physical testing. MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE:  MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE 4. Exercise Science –Four researchers praised for translating exercise physiology research into practice to benefit physical fitness. Among these names, is Dr. Kenneth Cooper who wrote a book in 1968 called Aerobics. Dr. Cooper established a research institute in Dallas which promotes preventive medicine. MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE:  MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE Human Movement – a.k.a. movement education – presenting movement challenges to students and encouraging them to think while learning skills. i.e. shmdwycm at a low level, hyt not using your feet. Mihovk taught this in EL PE. Scientific, Educational, and Social Ed. Physical testing, required PE, and sports within PE classes. Slide8:  Throughout the 1990s academic subjects was more important than physical education. So national standards were developed to show students what they should be achieving in PE. PE was not one of the core content areas tested in the schools, thereby decreasing minutes that a child should have during PE. TEACHER PREPARATION:  TEACHER PREPARATION After 1900 several universities offered professional preparation courses in PE. Each institution could design and implement its own curriculum. But this resulted in too much diversity. 1960 the AAHPER accepts NCATE as official accrediting agency AMATEUR AND COLLEGIATE SPORTS:  AMATEUR AND COLLEGIATE SPORTS Youth Sports Programs 1939—Little League Baseball 1950—Biddy Basketball 1950—AAU age-group swimming; later wrestling, skiing, and track and field 1967—AAU Junior Olympics Today, advantages, learning sports skills, socializing, teamwork, fitness etc. Disadvantages, exposure to media, adult domination. Slide11:  UM & OSU first collegiate intramural directors. For students to have more competitions than in PE classes, but not skilled enough for varsity teams. Campus Recreation includes non-athletic activities. Club Sports - interest in a particular sport or activity; non-intercollegiate clubs are self-organized, administered, funded, coached, and otherwise maintained INTRAMURALS COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR MEN:  COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR MEN investigate the future of football due to deaths and injuries, dishonesty, gambling, and eligibility.. 1906—National Collegiate Athletic Association was established by 28 colleges. Required to be students Six months’ residence for transfers Must remain eligible academically Slide13:  © 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education All rights reserved. Slide14:  Academic Problems Recruiting Issues Commercialism Loss of educational values PROBLEMS IN MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN – EARLY 1900s:  COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN – EARLY 1900s Competition might be physically and emotionally harmful Undesirable examples from men’s programs Societal belief of women as homemakers, not athletes Field Day- in colleges, 1-2x/yr. Play Day—teams from other institutions, then picnics. Sports Day—competed with teams but for social interaction and fun. COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN:  COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN 1923-1942, Women’s Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation Opposed participation in Olympics “A sport for every girl, and every girl in a sport” (not in book) All-American Girls’ Professional Baseball League (during WWII) Late 1960s societal attitudes changed COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN:  COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN Olympic development thrust after defeat by Russians in 1956 and 1960 Olympic Games U.S. Olympic Development Committee in 1961—”to broaden the base of participation for girls and women in Olympic sports and to provide better experiences for the skilled athlete” COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN:  COLLEGIATE SPORTS FOR WOMEN 1971 – AIAW formed and with the legalization of Title IX in 1972 had more money for women’s sports. Set standards and policies for women’s athletics AIAW Ended June, 1982 because Title IX mandated that the NCAA govern both men’s and women’s so the NCAA took over women’s intercollegiate athletics. AMATEUR SPORTS OLYMPIC GAMES:  AMATEUR SPORTS OLYMPIC GAMES IOC formed first part of 20th century. 1952 professionally trained athletes from USSR entered Olympic competition. This signaled the end of amateurism as the foundation of the Olympic Games. 1972 Israeli athletes killed Munich Games 1980 & 1984 boycott of Olympics. 1996 bomb at Centennial Park during Atlanta Games. Usually every 4 years, but 1994 decided every 2 for yrs. for winter and summer games. PLAY TO RECREATION TO FITNESS:  PLAY TO RECREATION TO FITNESS 1910—Boy Scouts of America 1911—Playground and Recreation Association of America 1912—Girl Scouts 1913—Campfire Girls 1930—National Recreation Association 1950s – beginning of outdoor ed. hiking etc. 1965—National Recreation and Park Association 1970s – fitness craze began FITNESS FOR CHILDREN:  FITNESS FOR CHILDREN 1953—Results of the Kraus-Weber Minimal Muscular Fitness Test: 58% of U.S. youth failed one or more items, while only 9% of the European youth failed. 1956 President’s Council on Youth Fitness 1963—President Kennedy changed the name to President’s Council on Physical Fitness By 1965 children improved in fitness 1980s school children again out of shape Currently obese children epidemic in U.S. TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972 :  TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972 “No person shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, or no recipient shall provide athletics separately on such basis.” TITLE IX TIMELINE (no):  TITLE IX TIMELINE (no) 1976—Schools and 1978 (colleges) required to be in full compliance with Title IX 1988—Congress passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which stated that Title IX applied on an institution-wide basis, including athletics 1992—U.S. Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs could sue for compensatory and punitive damages in cases alleging intentional discrimination TITLE IX TIMELINE(no):  TITLE IX TIMELINE(no) 1993—Gender Equity Task Force report that showed that women comprised 35% of the varsity athletes; received 30% of the athletic grant-in-aid dollars; were allocated 17% of the recruiting dollars; received 23% of the operating budget dollars; had access to 37% of the athletic opportunities for participation. Slide25:  1996—Females comprised 42% of the United States Olympic team competing in Atlanta; they won 38% of the medals awarded to athletes from the United States 1997—United States Supreme Court refused to grant certiorari and hear the appeal of Cohen v. Brown University, thus affirming that schools and colleges must provide varsity athletic positions for males and females matching the overall percentage of the student body TITLE IX TIMELINE(no) ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION:  ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION Adapted physical education is for exceptional students who are so different in mental, physical, emotional, or behavioral characteristics that, in the interest of quality of educational opportunity, special provisions must be made for their proper education. REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION 504— INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION:  REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION 504— INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION “No otherwise qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.” PUBLIC LAW 94-142:  PUBLIC LAW 94-142 The Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Required the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for every child with special needs, including specifically for physical education Inclusion—integration of children with special needs with students in regular classes

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