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Ch9 Behaviorism

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Information about Ch9 Behaviorism
Science-Technology

Published on October 16, 2008

Author: aSGuest1174

Source: authorstream.com

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Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences : Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences Chapter 9 3 Forces that formed the system of behavioral psychology : 3 Forces that formed the system of behavioral psychology The philosophical tradition of objectionism and mechanism Animal psychology Functional Psychology Clever Hans (1900-?) : AKA: Hans the Wonder Horse Resided: Berlin, Germany Considered to have numerical reasoning of a 14 year old boy Could add, subtract, use fractions and decimals Read, identify coins, play card games, spell, recognize objects, And performed feats of memory Wilhelm von Osten, Hans owner: Math Teacher Trained Hans and took no money. Believed Darwin's Theory of similar human brain processes . Clever Hans (1900-?) New York Times Article -1904 Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) : Born: 7-Apr-1859 Birthplace: Mayen, Prussia Died: 11-Feb-1924 Location of death: Hamilton, Bermuda Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Religion: Jewish Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Doctor Nationality: United States Executive summary: Investigator of artificial parthenogenesis University: University of Würzburg Medical School: MD, University of Strasbourg (1884) Professor: University of Würzburg (1886-88) Professor: University of Strasbourg (1888-90) Professor: Bryn Mawr College (1891-92) Professor: University of Chicago (1892-1902) Professor: University of California at Berkeley (1902-10) Scholar: Rockefeller University (1910-24) Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) Loeb, developed a theory of animal behavior based on the concept of tropism. Loeb believed that an animals reaction to a stimulus is direct and automatic. He argued that animal consciousness was revealed by associative memory. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) : Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) Download and Read his full works: The Mechanistic Conception of Life: Biological Essays Comparative Physiology of the Brain and Comparative Psychology Robert Yerkes(1876-1956) : Robert Yerkes(1876-1956) Education Ursinus College, Pennsylvania (1892-1897) Harvard University, A. B. (1898); Ph.D. (1902) Career Harvard University, Instructor and Assistant Professor in Comparative Psychology (1902-1917) Boston Psychopathic Hospital, Director of Psychological Services and Research (1913-1917) Helped create the Yerkes-Bridges Point Scale of Intelligence (1915) President, American Psychological Association (1917) Chairman, National Research Council Psychology Committee (WWI) Chairman, Committee on the Psychological Examination of Recruits (The committee that designed the WWI Army Alpha and Beta testing program) Continued to serve on the National Research Council (1919-1924) Yale University, Professor of Psychobiology (1924-1944) Founded and directed the Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology (1929-1941) Robert Mearns Yerkes, (inset)pictured in Orange Park, Florida, founded the Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1928. Robert Yerkes(1876-1956) : Robert Yerkes(1876-1956) …The study of other primates may prove the most direct and economical route to profitable knowledge of ourselves, because, in them, basic mechanisms are less obscured by cultural influence. Certainly it is unwise to assume that human biology can be advanced only by the study of man himself. This could be true only if he existed as a unique organism, lacking genetic relations to other types of creatures (Yerkes, 1943, p. 3). Yerkes, R. M. (1943, 1971). Chimpanzees: A laboratory colony. New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation. Robert Mearns Yerkes, (inset)pictured in Orange Park, Florida, founded the Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1928. John Watson (1878-1958) : John Watson (1878-1958) AKA John Broadus Watson Born: 9-Jan-1878 Birthplace: Greenville, SC Died: 25-Sep-1958 Location of death: New York City Cause of death: Infection Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Psychologist Nationality: United States Executive summary: Founder of Behaviorism Wife: Mary Ickes (sister of Harold Ickes, div. 1920) Wife: Rosalie Rayner (his student) University: MA, Furman University (1899) University: PhD Psychology, University of Chicago (1903) Professor: Psychology, Johns Hopkins University (1908-20) Author of books: Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (1914) Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist (1919) Behaviorism (1925) Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928) Argued that organizations like the Boy Scouts and YMCA lead to homosexuality. Girls in particular were susceptible because they held hands, kissed, and slept together in the same bed at pajama parties. John Watson (1878-1958) : John Watson (1878-1958) Adapted Pavlov's "reflexological" terminology to human behavior. His most famous conditioning experiment was the "Little Albert" study A small child, was conditioned with the fear of a white rabbit by repeatedly pairing it with the loud "clang" of a metal bar. This conditioned fear was then shown to generalize to other white furry objects, including a Santa mask and Watson's own white hair. Was the “father of behaviorism” in American Psychology Objective methodology applicable to humans and animals Physiological basis Polemical tone Emphasis on application His psychology dealt only with observable behavioral acts described as “stimulus” and “response”. He rejected “mentalistic” such as “image”, “sensation”, “mind”, and consciousness” as all assumptions. Download and Read his full works: Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist Behaviorism APA President (1915) Animal Psychology an antecedent of Watson’s program: : Animal Psychology an antecedent of Watson’s program: The existence of mind in lower organisms The continuity between animal and human minds John Watson (1878-1958) : John Watson (1878-1958) Little Albert Study The relationship between animal psychology and Behaviorism : : The relationship between animal psychology and Behaviorism : Is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal behavior during the first decade of the 20th century. Willard Stanton Small (1870-1943) : Willard Stanton Small (1870-1943) Used the Rat Maze and mentalistic terms Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) : Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) Born: August 31, 1874 Williamsburg, Mass Father of modern educational psychology 50 Years at Columbia University Wrote the first Psychology Doctoral dissertation to use animal subjects. Applied Animal research to human subjects Connectionism Thorndike stated in his book Human Learning “connections of varying strength between situations, elements of situations, compound situations, responses, readiness to responses, facilitations, inhibitions, and directions of responses. If all…could be… inventoried…[telling man everything]… nothing would be left out… learning is connecting. The mind is man’s connection-system.” Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) : Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) Animal Intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals Independent Simultaneous Discovery: Behavior: Stimuli response (Pavlov) Mechanist, objective learning theory that focused on overt behavior Believed psychology must study behavior, not mental elements or conscious experiences Developed Law of Effect 1898; Pavlov proposed similar law of reinforcement in 1902 Edward Lee Thorndike(1870-1943) : Edward Lee Thorndike(1870-1943) Puzzle Box Trial and Error Learning resulted from response tendencies by the animals over time Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) : Edward Lee Thorndike(1874-1949) Law of effect Thorndike in the Elements of Psychology, “Any act which in a given situation produces satisfaction becomes associated with that situation, so that when the situation recurs the act is more likely than before to recur also. Conversely, any act which in a given situation produces discomfort becomes disassociated from the situation, so that when the situation recurs the act is less likely than before to recur” Satisfaction undefined Law of exercise or disuse And “Any response to a situation will, other things being equal, be more strongly connected with the situation in proportion to the number of times it has been connected with that situation and to the average vigor and duration of the connections” Later deemphasized for more reward than to punish. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) : Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) AKA Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Born: 14-Sep-1849 Birthplace: Ryazan, Russia Died: 27-Feb-1936 Location of death: St. Petersburg, Russia Cause of death: unspecified Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Sexual orientation: Straight Occupation: Scientist Nationality: Russia Executive summary: Studied conditioned reflexes University: University of St. Petersburg Medical School: Imperial Medical Academy, St. Petersburg (1879) Professor: Professor of Physiology, Imperial Medical Academy, St. Petersburg (-1924) Nobel Prize for Medicine 1904 Copley Medal 1915 Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) : Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Conditioned Reflexes Psychic Reflexes Tower of Silence Reinforcement is necessary for learning to take place Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) : Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Conditioned reflex basics Unconditioned stimulus Food Unconditioned response Salivation Conditioned stimulus Light Conditioned response Salivation in response to light Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) : Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) Pioneer in many areas of research Accepted Women and Jewish as students and colleagues Degree from St. Petersburg Military Medical University Studied under Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig Was poisoned by Stalin for his diagnosis of paranoia. Defined the direction towards objectively observed overt behavior from subjective Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) : Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) Developed theory of conditioned reflexes Invented the term reflexology - defined as a scientific discipline that studies the response to external or internal stimuli Assumed existence of two psychological systems: subjective, the basic method of study is introspection, and objective a(conditioned reflex). Discovered objective psychology without recognizing it as such. Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) : Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) Associated Reflexes Applied Pavlov's conditioning principles to the muscles Conditioned stimulus reaction by associated original stimuli ; considered “reflexive” Believed higher level behavior of complexity could be explained the same way

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