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Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Junyo

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World-wide cherry production presented at the 1999 annual meeting of the Cherry Institute on 8 January 1999:  World-wide cherry production presented at the 1999 annual meeting of the Cherry Institute on 8 January 1999 Dr. Anita Nina Azarenko Dept. of Horticulture Oregon State University Slide2:  Standard cherry plantings in Australia- Melbourne area Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia Slide3:  Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) 1 st year: Head at planting (12-18”) Dormant: Head back to 6-8” (4 buds) Mould- Victoria, Australia Slide4:  Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) - 2nd leaf Year 2: Pinch at 6” of growth Let grow Goal: 30-50 shoots Mould- Victoria, Australia Slide5:  Multiple leader (Spanish Bush)- 4th leaf Year 3: Tie down Mould- Victoria, Australia Slide6:  Newer developments in Australia: Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) Mazzard Rain covers Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia 3 x 6m Slide7:  Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) after second heading during 1st leaf Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia Planted fall Headed 12” 2’ growth headed to 4-5” Dormant- head shoots to 4-5” Head again mid-season (May continue for total of 3 years) Slide8:  Growth response after mid-season heading Heading at planting Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia Slide9:  Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) - 3rd leaf Branch bending/cracking Thinning out Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia Slide10:  Rain covers: Metal pipe construction Gaudion- Alexandra, Victoria, Australia Slide11:  Lenswood, South Australia Multiple leader (Spanish Bush) ala Kym Green 1st leaf Slide12:  ‘Lenswood system’- Andrew Granger Hannaford-South Australia Spacing- 3m x 3- 4m Slide13:  ‘Lenswood system’- year 3 and mature Granger- Lenswood, South Australia Bathurst, NSW, Australia Slide14:  Tatura trellis- 1st year and mature Branching and vigor management tools: Irrigation PP333/Cultar Promalin Summer pruning Pickworth- Tatura, Victoria, Australia 1.7m x 4.5m Slide15:  Negueroles- Zaragoza, Spain Multiple leader- Spanish Bush Slide16:  Negueroles Observations: Branch bending in addition to heading Thinning out in 3rd or 4th leaf Soils, summer pruning and irrigation control vigor Prefer vigorous rootstocks for fruit size and quality Slide17:  Marsal- Tarragona, Spain Branch bending- cultivar dependent 3m x 5m Slide18:  Spanish Bush 3rd leaf ‘Sweetheart’ in Lerida, Spain Raventos- Huesca, Spain Slide19:  ‘Somerset’ Best later cultivar- before ‘Lapins’ Harvest very dark Excellent production Must prune for cropload Negueroles and Marsal Slide20:  ‘Sylvia’ ‘Newstar’ Negueroles Slide21:  ‘Summit’ - Spain Concerns: Chilling, pitting and soft shoulder (sunburn?), size/overcropping Adv: Market, good production (6.5-7.5 T/A), 3 weeks after ‘Burlat’ Raventos Slide22:  Sunburst Most profitable cultivar for Raventos, large fruit Hand thin Soft- OK for Europe 6.5- 9.0 T/A Some pedicel cracking Raventos Slide23:  7-19 (BC Selection 13N-7-19?) in Spain Very large and firm fruit, yield?, crack susceptible, red not black Negueroles, Raventos and Marsal Slide24:  Spain to Britain Raventos Italy C.E.S.A.C. Slide25:  Hydrocooling- Spain Raventos 8ºC in water 7ºC in storage before packing 1ºC after packing Slide26:  Lauri and Gerard Solaxe- Montpellier, France 1.8-2m x 5m Slide27:  Gerard Tatura axe- Montpellier, France 1.5m x 5m Slide28:  Gerard Vase with tying and disbudding- Montpellier, France 3m x 5m Slide29:  Gerard Rain covers- Montpellier, France Slide30:  W158 Edabriz Summit- 4th leaf CTIFL- Mr. Charlot Slide31:  M x M 14 Edabriz Summit- 8th leaf CTIFL- Mr. Charlot Slide32:  Summit- 3rd leaf Edabriz PHL-A CTIFL- Mr. Charlot Current order of preference for rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot:  Current order of preference for rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot Rootstock 1st significant production (yr) SL64 6-8 M x M14 4-5 Mazzard 8-10 Edabriz 3 Early assessment of ‘newer’ rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot:  Early assessment of ‘newer’ rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot M x M 14: no suckers, earlier production, some vigor control, wide soil adaptability W158 ~ M x M 14 or between Edabriz and M x M14 (depends on cultivar) PHL-A ~ M x M 14 but  precocity? Gisela 5: small fruit size, difficult to grow, requires vigorous virus-free cultivars and good soils Edabriz: requires good soils, intensive horticultural and irrigation management Early assessment of ‘newer’ rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot:  Furtos~ M x M14 or slightly smaller but not as precocious or productive SL405= Pontaleb, slightly more precocious than SL64 Early assessment of ‘newer’ rootstocks CTIFL- Mr. Charlot Vignola, Italy:  Vignola, Italy Often unirrigated orchards Rootstocks: Seedling, Colt, M x M14 (if irrigated) Problems with ‘Van’ and ‘Lapins’ on W53, W154, and W158 in 5th leaf- poor vigor and fruit size Primary cultivars: ‘Bigarreau Moreau’ (local cultivar), ‘Celeste’, ‘Van’, ‘Lapins’ Training systems: Vase Palmette- for platform picking and to avoid complete loss from frost Grower research- Vignola and Torino, Italy:  Grower research- Vignola and Torino, Italy Cultivars: ‘Ferrovia’- long stem, large fruit, medium firmness Grower research- Vignola and Torino, Italy:  Cultivars: ‘Elisa’=‘Durone Nero lll’?= ‘Anelone’= ‘Durone de Piacenza’- +27 ‘Burlat’, firm, good size (or ‘Regina’ time?) ‘Georgia’, ‘Sylvia’, ‘Sweetheart’ ‘Dragon’- from Greece, stores very well, small? Grower research- Vignola and Torino, Italy Grower research- Vignola, Italy:  Covers for rain, hail, and frost protection and delaying maturity Grower research- Vignola, Italy Approximate labor costs (per hr):  Approximate labor costs (per hr) Spain: $5-6 Italy: $10 Australia: $10-11 Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France:  Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France Training systems: Solaxe Edabriz recommended 2-wire trellis Plant, do not head, rub our buds and notch above 1 m Bend leader to horizontal on top wire (2.2m) 1.8-2m between trees Goblet/Vase M x M14 recommended 4-5 scaffolds, no heading and treat each branch as a vertical axis Slide42:  Training systems- Bordeaux, France Saunier and Claverie Goblet Solaxe Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France:  Rootstocks: Edabriz good soils vigorous, virus-free cultivars intensively managed Gi5 similar to Edabriz fruit and leaf size smaller than Edabriz Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France:  Rootstocks: M x M14 vigorous good fruit size more precocious than Mazzard Pontaleb (SL405) vigorous more precocious than Mazzard for well-drained, poorer,and calcareous soils good fruit size Cherry Research- Bourdeaux, France Slide45:  Hungarian selections: Alex (16/45) Self-fertile Ripens after ‘Katalin’ (after ‘Lapins’) Good size and cropping Firmness? Hungarian selections: ‘Katalin’:  Hungarian selections: ‘Katalin’ Bloom time same as Van Harvest same time as ‘Lapins’ Excellent production Red cherry? Processing? Slide47:  Hungarian selections: ‘Margit’ Medium fruit size Good to excellent firmness Inconsistent yields Early-mid (2 weeks before Van?) Slide48:  Hungarian selections: ‘Kordia’ Good fruit size (10-10.5 row) Good firmness Uneven ripening Harvest during ‘Bing’ Slide49:  Hungarian selections: ‘Linda’ Medium fruit size (11 row) Good to excellent firmness Harvest between ‘Van’ and ‘Schneiderspäteknorpel’ Blooms late (needs late pollinizer) Slide50:  PiKu 2 (4.11) PiKu 1 (4.20) Katalin Modified Brunner Method- Hrotko Slide51:  Pinch laterals that are too upright to 4-6” (mid-season) Do not head the leader Modified Brunner pruning- Hungary Slide52:  ‘Regina’- Bodensee, Germany on 22 June 1998 Late ripening- 10 days after ‘Kordia’ 10.5-11.5g fruit Late blooming (Zahn: ‘Sam’ and ‘Bianca’ pollinizers) Fruit set? Blindwood? Slide53:  ‘Kordia’- Bodensee, Germany on 22 June 98 Precocious Flat branch angles High yields Frost sensitive Blindwood Slide54:  ‘Linda’- Nürnberg, Germany ‘Kordia’ time Precocious Blindwood Fruit size? Miscellaneous rootstock observations in Rhineland-Pfalz, Nurnberg, and Bodensee, Germany:  Miscellaneous rootstock observations in Rhineland-Pfalz, Nurnberg, and Bodensee, Germany W154: many suckers more vigorous than W158 ~PIKU 1 (4.20) but more branching W158: appears incompatible with ‘Hedelfingen’, other cultivars? PIKU 1 (4.20) ~Gi 195-20 and W154 PIKU 3 (4.83) Most vigorous of the three Edabriz too dwarfing Slide56:  Kordia 3 cultivars on Gisela 5 Regina Lapins Different growth habits, trained to central leader (Vogel) Fritz Zahn’s rule:  Fritz Zahn’s rule Side branches should never be more than 1/2 of the trunk size at the point where the branch originates. Tricks/tools for central leader trees:  Tricks/tools for central leader trees Training: clothespins, spreaders, string, weights Pruning: stub pruning to force breaking of a horizontal branch for renewal, vigor control, and balance don’t head leader in early years mid-season heading of upright lateral shoots Disbudding: removal of 3-4 lateral buds subtending the terminal bud to encourage flatter angles Special thanks:  Special thanks Oregon Sweet Cherry Commission Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission All of my hosts while traveling Dr. Anne Plotto for her great interpreting skills and being an excellent travel companion

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