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Information about ch7S07govt2302

Published on January 1, 2008

Author: Clown


CHAPTER 7 THE PRESIDENT:  CHAPTER 7 THE PRESIDENT JOHN STEINBECK QUOTE:  JOHN STEINBECK QUOTE “We give the President more work than a man can do, more responsibility than a man should take, more pressure than a man can bear.” The writers of the Constitution intended for Congress to be the strongest branch – over times its power has declined and the power of the president has increased THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES:  THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES Head of state Head of government Global voice for the people of the U.S. Personification of the American image and a symbol of all the nation advocates and supports THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES:  THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES Crisis manager of the nation In times of sadness and trouble: Comforts and reassures the people Reagan comforted children who watched the Challenger spacecraft explosion President Bush reassured the nation after the explosion of the Columbia spacecraft and after 9/11 THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES:  THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES Priority setter for the nation State of the Union address Required by the constitution Presidents Jefferson to Wilson delivered their annual message to in Congress in writing In 1966 President Johnson moved the state-of-the-union speech to prime time Budget address THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES:  THE PRESIDENT’S ROLES Manager of the economy Held responsible Overseer of the massive government bureaucracy Recruiter and personnel director Person responsible for uniting widely diverse interests and groups in government and the public CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS:  CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS Article II of U.S. Constitution sets up the executive branch Requirements for President: Must be a natural-born citizen Must be at least 35 years old Must be a resident of the US for 14 years 22nd Amendment: Adopted 1951: President limited to two terms in office SUCCESSION PROBLEMS FIXED BY 25TH AMENDMENT:  SUCCESSION PROBLEMS FIXED BY 25TH AMENDMENT 25th amendment: Adopted 1967: Fixed 2 problems: What would happen if the President became too ill to serve (officially used for first time by President George W. Bush when he underwent a colonoscopy) How to replace the vice-president if vacancy occurred (has been used twice) In 1973 when VP Agnew resigned, President Nixon nominated Speaker of the House Gerald Ford to be VP 25th AMENDMENT:  25th AMENDMENT In 1974, when President Nixon resigned and Ford became President, Ford nominated Nelson Rockefeller to be VP NOTE: Gerald Ford is the only man to serve as president who was not elected to either the presidency or the vice presidency (only a few people in Michigan had voted Ford to be their representative) CURRENT SUCCESSION ORDER:  CURRENT SUCCESSION ORDER Presidential Succession Act signed in 1947 by President Harry Truman Sets following succession order: (1) Vice President (Dick Cheney) (2) Speaker of the House (Nancy Pelosi) (3) President Pro Tempore of the Senate (Robert Byrd) (4) Secretary of State (Condoleezza Rice) (5) Secretary of the Treasury (Henry Paulson) (6) Secretary of Defense (Robert Gates) PROPOSED SUCCESSION ORDER:  PROPOSED SUCCESSION ORDER U.S. Senator John Cornyn of Texas has introduced a new bill that would change succession order to: (1) Vice President (Dick Cheney) (2) Secretary of State (Condoleezza Rice) (3) Secretary of the Treasury (Henry Paulson) (4) Secretary of Defense (Robert Gates) (5) Attorney General (Alberto Gonzales) (6) Director of Homeland Security (Michael Chertoff) WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER:  WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER Country could be left with a president who holds views far different from those of the person elected by the American people. During the Reagan/Bush Administration, if something would have happened to conservative Republican President Reagan and VP Bush, liberal Democratic House Speaker Tip O’Neill would have become president. WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER:  WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER During the Clinton/Gore Administration, if something had happened to Democratic President Clinton and VP Gore, then conservative Republican Newt Gingrich would have become president. During the Bush/Cheney Administration, if something happened to Republican President Bush and VP Cheney, then liberal Democrat Nancy Pelosi would become president. WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER:  WHY CHANGE SUCCESSION ORDER Main changes: Take legislators out of the lineup. Reorder cabinet members (note that Homeland Security leapfrogged over several other cabinets to take the #6 spot). CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH:  CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH The president, vice president and other civil officers can be impeached by Congress (check on presidential power) House impeaches (majority vote) Senate tries and removes from office (2/3’s vote) Can only be impeached for treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH:  CONGRESS CAN IMPEACH Only two presidents have been impeached and none have been removed from office: Andrew Johnson Bill Clinton Only one president has resigned from office (only because he faced certain impeachment and removal for his role in the Watergate coverup): Richard Nixon IMPLEMENTS LAWS AND GRANTS PARDONS:  IMPLEMENTS LAWS AND GRANTS PARDONS Primary responsibility of the president is to implement laws of Congress President has absolute power to grant pardons and reprieves to anyone and for any reason – Supreme Court Justice Stephen Field wrote in a landmark 1867 decision that a pardon “blots out of existence the guilt, so that in the eye of the law, the offender is as innocent as if he had never committed the offense.” PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS:  PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS Pres. Andrew Johnson: 1868—gave full amnesty to southerners who fought with the confederacy against the Union President Jimmy Carter: 1977 – gave amnesty to draft dodgers during the Vietnam War (many had fled to Canada) President Gerald Ford: 1974: Gave a full pardon to Richard Nixon for any Watergate crimes he committed PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS:  PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS President George Herbert Walker Bush: 1991: Pardoned six officials convicted in the Iran-contra affair, including former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger President Bill Clinton: 2000: Right before he left office, signed off on many pardons, including one for his half brother Roger and another for Marc Rich, a billionaire fugitive from justice (very controversial) PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS:  PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS President George W. Bush: Will he pardon Scooter Libby, former chief of staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, for his recent felony conviction for lying to a federal grand jury which was investigating who released CIA operative Valerie Plame’s name to a newspaper reporter? PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS:  PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS As of August 2006 President Bush had issued 99 pardons during 5 years and 7 months in office—he remains the stingiest of post-war president in this regard. By comparison, Former President Bill Clinton issued 457 pardons in 8 years in office. PRESIDENT CAN VETO LAWS:  PRESIDENT CAN VETO LAWS President can veto laws Regular veto: Returns a bill to Congress unsigned with explanation for veto within 10 days – if not signed within 10 days and Congress is in session, bill becomes law without President’s signature Pocket veto: If Congress adjourns 10 days after a bill is passed and the president does not sign it, it is a pocket veto PRESIDENTIAL VETOES:  PRESIDENTIAL VETOES As of March 2007 President Bush has issued only one veto to a bill—it was the bill authorizing the use of federal money for stem-cell research—now that the Democrats have taken control of congress, the President will likely start vetoing more bills. By comparison, other presidents have issued more vetoes: PRESIDENTIAL VETOES:  PRESIDENTIAL VETOES Bill Clinton vetoed 37 bills over two terms. George H. W. Bush vetoed 44 bills in his four-year term. Ronald Reagan vetoed 78 bills in his eight-year term. PRESIDENTIAL VETOES:  Most presidential vetoes: Franklin Roosevelt with 635 No presidential vetoes: James Garfield More vetoes if President belongs to one party and Congress is controlled by other party: First two years Bill Clinton in office, no vetoes He was a Democrat and House controlled by Democrats Next two years Bill Clinton vetoed numerous bills 1994 Republicans took over control of House PRESIDENTIAL VETOES PRESIDENTIAL VETOES:  PRESIDENTIAL VETOES Once a president vetoes a bill, lawmakers have 10 days to override the veto—it takes a 2/3s majority of those present and voting in both chambers. NO LINE-ITEM VETO:  NO LINE-ITEM VETO If the President had the line-item veto, he could strike individual items from budget and sign the rest of the bill – this would help cut down on the expensive earmarks which waste taxpayer dollars and run up the national deficit. NO LINE-ITEM VETO:  NO LINE-ITEM VETO The President briefly had this power when the Republicans took over the House in 1994 and Congress passed a law giving the President a line-item veto. However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck it down as unconstitutional. So now the president is back to either signing the whole bill or vetoing the whole bill and shutting down the government. The governor of Texas has the line-item veto. POSSIBLE MODIFIED LINE-ITEM VETO:  POSSIBLE MODIFIED LINE-ITEM VETO Republican leaders and President Bush are pushing a new version of the line-item veto. Under the proposal, Bush would line-item veto individual spending items and wasteful hometown projects and send them back to Congress for an up-or-down vote. Under the proposal, lawmakers would have to vote on these items. If majorities in both the House and the Senate agreed with the President, the cuts would take effect. PRESIDENT CAN CREATE NATIONAL MONUMENTS:  PRESIDENT CAN CREATE NATIONAL MONUMENTS Under the 1906 National Antiquities Act, the President has authority to create national monuments to preserve the nation’s ancient cultural sites and unusual geological features. In June 2006 President Bush announced the creation of the world’s largest marine protected area—a group of remote Hawaiian islands that cover 84 million acres (about the size of California) – the island are home to 7,000 species of birds, fish and marine mammals—it’s the United States’ 75th national monument—it’s the single-largest act of ocean conservation in history. EXECUTIVE POWER:  EXECUTIVE POWER Has historically included powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution Executive privilege Right to keep confidential communications within the Executive branch from other branches But, Nixon was forced by U.S. Supreme Court to turn over Oval Office tape recordings to Watergate prosecutors and other defendants And Clinton was forced to give deposition in Paula Jones case like any other civilian because lawsuit didn’t involve military or diplomatic matters IMPOUNDMENT OF FUNDS:  IMPOUNDMENT OF FUNDS Congress has the power of the purse: power to tax and spend In the past when President didn’t like the way Congress was appropriating money for his Executive Branch, he just refused to spend the money—this is called an impoundment of funds 1974: Congress outlawed impoundment: President required to spend all appropriated funds PERKS OF THE PRESIDENT’S JOB:  PERKS OF THE PRESIDENT’S JOB A nice house A salary of $400,000 per year Clinton: Made $200,000 (pay of the President was doubled while Clinton was President, but it went into effect with the next President, Bush) Bush: Makes $400,000 An expense account of $50,000 per year (taxable) PERKS OF THE PRESIDENT’S JOB:  PERKS OF THE PRESIDENT’S JOB Travel expenses of $100,000 per year (tax-free) Staff support and Secret Service protection A White House staff of 400-500 persons A place in the country: Camp David A personal airplane: Air Force One A fine chef PERKS OF THE PRESIDEN’S JOB:  PERKS OF THE PRESIDEN’S JOB Has an official website and webmaster It’s Used to be confused with a pornographic website, – not a problem any more because the owners sold their rights to the URL to a white pages telephone directory of some sort. PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE:  PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE Pension equal to the pay of a cabinet member: $175,700 Office staff expenses: $150,000 first year and $96,000 subsequent years Franking privilege for mail (except for political mail) Travel allowance covering expenses for president plus two staffers PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE:  PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE Secret-service protection for president and spouse for 10 years after leaving office Recently changed – used to have secret-service protection for life (Clinton last president to get this) Office space: Clinton at first wanted office in Midtown New York: $800,000/yr. After much criticism, settled for office in Harlem: $350,000/yr. PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE:  PERKS AFTER PRESIDENT LEAVES OFFICE Entitled to state funerals (presidents, former presidents, and presidents elect) – or families can opt for a private funeral Military has a 138-page booklet that lays out the A-to-Z details of every aspect of a state funeral Ford, Reagan, Johnson, and Kennedy opted for state funerals Nixon opted for a private funeral CLINTON’S MAKING BIG BUCKS:  CLINTON’S MAKING BIG BUCKS Book deal: $12 million (book came out in Summer 2004) Hillary’s book deal: $8 million (came out in 2003) In the six years since Bill Clinton left the presidency, he as taken in nearly $40 million—between $9 and $10 million in 2006– Clinton average almost a speech a day. CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY:  CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY In November 2004 Clinton opened his presidential library in Little Rock Arkansas Some say it looks like a Star Wars Diner – the construction crew referred to it as “The Mobile Home” The library was funded by private donors, but it will be maintained at taxpayer expense. CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY:  CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY It’s expected to generate up to 300,000 tourists a year to Little Rock, generating an estimated $17.5 million in sales. The library includes a full-size replica of the Oval Office, a duplicate Cabinet Room, and a 1993 black armored Cadillac limo Clinton used abroad. It contains the sunglasses Clinton wore when he played the saxophone on “The Arsenio Hall Show” in the 1992 presidential campaign CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY:  CLINTON OPENS PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY It has a 28-acre park for picnics. It’s the biggest of the 11 presidential libraries in the national library system. It’s also the most expensive of the presidential libraries: $165 million CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE:  CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE Clinton planned to campaign for 2004 Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, but was sidelined fairly early on because he needed to recuperate from his quadruple bypass surgery. Clinton is building his charitable organization called the Clinton Foundation which will focus on AIDS treatment in poor countries, economic empowerment of the poor, public service, and religious tolerance in Ireland and India – wants it to equal the good works of former President Jimmy Carter who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE:  CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE In 2005 Clinton raised $1.25 billion and in 2006 $7.3 billion in money and programs at an event called Global Initiative in Manhattan intended to combat global problems such as poverty, religious conflicts, global warming, and reducing government corruption in poor nations. Clinton was named by President George W. Bush, along with former President George Herbert Walker Bush, to head up the civilian fundraising efforts for the victims of the Tsunami disaster. CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE:  CLINTON’S LIFE AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE The Bush/Clinton duo also teamed up to raise money for Hurricane Katrina relief. The two (one a Republican and the other a Democrat) have supposedly become good friends. In October 2006 Clinton helped broker a deal in which five big makers of snack foods agreed to discourage schools from stocking vending machines with treats that are high in calories, fat, sugar and salt. GWB PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY:  GWB PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY President George W. Bush plans to put his presidential library at Laura’s alma mater, Southern Methodist University in Dallas. The Bush’s lived in Dallas while he was the managing partner for the Texas Rangers and likely will return to live there at the end of Bush’s second term. The Bush’s are Methodist and this is a Methodist university. PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE:  PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE Important for President to maintain image of power: Helps him persuade other branches, parties, interest groups, and other nations If President popular, his ability to persuade is enhanced President usually popular during crisis PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE:  PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE President Bush’s approval rating soared after 9/11 and stayed high for a long time –later dropped due to mounting chaos in Iraq and Afghanistan, rising gasoline prices, rising health-care costs, and stagnant job growth. – went below 50% (dangerous sign) right before the November 2, 2004 presidential election (historically has meant defeat) – but Bush made history by winning. PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE:  PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE By November 2006, President Bush’s approval rating had dropped below 40% and the Democrats took back control of the House in the 2006 midterm for the first time in 12 years Many Americans were unhappy about the President’s and other Republicans’ involvement in the Terry Shiavo case Many Americans were weary of the War in Iraq which has turned into a civil war Some economic-conservative Republicans are unhappy with the growing budget deficits. PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE:  PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE Many Americans were frustrated with paying such high prices for gas while reading about record high profits by oil companies. Some conservative Republicans became frustrated when the president named Harriet Miers to replace Sandra Day O’Connor (she later stepped down, and Bush named a person more to their liking: Samuel Alito). PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE:  PRESIDENT’S REAL POWER: POWER TO PERSUADE President usually popular right after election: Honeymoon period Reagan pushed through a big tax cut right after elected Bush I wasted his honeymoon period Clinton pushed through a deficit-reduction bill President’s regular and easy access to media is powerful tool in getting support from public – can call press conferences PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR A sense of humor helps win an audience over John F. Kennedy: (Had been criticized for naming his brother Bobby to be the Attorney General): “Bobby wants to practice law and I thought he ought to get a little experience.” PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR John F. Kennedy: (in response to criticism that his rich father bought his son a primary election in West Virginia in 1960): At a Gridiron Dinner, Kennedy pulled a piece of paper from his pocket and said he wanted to read a telegram from his father which said: “Dear Jack, don’t go after Alaska and Hawaii. You don’t need them and I can’t afford them.” PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR Ronald Reagan to his wife Nancy after she rushed to the hospital to see him after he was shot by John Hinkley in 1981: “Honey, I forgot to duck.” Also commented to the surgeons as they rushed him into the operating room: “I sure hope you all are Republicans.” PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR Calvin Coolidge: Known for being a man of few words. Once a society woman sat down next to Coolidge and said: “You must talk to me, Mr. Coolidge. I made a bet today that I could get more than two words out of you.” The president replied : “You lose.” PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR Abraham Lincoln: Responding to a political foe who labeled him two-faced, Lincoln said: “If I had another face, do you think I’d wear this one?” PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR:  PRESIDENTIAL HUMOR President George W. Bush can be funny too. At the March 2007 Radio and Television Correspondents’ Association dinner, when asked how things had changed since the last broadcasters’ dinner, Bush said: “A year ago, my approval rating was in the 30s, my nominee for the supreme court had just withdrawn, and my vice president had shot someone—ah, those were the good ol’ days.” PRESIDENT’S POWER WITHIN HIS PARTY:  PRESIDENT’S POWER WITHIN HIS PARTY President’s position as leader of his political party allows the president to direct the focus of the party’s policy positions and to control anyone who would challenge him politically Used by President Ford in 1976 to defeat challenger Ronald Reagan (who had to wait until 1980 to run for president) Used by President Carter in 1980 to defeat challenger Ted Kennedy CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF BUREAUCRACY:  CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF BUREAUCRACY President oversees the nation’s 2.8 million employee bureaucracy Provides direction through persuasion, bargaining, negotiating and compromising Can use executive orders to implement policies Executive order can direct a specific federal agency to carry out the president’s wishes CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF BUREAUCRACY:  CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF BUREAUCRACY Reagan and Bush I used executive agreements to implement “gag rule”: Family-planning clinics that received federal funds could not mention abortion as an option Clinton when elected rescinded the “gag rule” Bush II reinstated the “gag rule” President appoints about 3,000 of the bureaucracy’s 2.8 million employees – can help shape policy PRESIDENT IMPORTANT IN BUDGET:  PRESIDENT IMPORTANT IN BUDGET Congress has the power of the purse But, President develops budget with help of the Office of Management and Budget (since 1921)—President George W. Bush’s director of the OMB, John Bolton, recently took Andy Card’s place as Bush’s chief of staff. Gives annual budget address to Congress Final budget usually looks a lot like the President’s recommendations PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET:  PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET Cabinet members appointed by President and confirmed by Senate Each cabinet member supervises agencies that make up the federal bureaucracy which are staffed with civil-service, career employees Carry the president’s policy preferences down from the president to the bureaucracy PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET:  PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET Cabinet members rarely all get together If they do, the oldest cabinet positions sit on the left and right of the president (custom) Secretary of State Secretary of Treasury President Bush’s cabinet includes the Vice President and the head of 15 executive departments PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET:  PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET Under Bush cabinet-level rank has also been accorded to the: Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency Director, Office of Management and Budget Czar, National Drug Control Policy U.S. Trade Representative PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET:  PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET A few of the important cabinet members of the Bush administration: Secretary of State: Condoleezza Rice – first term Colin Powell Secretary of Treasury: Henry Paulson (a highly-regarded wall Street Financier) Secretary of Defense: Robert Gates (formerly the President of Texas A & M University)—he replaced Donald Rumsfeld Attorney General, Dept. of Justice: Alberto Gonzales (Texan) – first term John Ashcroft PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET:  PRESIDENT APPOINTS CABINET Department of Education: Margaret Spellings (Texan) Department of Transportation: Mary Peters (the second woman to serve in this position—the first was Elizabeth Dole, now a U.S. Senator from North Carolina ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES:  ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES More info about Attorney General Alberto Gonzales Was one of 8 children who grew up in a two-bedroom house north of Houston – he didn’t have hot water or a telephone until he was in high school As a 12-year-old, his first job was selling sodas at Rice University football games ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES:  ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES There was never any discussion about Gonzales going to college by parents or teachers – he didn’t consider it to be an option so he joined the Air Force and was sent to a base in Alaska Got into the Air Force Academy and eventually transferred to Rice University After Rice, he went to Harvard Law School ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES:  ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES After law school went to work for a large law firm in Houston: Vinson, Elkins When George W. Bush became governor he became the governor’s lawyer Texas Governor George W. Bush appointed Gonzales to the Texas Supreme Court When Bush became President, he named Gonzales as his White House Council ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES:  ATTORNEY GENERAL ALBERTO GONZALES When Bush was re-elected to a second term, he appointed Alberto Gonzales to be his Attorney General (John Ashcroft stepped down at the end of the first term) Gonzales is America’s first Hispanic Attorney General In early 2007 critics began urging President Bush to fire Gonzales for his less-than-truthfulness about his role in the firing of eight federal prosecutors. PRESIDENT BUSH CREATED NEW CABINET POSITION:  PRESIDENT BUSH CREATED NEW CABINET POSITION Department of Homeland Security Largest government reorganization since 1947 New department brought together within a single entity 170,000 employees previously serving in 22 different agencies The first Secretary of the new department was Tom Ridge (former governor of Pennsylvania) He stepped down at the end of Bush’s first term, and Bush appointed Michael Chertoff to be the Secretary of Homeland Security – Chertoff used to be a U.S. Circuit Judge for the 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals PRESIDENT BUSH CREATED NEW CABINET POSITION:  PRESIDENT BUSH CREATED NEW CABINET POSITION Now in the Department of Homeland Security INS enforcement functions (used to be in Justice Department) Customs Service (used to be in Treasury Dept.) Secret Service (used to be in Treasury Dept.) Coast Guard (used to be in Transportation Dept.) FEMA (used to be an independent agency—FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina was woefully inadequate—there’s some talk about making it independent again). NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL:  NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL Inner cabinet created in 1947 to advise president and coordinate foreign, defense and intelligence activities Consists of the President, Vice President, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense Advisors to the NSC: Joint Chiefs of Staff, the director of the CIA NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL:  NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL Headed by the special assistant to the president for national security affairs (used to be Condoleezza Rice for Bush – then John Negroponte, former Ambassador to the UN – now Retired Vice Admiral Mitch McConnell) EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT:  EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Established by Franklin Roosevelt in 1939 Created to provide the president with a general staff to help him direct the diverse activities of the president Size of staff has increased: Franklin Roosevelt: 48 Nixon: 550 EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT:  EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Bush I: 605 President often picks associates of President from past activities (Bush chose people who had been with him when he was governor: Rove, Gonzales, Harriet Miers, Don Evans) Increasingly President is picking people with Washington experience These people do not have to be confirmed by the Senate – serve at the President’s pleasure EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT:  EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Normally includes: A Chief of Staff (John Bolton for Bush)—replaced Andrew Card who had been with GWB for five and a half years [average tenure is 2 years]—very demanding job—they’re usually the first to arrive and the last to leave every day. Deputy Chief of Staff (Karl Rove for Bush—sometimes referred to as “Bush’s Brain”--there’s a movie out by the same name). EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT:  EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT The National Security Advisor (Retired Vice Admiral Mitch McConnell) A press secretary (Tony Snow, who used to be a reporter for FoxNews—before Snow it was Scott McClellan, one of Carole Keeton Strayhorn’s four sons) The counsel to the president (Fred Fielding—replaced Harriet Miers who resigned in 1-31-07) Director of Personnel Assistants for political affairs, legislative liaison, management and domestic organization. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT:  EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Josh Bolton, Karl Rove, and Fred Fielding receive the top pay of $161,000. Back in George Washington’s days, the President only had two clerks and he paid for their salary out of his own pocket CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST:  CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST President has primary responsibility for initiation of national policy 80% of bills originate in the executive branch Article II, Section 3: President required to recommend measures and to give state of the union address President also has to lobby Congress to help get his initiatives passed CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST:  CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST Can put carrots in front of members of Congress (assist them in acquiring something of interest for themselves or their constituents) Presidential box scores are maintained by “Congressional Quarterly”: Indicates how successful president is in getting his legislation through Congress CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST:  CHIEF LEGISLATOR AND LOBBYIST President most successful when his party controls Congress 1992-94: Clinton/Democrat & Congress/Democrat 87% of his bills passed 1994: Republicans took over House 46.2% of his bills passed Gridlock: President’s failure to move legislation through Congress GLOBAL LEADER:  GLOBAL LEADER President leader of the world’s largest and most powerful democracy Can use position to persuade citizens and leaders of other nations More prestige for President when dealing with global issues than domestic issues FORMULATES FOREIGN POLICY:  FORMULATES FOREIGN POLICY President charged with formulating U.S. foreign policy Constitution says President has power to: Make treaties with advice and consent of the Senate Appoint and receive ambassadors Recognize or not recognize other nations RECOGNIZES OTHER NATIONS:  RECOGNIZES OTHER NATIONS 1933: Franklin Roosevelt recognized communist regime in Russia 1972: Richard Nixon recognized communist government of China 1979: Jimmy Carter recognized the Sandinistas’ regime in Nicaragua No president has recognized Castro’s communist government in Cuba ENTERS INTO TREATIES AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS:  ENTERS INTO TREATIES AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS Treaties have to be ratified by Congress Executive agreements by the President do not have to be ratified by Congress Presidents have, therefore, used Executive Agreements to conduct foreign policy 1940: Roosevelt agreed to trade 50 American destroyers to England in exchange for naval bases in Newfoundland and the Caribbean ENTERS INTO TREATIES AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS:  ENTERS INTO TREATIES AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENTS End of World War II: Both Roosevelt and Truman negotiated secret executive agreements dividing Germany into one part for the Western Allies and a second part for the Soviet Union Congress attempted to seize back power by passing the Case Act of 1972 President required to inform Congress of all executive agreements within 60 days RESPONSIBLE FOR INTELLIGENCE:  RESPONSIBLE FOR INTELLIGENCE President responsible for intelligence activities of U.S – various agencies assist: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) The National Security Agency (NSA) The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) Intelligence activities within the Department of Defense RESPONSIBLE FOR INTELLIGENCE:  RESPONSIBLE FOR INTELLIGENCE Ever since the Cuban missile crisis during the Kennedy administration, the president has always had a military aide at his side who carries “the football,” a leather briefcase stocked with the nuclear war plan. In actuality, there are three “footballs”: The president has one, the vice-president has one, and a backup is stored at the White House. COMMANDER IN CHIEF:  COMMANDER IN CHIEF President is commander-in-chief President may issue direct military orders to troops Only Congress has power to declare war Last declared war: World War II More than 200 times President has ordered troops into action COMMANDER IN CHIEF:  COMMANDER IN CHIEF Congress attempted to seize back power: In 1973 passed the War Powers Act Presidents have ignored it In early 2007 there developed a conflict between Republican President Bush and the Democratically-controlled Congress over the War in Iraq—in March 2007 both the House and the Senate passed bills calling for most American troops to leave Iraq by March/April 2008 – President Bush vowed to veto it when it got to his desk. COMMANDER IN CHIEF:  COMMANDER IN CHIEF President can also order use of troops in domestic affairs 1957: Dwight Eisenhower ordered troops to enforce desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas TRADE AGREEMENTS:  TRADE AGREEMENTS In August 2003 Congress gave President Bush trade promotion authority. Future trade agreements negotiated through 2007 by President Bush have to be voted up or down as is – no amendments allowed (fast-track approval) Bill Clinton tried three times to get trade promotion authority through Congress after it expired in 1994 and failed all three times (remember the Republicans had taken control by then of Congress) PRESIDENT CAN’T BE WIRED:  PRESIDENT CAN’T BE WIRED Presidents are not allowed to send or receive e-mail President Bush’s brother Jeb, the governor of Florida, once said he doesn’t want to be president because he loves his BlackBerry too much to give it up (announced that he’s not going to run for president in 2008, in spite of rumors to the contrary—most people don’t believe him). PRESIDENT CAN’T KEEP GIFTS:  PRESIDENT CAN’T KEEP GIFTS The President and Vice President and their families can’t keep any gifts worth more than $285 – they become federal property and are stored in the Archives. While in office, however, the President and Vice President can take the items out on indefinite loan from the Archives. Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah gave Laura Bush a diamond and sapphire jewelry set worth $95,500. Russian President Vladimir Putin gave President Bush a book of original watercolor portraits of the 43 U.S. presidents, bound in red velvet studded with precious gems, worth $45,000. PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES:  PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES According to a survey of presidential historians, these are the top 10 presidential blunders: #1 James Buchanan for failing to avert the Civil War. #2 Andrew Johnson for siding with southern whites after the civil war in opposing improvements in justice for southern blacks beyond abolishing slavery. PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES:  PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES #3 Lyndon Johnson for allowing the Vietnam war to intensify. #4 Woodrow Wilson for refusing to compromise on the Treaty of Versailles after World War I #5 Richard Nixon for his involvement in the Watergate cover-up. #6 James Madison for not keeping the U.S. out of the War of 1812 with Britain. PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES:  PRESIDENTS MAKE MISTAKES #7 Thomas Jefferson for the Embargo Act of 1807, a self-imposed prohibition on trade with Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. #8 John F. Kennedy for allowing the Bay of Pigs invasion that led to the Cuban missile crisis. #9 Ronald Reagan for the Iran-Contra affair (the effort to sell conventional weapons to Iran for money which was then used to finance an armed anti-communist group in Nicaragua) #10 Bill Clinton for the Monica Lewinsky affair. MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Some presidents quiet (Calvin Coolidge) Others presidents could hardly shut up (Theodore Roosevelt: Even when shot giving a speech, he continued to talk for an hour) Harry Truman was the only president this century who never went to college Gerald Ford was the only Eagle Scout to ever become President—when Ford’s body lied in state at his Grand Rapids presidential museum in January 2007, Boy Scouts, three by three, filed by his flag-draped casket to salute him. MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Gerald Ford surpassed Ronald Reagan’s record to become the longest-living U.S. President—both died at the age of 93. The U.S. has had two father/son presidents: John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams George Bush I and his son, George Bush II MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Some presidents complained about the job: Thomas Jefferson declared the presidency a “splendid misery” Andrew Jackson called the presidency “dignified slavery” Harry Truman referred to the White House as “the great white jail” MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Teddy Roosevelt openly declared his love for the job: “Nobody ever enjoyed the presidency as I did.” Ronald Reagan was one of the best presidents at communicating with and touching the American people – called the Great Communicator MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Harry Truman was courageous and principled in making some tough, often unpopular decisions: Fired General Douglas MacArthur because he flagrantly disobeyed orders from the President, the Commander in Chief MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS By executive order integrated the military in 1948 (even though his political advisors told him he would lose the next election) Made difficult decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan to hasten the end of the war and thus save lives Didn’t drop an atomic bomb on Korea even though pressured to do so Bill Clinton One of our brightest presidents Had an incredible memory (could remember a telephone number he hadn’t dialed in 30 years MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Had an incrediible ability to synthesize policy and events But had trouble controlling himself . . . Franklin Roosevelt #2 or #3 on every list of great presidents Guided America through two terrible periods in our history: The Great Depression and World War II MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Jimmy Carter recently received the Nobel Peace Prize for his untiring effort to find peaceful solutions Carter was the third American president to receive the prize. The other two were: Theodore Roosevelt for helping end the Russo-Japanese War Woodrow Wilson for establishing the League of Nations MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS James Madison (1809-1817): At 5-foot-4 inches and less than 100 pounds, he was America’s smallest president. William Henry Harrison (1841): The president who served the shortest time in office (one month and a day) – gave a very long inaugural speech in bad weather, caught pneumonia and died shortly thereafter. MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS James Polk (1845-1849): He didn’t like frivolity and banned dancing in the White House. James Buchanan (1857-1861): He was the first and only bachelor president; a niece served as his official White House hostess. Andrew Johnson (1865-1869): He never attended school – depending on whom you believe, he either taught himself to read or he was taught by a minister – he also was the president who married at the youngest age – he was 18 and his bride was 16. MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881): His wife Lucy Hayes was the first to be called the First Lady – he banned booze from the White House – initiated the first White House Easter egg roll. Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893): He was concerned about the safety of the White House’s new electrical light switches, so he refused to touch them – a lot of the time he went to bed with all the lights on. MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS:  MISC. INFO ON PRESIDENTS Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909): First president to invite a black man to dinner at the White House. The guest was Booker T. Washington. 5th-GRADER EXPERT ON PRESIDENTS:  5th-GRADER EXPERT ON PRESIDENTS Noah McCullough, a 5th-grader at Second Baptist School in Houston, has a book out entitled The Essential Book of Presidential Trivia. He’s a frequent guest on Jay Leno and CNN. He says he will run for President in 2032. WHITE HOUSE PETS:  WHITE HOUSE PETS Franklin Roosevelt: A Scottish terrier named Fala Jack Kennedy: A Russian mixed breed name Pushinka and a Welsh terrier named Charlie Lyndon Johnson: 2 beagles named Him and Her Bill Clinton: A cat named Socks and a Brown lab named Buddy (they didn’t get along) George W. Bush: A Scottish terrier named Barney, a cat named India (aka “Willie”), and a new Scottish terrier named Miss Beazley (George gave this puppy to Laura on her 58th birthday) WHITE HOUSE PETS:  WHITE HOUSE PETS John Quincy Adams: Kept an alligator in the White House Martin Van Buren: Kept tiger cubs Theodore Roosevelt: Had a menagerie of 35 pets, including snakes, badgers, a coyote, a wildcat, and a hyena HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS:  HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS Woodrow Wilson was our only Ph.D. president, but was, in many respects, a failure. Jimmy Carter was a nuclear engineer, but was a terrible micromanager (spent time deciding who played on the White House tennis courts while the economy was tanking and the Soviets were overrunning Afghanistan). Ronald Reagan was often characterized as an airhead actor who often slept through meetings but has been judged a successful president who was HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS:  HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS able to keep his eye on the big picture, make crisp decisions, delegate to subordinates, and not get lost in policy minutiae President George W. Bush is often characterized as not being very bright—in fact Bush’s grades at Yale as an undergraduate were better than Al Gore’s at Harvard. President George W. Bush’s SAT scores were actually higher than John Kerry’s. HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS:  HIGH IQ NOT NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS George W. Bush just appears “dumb” sometimes because he’s inarticulate. As one friend said: “Every morning George gets up and arm-wrestles the English language all day—he often loses.” WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE:  WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE Today we have three ex-presidents Cost taxpayers roughly $26 million a year for salaries, staff, travel, Secret Service protection Most ex-presidents have devoted themselves to writing memoirs, making money, building libraries – few have done acts worthy of a curtain call. WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE:  WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE President William Howard Taft became a Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court after leaving the White House. President Theodore Roosevelt created a political movement embodied in the Bull Moose Party WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE:  WHAT PRESIDENTS DO AFTER LEAVING OFFICE According to presidential historian Robert Dallek, the best second acts are: Jimmy Carter – went onto the world stage to defend human rights – worked with Habitat for Humanity to build houses for the poor John Quincy Adams – returned to Congress for two decades as the sharpest voice against slavery PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS Bill Clinton: By his own admission, he ate when he was under pressure, so he blimped out at times during his presidency Since leaving office he’s trimmed down – he hired a trainer, went on the South Beach diet, and had quadruple bypass heart surgery George W. Bush: Handles pressure by exercising, so his physical fitness improved after entering the White House—here are the numbers from his 2006 physical: Weight: 196 pounds PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS Height: 5’11-1/2” (down a ¼ inch from 2005) % of body fat: 16.8% Total cholesterol: 174 Blood Pressure: 108/68 Pulse: Resting, seated, 46 beats per minute (60-100 bpm normal for adult, 40-60 bpm normal for well-trained athlete) PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS Bush’s cardiovascular fitness is in the top 2% for men his age (58) But he’s no fan of health food – his favorite foods are bologna sandwiches and peanut butter and jelly sandwiches He gave 7up alcohol 20 years ago on his 40th birthday—he occasionally enjoys a cigar Is early to bed and early to rise Bush runs 3 days a week and supplements that with a “water jog” once a week in the White House pool. PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS Bush also uses an elliptical trainer for 25 minutes three times weekly and exercises his upper body by lifting free weights twice a week. Bush does have a mild hearing loss and is farsighted. PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS For such a physically fit president, George Bush has suffered a few mishaps. July 2005: At the G8 Summit in Glasgow, Scotland, Bush, while riding his bicycle around a golf resort, slid on slick pavement and collided with a local police officer on security detail, sending the man to the hospital. Spring 2004: Fell off a bike about 16 miles into a 17-mile bike ride, suffering minor abrasions June 2003: Fell while riding a “Segway Transporter” at his parent’s Maine retreat PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS January 2002: Fainted for a brief time in the residence of the White House while eating a pretzel and watching a professional football game on TV PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS The medical history of American presidents can be found at: Written by a doctor Examples: Eisenhower smoked 4 packs of cigarettes a day Franklin Roosevelt suffered from anorexia Abraham Lincoln suffered from color-blindness, a near drowning, malaria, depression, a jaw fracture during a dental procedure, dentist phobia, scarlet fever, and mild smallpox BEST PARTY HOSTS:  BEST PARTY HOSTS According to the Washington elite, the best presidential hosts were the Jack Kennedy’s, the Ronald Reagan’s and the Bill Clinton’s The Washington elite bemoan the fact that George and Laura Bush don’t do the party scene very often, preferring instead to socialize mainly with family BEST PARTY HOSTS:  BEST PARTY HOSTS The Bush’s are up with the sun and in bed most evenings by 9:30 When they do entertain, it’s usually away from Washington: Camp David Crawford Ranch Not as much fun as it used to be now that antiwar protester Cindy Sheehan is his neighbor—she bought a five-acre lot 7 miles from Bush’s Crawford ranch for $52,500. BEST PARTY HOSTS:  BEST PARTY HOSTS President Bush has only hosted 8 fancy state dinners during the first 6 years of his presidency In June 2006 the Bush’s hosted their last (8th) formal dinner honoring Japan’s Prime Minister Junichiro Koizum, who left office in September 2006 after five years in office. The Bushes gave the Elvis-loving prime minister a 1954 jukebox that plays 25 Elvis songs—later Bush took Koizum to Memphis to tour Graceland where he got to chat with Priscilla and Lisa Marie Presley. BEST PARTY HOSTS:  BEST PARTY HOSTS President Reagan held 57 state dinners during his two terms, and Bush’s father (#41) held more than two dozen state dinners during his single term in office. NO WOMAN PRESIDENT YET:  NO WOMAN PRESIDENT YET There are 31 women living today who are now or have been president or prime minister of their countries (Margaret Thatcher, Benazir Bhutto, Corazon Aquino, etc.) None of them is American NEW WOMEN PRESIDENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES:  NEW WOMEN PRESIDENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES In 2005 Angela Merkel became Chancellor of Germany. In January 2006 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf became President of Liberia (she’s Liberia’s first female president and Africa’s first elected female president—Condolleeza Rice and Laura Bush attended her inauguration). In January 2006 Michelle Bachelet became the President of Chile. WE’VE HAD A WOMAN PRESIDENT ON TV:  WE’VE HAD A WOMAN PRESIDENT ON TV The Fall 2005 ABC show “Commander in Chief” gave America a taste of what it might be like to have a woman president. An inordinate amount of attention on such things as the color of her lipstick (so many people complained about Geena Rowland’s orange lipstick that she changed to something more subtle). The difficult role of the First Gentleman VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Major responsibility of VP: Assume the presidency if needed Usually placed on the ticket by the president to balance the ticket: Moderate Ike Eisenhower chose Conservative Richard Nixon Northern Liberal John F. Kennedy chose Southern Conservative Lyndon Johnson VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Male Walter Mondale chose Female Geraldine Ferraro (only woman to ever be on a national ticket) Northern Liberal Michael Dukakis chose Southern Conservative Lloyd Bentsen Moderate George Bush I chose Conservative Dan Quayle VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Moderate White Southerner Bill Clinton chose Moderate White Southerner Al Gore But Gore had no womanizing scandals attached to him and Gore had gone to Viet Nam (unlike Clinton the Draft Dodger) Moderate Inexperienced George Bush II selected Conservative Experienced Dick Cheney Northern liberal John Kerry chose Southern moderate John Edwards VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT President determines what the VP’s role will be Kennedy gave his VP Lyndon Johnson nominal authority over civil rights and space policy (two high-profile issues) Johnson allowed his VP Hubert H. Humphrey to broker the deal that allowed passage of the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964 VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Bush I tried to hide Dan Quayle who was a constant source of embarrassment Clinton put his VP Al Gore in charge of the “reinventing government” initiative and made Gore the point man in diplomatic relations with Russia President George W. Bush confers several times a day with VP Cheney and rarely ignores his suggestions (immediately after 9/11 they made a point to never be in the same place at the same time) VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Out of 9 past presidents, 4 have been vice presidents before stepping up to the presidency: Johnson Nixon Ford Bush Four presidents were first governors: Carter Reagan VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Clinton Bush One has been a Senator: Kennedy The Vice President has a few perks: His own song: “Hail Columbia” His own seal (none until VP Nelson Rockefeller paid for one out of his own pocket) VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Office in the West Wing just down from the president Staff of 100 A house His own airplane: Airforce 2 How some VP’s describe their jobs: John Nance Garner (FDR): The job “wasn’t worth a bucket of warm spit.” VICE PRESIDENT:  VICE PRESIDENT Thomas Riley Marshall (Woodrow Wilson): “Once there were two brothers. One ran away to sea, the other was elected Vice President, and nothing was heard from either one of them again.” Thomas Riley Marshall (Woodrow Wilson): Viewed the vice presidency as a “monkey cage, except that visitors do not offer me peanuts.” KERRY COULD HAVE PICKED BILL CLINTON:  KERRY COULD HAVE PICKED BILL CLINTON The 22nd Amendment would not have prevented John Kerry from picking Bill Clinton as his running mate in 2004: “No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice.” No problem – Bill Clinton would be running for Vice-President, not President. If Clinton did succeed Kerry to the presidency, it would not be by election but through Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution which provides that if a president dies, resigns or is removed from office, his powers shall devolve on the Vice President.” The 22nd amendment does not prevent this succession. FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Most have limited their activities to the ceremonial portion of the presidency: Greet foreign dignitaries Visit other countries Attend important national ceremonies Generally act as America’s queen FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Two have played a more active role in the political arena: Hillary Clinton Bill campaigned by saying “two for the price of one” In Arkansas they were called “Billary” Put in charge of drafting the health care reform proposal Wrote a best-selling book: It Takes a Village about the importance of community involvement in child rearing FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Eleanor Roosevelt Was FDR’s eyes, ears, and legs after he contracted polio Wrote a nationally-syndicated column during the 1930s and 1940s Very active in the mobilization of African-American rights during FDR’s presidency and embraced a campaign to fight poverty Served as a representative to the United Nations after FDR’s death FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Thomas Jefferson’s wife died before he became President—Jefferson was one of five presidents who were not married during their time in the White House. FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Most first ladies adopt a main “project”: Jackie Kennedy: Beautified the White House Lady Byrd Johnson: Highway beautification Betty Ford: Championed the Equal Rights Amendment for women – really made her mark after she left the White House when she founded the Betty Ford Clinic Roselyn Carter: First First Lady to attend cabinet meetings – worked for better treatment of the mentally afflicted FIRST LADIES:  FIRST LADIES Nancy Reagan: Just Say No (anti-drug initiative) Barbara Bush: Literacy Pat Nixon: An advocate for volunteerism. Laura Bush: Literacy and Education (particularly encouraging individuals to choose teaching as a career) During his second term, President Bush gave Laura Bush the job of guiding youth at risk, especially boys, away from gang activity LAURA BUSH:  LAURA BUSH The 2000 presidential election forced Laura Bush to speak publicly about a painful incident in her past. When Laura was 17, she ran a stop sign in Midland, colliding with another car and killing a school friend in that car. LAURA BUSH:  LAURA BUSH At the May 2005 annual dinner for the White House Press Corps, Laura stole the microphone from George and did a stand-up comedy routine. Here’s a few snippets: “George always says he’s delighted to come to these press dinners. Baloney. He’s usually in bed by now. I’m not kidding. I said to him the other day, ‘George, if you really want to end tyranny in the world, you’re going to have to stay up later.’” LAURA BUSH:  LAURA BUSH “I am married to the president of the United States, and here’s our typical evening. Nine o’clock, Mr. Excitement here is sound asleep, and I’m watching Desperate Housewives—with Lynne Cheney. Ladies and gentlemen, I am a desperate housewife. I mean, if those women on that show think they’re desperate, they oughta be with George.”

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