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Ch5 6 10 14

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Published on January 29, 2008

Author: Susann

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Child and Adolescent Development A Behavioral Systems Approach by Gary Novak and Martha Pelaez:  Child and Adolescent Development A Behavioral Systems Approach by Gary Novak and Martha Pelaez Final Presentation By: Melissa Bandklayder Leah Ishmael Sandra Ibanez Chapter 5 :  Chapter 5 Learning 1 Habituation and Respondent Learning Learning As A Natural Selection Process:  Learning As A Natural Selection Process Selection means choosing from among what already exists Selectionism implies that there is no set complex plan but that processes occurring in nature can yield complexity in creatures and their behaviors. Selectionism:  Selectionism Three processes that occur in nature are required for selectionism to function: - Variation - Selection - Retention Variation:  Variation Variation is the rule in nature - Process of natural selection takes place Variation is the rule in behavior Variability in Behavior:  Variability in Behavior Three possibilities in variability of behavior: Reduction in behavior Some behaviors are more variable than others No variation in some behaviors Selection in Learned Behavior:  Selection in Learned Behavior Environment “selects” phenotypic characteristics and behaviors that best fit for survival In phylogenic selection, the results are in the genes In behavior, the results are the universal perceptual and reflexive behaviors Retention in Learned Behavior:  Retention in Learned Behavior In phylogenic development, changes are retained in the genes. Debate over the retention mechanisms for ontogenic development and learning. - Brain is main mechanism Learning as Relations between Behavior Patterns and Environment:  Learning as Relations between Behavior Patterns and Environment In analyzing the environment, we talk in terms of stimuli Stimulus is an environmental change or event Only interested in those aspects of the environment that have a functional relationship to behavior Classifying Stimuli:  Classifying Stimuli 4 physical stimulus classes: Physical Chemical Organismic Social Functional Stimulus Classes:  Functional Stimulus Classes Functional stimulus classes- the grouping of physically different stimuli according to the similar effects they have on behavior. The function of a stimulus is the effect it has on behavior Types of Learning:  Types of Learning 3 types: Habituation Respondent Operant Habituation:  Habituation Decrease or elimination of response to a particular stimulus as a result of repetitive presentations of that stimulus Habituation only applies to reflexes Contiguity and Learning:  Contiguity and Learning Contiguity strongly affects learning by association The Principle of Contiguity Respondent Learning:  Respondent Learning Respondent Learning = classical conditioning = Pavlovian conditioning Focuses on the learning of reflexes or involuntary physiological responses 3 defining characteristics - Generalization - Discrimination - Respondent Extinction Generalization:  Generalization Explains how new stimuli not directly present come to elicit conditioned responses Ex. Little Albert ended up not only fearing the rat, but also cotton wool, a rabbit, and Watson’s hair Discrimination:  Discrimination Demonstrated by the lack of a response to other stimuli similar to that involved in the original conditioning Ex. Little Albert elicited a CR to metal rods which were used to make a loud noise, but not wooden blocks Respondent Extinction:  Respondent Extinction The defining characteristic is that the CS no longer elicits a CR Differs from habituation In extinction, the stimulus ceases to function as a CS and functions as an NS again Why Study Respondent Learning?:  Why Study Respondent Learning? Help the child successfully adapt to the environment Help individuals to risk anxiety-producing situations voluntarily and successfully by respondent training Helps explain the wide variety of emotional responses a child makes to the world What Factors Influence Respondent Learning?:  What Factors Influence Respondent Learning? Prepared at birth to like or dislike certain stimuli Delayed, Trace, and Backward Conditioning NS-UCS interval Intensity of the UCS Types of Conditioning:  Types of Conditioning Delayed Conditioning- Most effective conditioning Trace Conditioning- the NS also precedes the UCS, but the NS is terminated before the onset of the UCS Backward Conditioning- the UCS precedes the NS. NS-UCS Interval:  NS-UCS Interval Too long or too short a latency between NS onset and UCS onset will inhibit the formation of a CR Intensity of the UCS:  Intensity of the UCS The intensity or magnitude of the UCS affects the development of a CS. In general, an intense UCS (ex. Loud sound) will lead to easier conditioning within fewer trials The Treatment of Fears and Phobias: An Application of Respondent Learning:  The Treatment of Fears and Phobias: An Application of Respondent Learning Children’s Fears - Fears can be acquired by both respondent and operant conditioning Counterconditioning Extinction - Systematic Desensitization Counter-Conditioning:  Counter-Conditioning In general, a new conditioned response is established to counter the original Regarding fear: - A feared stimulus is intentionally paired with stimuli associated with stimuli evoking pleasant responses. Extinction:  Extinction Relies on systematic desensitization where the CS is presented repeatedly Systematic Desensitization Avoidance is addressed Exception in conditioned emotional responses Operant Learning:  Operant Learning Environment-behavior relationships change in two ways: Habituation Respondent learning What is Operant Behavior?:  What is Operant Behavior? Skinner chose the term operant: It is behavior that operates on the environment and thereby affects it. These effects on the environment determine the operant’s frequency and define it. Operant-Respondent Relationships:  Operant-Respondent Relationships Most operants originate as emitted responses Strengthened or weakened by environmental consequences. This can apply universally and individually Response Classes and Operants:  Response Classes and Operants Skinner defined response classes: Where each instance is considered a member of that class if it is maintained by or holds a functional relation with the same class of consequent stimuli The purpose of response classes is to avoid looking for structural features to define each response class How do Respondents differ?:  How do Respondents differ? Operants are emitted; Operants, continue to occur or not occur because of their consequences; Operants include a wider range of behaviors; Operant learning involves the development and shaping of new behaviors. Respondents are elicited Respondents occur because of their antecedent stimuli, despite consequences Respondents are limited to behaviors that originated as reflexes Respondent learning involves an existing behavior being elicited by a new stimulus Chapter 6:  Chapter 6 Learning II Operant Learning Introduction:  Introduction E.L. Thorndike Formulated Law of Effect or Reinforcement Law of effect- states that reinforced behavior will likely occur again whereas punished behavior is less likely to occur Law of Effect vs. Reinforcement:  Law of Effect vs. Reinforcement Thorndike portrays law of effect process as the forming of connections Respondent-like associations are formed Skinner portrays the process as the selection of response classes B.F. Skinner:  B.F. Skinner Private Events were not the causes of behavior but that they too are behaviors Most important legacy is his theory of operant behavior and principles of learning Skinner box Free Operant Procedures:  Free Operant Procedures The organism is placed in an environment and is allowed to behave freely Skinner used response rate as a measure of the response Frequency or strength of behavior is measured What is a contingency?:  What is a contingency? A contingency is a dependent relationship, expressible as an if-then statement If this response occurs, then this consequence happens Contingency depends on behavior Three term Contingency:  Three term Contingency Contingency involves the relationship between three aspects The context in which the behavior is emitted The response itself The consequent stimuli that follow the response Four Term Contingency:  Four Term Contingency Four Terms: Setting event A cue or discriminative stimulus A behavior pattern or response A consequence or reinforcing stimulus First Term: The Response:  First Term: The Response Operant responses can be classified in three ways: Topography Function Physical Location Response Variability and Selectionism:  Response Variability and Selectionism Variability of responses allows selection by consequences One procedure that makes use of behavior variability is known as shaping: Which is a technique consisting of reinforcing successive approximations to the target behavior The Second Term: The Consequence:  The Second Term: The Consequence Two types of consequences: One in which a stimulus is added (+) or produced following a behavior One in which a stimulus that is present is terminated or removed (-) following the response. The effect of these consequences will be to strengthen (reinforce) or weaken (punish) behavior Selection by Consequences:  Selection by Consequences The strengthening effect of consequences is that they select certain responses from the wide range of behaviors that occur Some responses produce more adaptive consequences than others (variability) Reinforcement: The Strengthening of Behavior:  Reinforcement: The Strengthening of Behavior Reinforcement is any operation that strengthens behavior Two types of reinforcement: Positive Negative Positive Reinforcement:  Positive Reinforcement Occurs when a response adds or produces a stimulus event and as a result the response increases in strength The stimulus that follows the strengthened response a positive reinforcer or positive reinforcing stimulus Negative Reinforcement:  Negative Reinforcement Occurs when a response removes, terminates, or avoids a stimulus event and the response increases in strength The stimulus that is removed or terminated as a consequence of the response a negative reinforcer, negative reinforcing stimulus, or aversive stimulus Punishment:  Punishment Consequences can weaken behavior Punishment is the weakening of behavior due to either of the two consequences Two types of punishment: Positive Negative Positive (Presentation) Punishment:  Positive (Presentation) Punishment Example: - Amanda drives through a red light. She is stopped and given a ticket. She is less likely to drive through a stoplight in the future. Her driving pattern has been punished. The ticket is an aversive stimulus. Negative (Removal) Punishment:  Negative (Removal) Punishment The individual’s behavior is followed by the termination of a valuable object or activity. Includes time-out and response cost Operant Extinction:  Operant Extinction The long-term effect of the withholding of reinforcers is the extinction of behavior Ex. If no one answers our telephone calls, we stop calling The procedure of extinction involves eliminating the contingency between the operant response and its consequence The Third Term: The Discriminative Stimulus:  The Third Term: The Discriminative Stimulus Signals the response Ex. A rattle (discriminative stimulus) evokes shaking (response) that produces noise (consequence) Discriminative stimulus is different from CS and UCS The Fourth Term: The Setting Event (SE) or Establishing Operation (EO):  The Fourth Term: The Setting Event (SE) or Establishing Operation (EO) SD ------->R-------->S +r ( -r) Setting Event The context in which the event may be more of less reinforcing for a response to occur Ex. Approaching dad for hug when not playing with other kids may be more reinforcing for getting a hug as opposed to when other kids are present Two ways in which they can affect the contingency What Changes?--The Development of Reinforcing Stimuli:  What Changes?--The Development of Reinforcing Stimuli Primary Reinforcer Present at Birth Universal Acquired (Secondary) Reinforcers Associated with other reinforcers Learned Non-universal and Generalized Repertoire of behaviors Classes of Common Acquired Reinforcers:  Classes of Common Acquired Reinforcers Tangible Reinforcers Edible Reinforcers Social Reinforcers physical contact, proximity, and verbal statements Activity Reinforcers -- Premack Principle Generalized Reinforcers Token economy Shaping:  Shaping Reinforcement of successive approximations of a terminal behavior Important for the development of new behaviors Shaping often occurs as a part of normal interaction with the environment. Chaining:  Chaining A behavior chain is a set of discrete behaviors sequenced in a particular order. Held together by consequence at end Forward Chaining Start at beginning and work toward end Backward Chaining Start at last Contingency & work forward Fading:  Fading A technique that involves transferring stimulus control or cue control from one stimulus to another Schedules of Reinforcement:  Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous-Reinforcement Schedule Intermittent- Reinforcement Schedule Fixed-Ratio Schedule Variable-Ratio Schedule Fixed-Interval Schedule Variable-Interval Schedule Others Operant Learning and Dynamical Principles of Development:  Operant Learning and Dynamical Principles of Development Revisit principles of dynamical systems: Coalescent Organization Emergence of Dynamic Attractors Leading Parts or Control Parameters Nonlinearity Chapter 9:  Chapter 9 Personality and the Self Personality - Biological Theories:  Personality - Biological Theories Personality is an entity (Reification) Galen - 4 Humors:  Galen - 4 Humors Blood Phlegm Yellow Bile Black Bile Sheldon - Somatotypes:  Sheldon - Somatotypes Ectomorph Mesomorph Endomorph Somatotypes = Personalities:  Somatotypes = Personalities Ectomorph = Cerebrotonia Mesomorph = Somatotonia Endomorph = Visceratonia Current Biological Theories:  Current Biological Theories Cattell - 16 Traits Eysenck - Types “The Big Five”65 The “Big Five” Personality Characteristics:  The “Big Five” Personality Characteristics I Surgency (Extraversion) II Agreeableness III Conscientiousness IV Emotional Stability (vs. Neuroticism) Culture, intellect, openness Behavioral Approach to Personality:  Behavioral Approach to Personality Behavior - You are what you do. Lundin (1961) Personality is: “that organization of unique behavioral equipment an individual has acquired under the special conditions of his (or her) development” Body is the location for your behavior (Baer) Environment shapes personality Behavior is situation specific Behavioral Systems Approach:  Behavioral Systems Approach Genotype/environment interactions (temperament) Person/Environment Interactions Personality as a skill Personality as a dynamic attractor Temperaments (Thomas, Chess, & Birch):  Temperaments (Thomas, Chess, & Birch) Activity Level: Rhythmicity: Approach or Withdrawal: Adaptability: Is the child able to adjust easily to changes in caretaking patterns? Intensity of Reaction: Threshold of Responsiveness: Quality of Mood: Distractibility Temperaments (Bates):  Temperaments (Bates) Negative emotionality Difficultiness Adaptability to new situations or people Activity Level Self-regulation (smoothability) Reactivity Sociability-positive emotionality How Stable is Temperament:  How Stable is Temperament Low agreement among different observers (e.g., mother, father, teacher). Weak correlations between early months measures and later. Around end of year 1, better short-term stability After second year, better long-term stability Patterns of Temperament- Thomas and Chess (1977) :  Patterns of Temperament- Thomas and Chess (1977) 1) Easy Child 2) Difficult Child 3) Slow-to-Warm Child Implications :  Implications “Goodness of Fit” Nonlinear Model Role of Environment :  Role of Environment Genotype-Environment Interactions (Heavily genetic-constitutional –e.g. early temperament) Person-Environment Interactions (Heavily environmentally acquired) Personality Consistency in enviornments mean consistency in behavior. (Pasive, evocative, and active interactions contribute to this) Drastic changes in environment produce changes in personality (e.g., Patty Hearst). Previously reinforced behaviors put on extinction. New behaviors reinforced. Personality as behavioral attractor. (i.e., organized pattern of behavior. How the Environment Organizes Behavior:  How the Environment Organizes Behavior Familiar environments produce familiar behavior We actively maintain familiar environments We are reinforced by familar environments We environments are unfamiliar We try to change them They change us previous behaviors are extinguished new behaviors emerge and are organized Sex Differences:  Sex Differences How Do Gender Related Behaviors Develop? Sex Role Stereotypes and Societal/Cultural Expectations Parental Expectations & Reinforcement Reinforcement of Gender Appropriate Behaviors Androgyny - Combining Roles The Self:  The Self Self Concept and Self Recognition Self-Awareness & Perspective Taking Relational Frame Theory Self statements Stable vs. Unstable Traits Internal - stable External - unstable Self-Efficacy Beliefs Self Control Self Esteem Self-Control:  Self-Control Matching Law & Choice Problem Small Immediate vs. Large Delayed Change Value by changing amount or delay The Self Revisited:  The Self Revisited The self statements we make constitute our self-concept self-recognition Perspective taking Literality Reason giving locus of control Self-efficacy Chapter 10:  Chapter 10 Social and Emotional Development Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions :  Processes in Social Behavior -Social Behavior as Operant Interactions Bert's Contingency: Sees Ernie → "Hi Ernie" → E. smiles Sd → R → S+r ( Setting Event = Walking along) Ernie's Contingency: "Hi Ernie“ → E smiles→ Bert Smiles Sd → R → S+r (Setting Event = In a good mood) The Function of Social Behavior:  The Function of Social Behavior Phylogenic Contributions to Social Development:  Phylogenic Contributions to Social Development Physical Characteristics Social Reflexes Facial Expressions Reflexive Crying Neonatal Imitation Ontogenic Contributions:  Ontogenic Contributions Social Behaviors Reinforcement Proximity Attention Affection Observational Learning Social Reinforcement:  Social Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcers Paired with Primary Reinforcers Proximity:  Proximity Reinforcer - The nearness of you Attention:  Attention Mand for Mom Verbal behavior reinforced by mom doing something Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention:  Ways of Reducing Mands for Attention DRO – Differential Reinforcement of Other behavior Incompatible response technique Strengthens more desirable behavior Doesn’t produced deprivation of reinforcer Positive (Presentation) Punishment – Not recommended Ethical? Escape Negative Punishment (By Loss) (Weak if delayed) Loss of privileges Time-out Affection:  Affection Usually reinforces desirable behavior Observational Learning Traditional Approached:  Observational Learning Traditional Approached Distinction between Learning Performance Direct reinforcement affects performance Vicarious consequences affect learning Vicarious reinforcement Vicarious punishment An Operant Approach to Observational Learning:  An Operant Approach to Observational Learning Generalized imitation Imitation (matching form of response) a response class Class assembled because some (not all) matching behaviors are reinforced Counterimitation – reinforced for different behavior than model So called “vicarious reinforcement” is actually an Sd cuing operant matching behavior Observational Learning of Respondents – Emotional Behavior:  Observational Learning of Respondents – Emotional Behavior Other’s emotional response serves as UCS for emotional response (UCR) Stimulus (NS) paired with other’s emotional response (UCS) becomes CS producing emotional response (CR) Prosocial Transactions - Intuitive Parenting:  Prosocial Transactions - Intuitive Parenting 1. Creating and maintaining an awake state. 2. Presenting a simple structure of stimuli and learning trials. 3. Providing a large number of repetitions of trials. 4. Gradually ordering of tasks so that there is increasing complexity. 5. Using adequate reinforcers. 6. Being sensitive to feedback signals indicating the child's limits of tolerance. Social Behaviors in Infancy:  Social Behaviors in Infancy Attachment Separation Protests Touch Fear Social Referencing Sibling Rivaly Empathy Morality Attachment:  Attachment Organized pattern of behavior directed toward one or more individuals. Result of phyologenic & ontogenic factors Ontogenic – reinforcement of proximity, imitation, and identification behaviors95 Reinforcement of Separation Protests:  Reinforcement of Separation Protests Loss of primary caregiver results in loss of reinforcers– extinction burst Study by Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogueras Baseline- noncontingent reinforcement—protests were low Contingent reinforcement by mothers of protests – protests increase Noncontingent (reversal) – Protest decrease Social Referencing:  Social Referencing Separation Protests Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogureras (1996):  Separation Protests Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogureras (1996) Fear of Dark:  Fear of Dark Fear of Strangers:  Fear of Strangers Infant Carrying Positions:  Infant Carrying Positions Facing Inward Facing Outward Morality:  Morality Direct Contingency-shaped behavior Rule-governed behavior Learns difference between Immediate direct consequences Remote, delayed, indirect consequences Tracking – tracking or following actual contingencies rather than just follow rules Pliance – complying with the rules in spite of discrepancies with actual contingencies. Morality Behavior-Analytic Approach:  Morality Behavior-Analytic Approach An increasingly sophisticated repertoire of behaviors to further one’s long-term interests based on predicted outcomes. An organized system of rule governed behavior that controls behavior patterns that society considers “moral”. Develops from the interaction of the child and environment in active interaction. Context is crucial A Cognitive View of Morality Kohlberg’s Theory :  A Cognitive View of Morality Kohlberg’s Theory Moral Reasoning (Not necessarily behavior) Level I – Preconventional Morality Stage 1) Tangible consequences Stage 2) Hedonistic get rewards/avoid pun Level II - Conventional Morality Stage 3) Follows rules to get social approval Stage 4) Follow conventional rules to support social order Level III – Postconventional Morality Stage 5) Have a social contract to do what is right Stage 6) Universal principles of justice, democracy, etc. Taxonomy of Moral Rules (Pelaez & Moreno):  Taxonomy of Moral Rules (Pelaez & Moreno) Explicit vs. Implicit Accurate vs. Inaccurate (false or inconsistent) Complex (multiple contingencies) vs. Simple (single contingency) Other vs. Self-Derived source 16 possible combinations. Taxonomies of Rules:  Taxonomies of Rules Settle and Hayes Classification: Tracking Pliance Development of Rule Compliance & Self-Instruction:  Development of Rule Compliance & Self-Instruction 1. Early – Parents prompt & reinforce compliance to simple rules. 2. Generalized compliance (rule following becomes response class). 3. Others (e.g., teachers, grandparents) add rules. Child learns to discriminate which rules will have consequences. 4. Adults prompt child to give own rules (self-instruction). 5. Self-instruction generalizes to novel situations – Generalized self-instruction Chapter 14:  Chapter 14 Adolescence Adolescence:  Adolescence Behavioral changes that take place between childhood and maturity/adulthood Changes are related to: Sexual maturation Emergence of advanced reasoning abilities Development of rule-governed behavior Greater social and emotional independence Changes in educational settings Behavioral “expectations” in preparing for adulthood Adolescence:  Adolescence Certain behavior patterns become frequent Greater involvement in peer interactions Increases in risk-taking behavior Increase in parent-adolescent conflict Increases in behavior patterns denoting depression and anxiety Physical Development and Behavior:  Physical Development and Behavior Hormonal changes Adolescent growth spurt Puberty Adolescents reach sexual maturity Exert more influence in family decision making Greater autonomy Timing of physical development is important to self-esteem Environmental Factors Affecting Puberty :  Environmental Factors Affecting Puberty Age of menarche has decreased in the last century Girls who experience high levels of behavioral conflicts in the family reach puberty 6 months earlier than those who live in non-stressful homes Physiological development determined by: Nutrition Exercise Quality of family interaction Environmental Factors Continued:  Environmental Factors Continued Reciprocal interactions of adolescents’ behaviors and the environment determine cognitive development Abstract thinking Problem solving Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Adolescent egocentrism (focus on self) Moral Behavior and Reasoning:  Moral Behavior and Reasoning Adolescents develop the ability to generalize and conceptualize: Moral rules Values Principles Shift from moral realism to moral relativism Morality of cooperation develops Moral behavior patterns are learned from societal practices Typical reasoning falls within the conventional level of morality Personality Development During Adolescence :  Personality Development During Adolescence Identity formation Who one is, where one is going How one fits into society Four states of identity formation Identity achievement Identity diffusion Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Identity crisis Discomfort while determining one’s identity Relationship with parents effects identity formation Parenting Style:  Parenting Style Authoritative style Best outcomes High self-esteem, academic achievement, social skills Parents set up and maintain contingencies Provide modeling and guidance Monitor their children Exercise moderate control and high consistency Provide rules and rationales for implementing them Adolescent-parent relationship dynamic The Parenting Style of Depressed Adolescent Mothers:  The Parenting Style of Depressed Adolescent Mothers Depressed adolescent mothers exhibit more authoritarian and disengaged styles compared to non-depressed mothers who acted more permissively Infants of depressed mothers- fewer on- task or playful behaviors Family and Social Support Systems:  Family and Social Support Systems Family systems are dynamic Adolescents with fewer family support have higher levels of anxiety and depression Renegotiation between parent and adolescent is important Adolescents tend to choose friends based on their values acquired from parents Adolescent’s peer group then reinforces behaviors that tend to be approved by the parents Social Support Systems:  Social Support Systems Adolescents spend more time interacting with peers than with family members Peer groups have a large influence on adolescent development, help develop social skills Peer contact may predict problem behavior in adolescents with a previous history of overt behavior difficulties Strongest predictors of adolescent problem behaviors are friends’ approval and access to potent idealized models Antisocial Behavior During Adolescence:  Antisocial Behavior During Adolescence Extreme physical aggressiveness Losing temper Arguing with adults Refusing to comply with adults’ requests Deliberately doing things to annoy others Being angry, spiteful, touchy, vindictive More common among males than females Antisocial Behavior During Adolescence:  Antisocial Behavior During Adolescence Factors that place adolescent at risk include: Parental psychopathology Dysfunctional, aggressive, criminal behavior Alcoholism, drug dependency Parents exercised harsh punishment and inconsistent discipline Patterson’s Coercion Model (Coercive Family Process) :  Patterson’s Coercion Model (Coercive Family Process) Framework to explain the interactive patterns between antisocial adolescents and parents Aversive behaviors are inadvertently maintained by reinforcement contingencies Poor parenting = child conduct problems = failure in school, peer rejection = association with deviant peer group, reinforcement for delinquent behavior Modeling abusive behavior Academic deficiency associated with antisocial behavior Conduct Disorder:  Conduct Disorder A group of behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents Aggression, oppositional behavior, rebellious and disruptive behavior Aggression toward people and animals Destruction of property Deceitfulness, lying Stealing Serious violation of rules Behavioral Treatments for Antisocial Behavior and Conduct Disorders :  Behavioral Treatments for Antisocial Behavior and Conduct Disorders Containment – difficult to implement, negative responses Praise-and-ignore Technique Reinforcement and Punishment Combined Achievement Place Home Program Functional Family Therapy Eating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosa:  Eating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosa Individuals starve themselves Intense fear of becoming overweight Dieting, starving, exercising, purging Restricted type – restricting food Binge-eating-purging type – binge eating, vomiting Depression, social withdrawal, irritability, moodiness Family systems tend to be rigid Behavioral Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa :  Behavioral Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa Family Therapy Operant Conditioning Social Skills Training Systematic Desensitization Bulimia Nervosa:  Bulimia Nervosa Reoccurrence of binge eating and purging activities Medical problems Depression Low-self esteem Intense mood swings Behavioral Treatment for Bulimic Behavior :  Behavioral Treatment for Bulimic Behavior Antecedent Control Controlling factors previous to a binge Self-monitoring Techniques Observe and record the environment involved in binge eating Tracking anxiety and thoughts Adolescent Depression Behavioral Manifestations of Depression and Causes :  Adolescent Depression Behavioral Manifestations of Depression and Causes Social withdrawal Fatigue Difficulty concentrating Expressed feeling of worthlessness Dysphoria Reduced frequency of emission of positively reinforced activities Depression:  Depression Depression runs in families May be related to negative family interactions Various environmental and organismic changes taking place Consequences Maintaining Depressive Behaviors :  Consequences Maintaining Depressive Behaviors Must examine the interactions between organismic and physiological factors Dynamic and reciprocal interactions between parent and adolescent can reinforce depressive behaviors Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression:  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression Negative perceptions of family correspond to adolescent depression Effective in treating self-generated verbalized misperceptions Cognitive therapy - confront and altar maladaptive cognitive processes Behavioral therapy – focus on increasing gratifying experiences and response repertoires (shaping replacement behaviors) Adaptive cognitions and adaptive behavior patterns are reciprocal Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) :  Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Recontextualizes the relationship between thoughts and feelings and overt behavior Help depressed adolescents feel, think and do what needs to be done Acceptance of private thoughts Realization of personal values Increased willingness to commit to behavior change that is recognized as needed Based on relational frame theory (RFT) Scientifically based approach Other Behavioral Interventions:  Other Behavioral Interventions Mostly based on a multicomponent approach Social skills should be shaped and encouraged; communication training Behavioral productivity to encourage self reinforcement; allows individuals to identify the problems associated with ineffective performance Reduction of high-risk behavior Adolescent Suicide :  Adolescent Suicide More females attempt; more males succeed Intervention and Prevention No-suicide contract Awareness of warning signs for help Depressive symptoms trigger suicidal behavior Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) Link between negative moods and negative thoughts remains ready to be reactivated Must learn how to keep mild states of depression and behavior associated with it from spiraling out of control High-Risk Adolescent Behavior:  High-Risk Adolescent Behavior Higher incidence of mortality May escalate into deviant lifestyles (drug or alcohol dependency) Sometimes associated with gains in self-esteem Natural contingencies ineffective at preventing high-risk behavior; consequences are too remote Substance Abuse :  Substance Abuse Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes Physical and behavioral dependence Tend to be poly-drug users Adolescents pursue and access new reinforcers Stress and depression Changes in body composition, brain development, organ functioning linked to differences in drug responsiveness from adults Insensitivity to drugs result in greater use Behavioral Treatment for Substance Abuse :  Behavioral Treatment for Substance Abuse Shaping Reinforcing successive approximations of the target behavior Establishing a behavioral repertoire Contingency Management Strategies Arranging an individual’s environment so that it provides positive consequences for desired outcomes and negative ones to undesired outcomes High-Risk Sexual Behavior :  High-Risk Sexual Behavior More likely to: Have multiple and higher risk sex partners Engage in unprotected sex Most at risk for STDs Social skills crucial to engagement in healthy sexual behavior – ability to: Appropriately initiate, maintain, or decline sexual activity Communicate important sexual information to a partner Carry through with safe sex practices and make informed sexual decisions Social Reinforcers in Sexual Behavior:  Social Reinforcers in Sexual Behavior Peer influence and acceptance of behaviors Immediacy of positive and pleasurable consequences Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk Sexual Behavior :  Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk Sexual Behavior Social skills training is very popular Modeling of rule-governed behavior as crucial to engaging in safer-sex behavior Role playing Rules that outline the unhealthy consequences Love and Romantic Relations:  Love and Romantic Relations We are most likely to fall in love with someone attractive to us, who has proximity to us, who matches us in some characteristic Gender differences and cultural differences exist on several subscales Attachment patterns between romantic partners are learned Separation protests are an index of attachment formation (operant learning) Separation protests are influenced by reinforcing stimuli Chapter 15:  Chapter 15 Behavior Disorders of Childhood Behavior Disorders:  Behavior Disorders Organized patterns of behavior or attractors that deviate from an arbitrary or socially determined standard or norm Excessive behaviors – ADHD Deficient behaviors – learning disorders Behaviors occurring under the wrong conditions – selective mutism Causes of Behavior Disorders:  Causes of Behavior Disorders Result from the interactions between: Genetic-constitutional Historical Physiological Environmental and Behavior dynamical interactions Multiple determinism Equifinality Assessment of Behavior Disorders:  Assessment of Behavior Disorders Standardized tests Checklists (WISC, Stanford-Binet) Questionnaires DSM IV TR diagnosis Structural assessment of behavior Behavior Analysis - Assessment:  Behavior Analysis - Assessment Focus on specific behaviors and their functions Functional assessment – used to identify specific variables that predict and maintain problem behavior Follows four-term contingency Focus on improving overall level of functioning and maintaining adaptive behavior Functional Analysis:  Functional Analysis Uses arrangements that entail actual exposure to the identified variables to determine their influences on problem behavior Systematic observation and manipulation of IV Manipulation is not always necessary Types of Behavior Disorders:  Types of Behavior Disorders Externalizing disorders – primarily directed at others (antisocial behavior) Internalizing disorders – personality and anxiety disorders Development of Antisocial Behavior:  Development of Antisocial Behavior Poor parental discipline Parental monitoring is lacking Peer rejection Deviant peer group Delinquent behavior Often victims of bullying Disruptive Behavior Disorders Conduct Disorder (CD):  Disruptive Behavior Disorders Conduct Disorder (CD) Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate social norms or rules are violated Aggression Deceitfulness Serious rules violation Destruction of property Poor school performance, lack of interpersonal skills Deficient cognitive problem-solving skills Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) :  Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Defiance and hostile behavior toward authority figures Precursor to CD One of the most serious and common behavior problems of children At risk for delinquency, criminality, antisocial personality disorder ODD:  ODD Difficulty in parenting, inappropriate parenting Aggressive behaviors are reinforced Allows child to escape perceived boring, effortful, unpleasant tasks Defiant behavior allows child to predict consequences of environment Interventions for CD and ODD :  Interventions for CD and ODD Parent training, family-based interventions Breaking the cycle of coercive interactions and behaviors between parent and child Train parents to implement interventions at home Tracking, response cost, token economies, role playing, cueing and modeling Improves long-term outcomes School-based interventions :  School-based interventions Token economies Contingency management contracts Adding adaptive behaviors to a child’s repertoire Replacing or reducing the exhibition of maladaptive behaviors Establish clear rules and directions Pacing student progress at individual rate Positive and corrective feedback Time out Differential reinforcement Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):  Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) One of the most common behavior disorders Two types: inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive Neurological dysfunction, environmental agents as causes Hyperactive, impulsive, inattentive behavior Children are agitated, active and fidgety May be detected in infancy High comorbidity (LD, ODD, CD, social skills deficit…) Interventions for ADHD :  Interventions for ADHD Pharmacological Behavior modification Cognitive behavior therapy Parent/teacher training programs Contingency management programs Token economies Medication + behavioral treatment Anxiety Behavior Disorders :  Anxiety Behavior Disorders Genetic and environmental factors contribute to behavior manifested in anxiety Respondent conditioning Social learning Operant learning Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) Interventions for SAD Systematic desensitization Counter-conditioning Autism:  Autism Pervasive developmental disorder Stereotypic, self-injurious behavior and hypo or hypersensitivity Little emotional attachment, abnormal or little speech Often have a low IQ Ritualistic behaviors and aggression Poor prognosis Treatment of Autism:  Treatment of Autism Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Communications-Based Treatments Mand training (Skinner) Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Pivotal response training Positive Behavioral Support Mental Retardation:  Mental Retardation Core deficits – cognitive and social skills May share behavioral deficits associated with autistic children May benefit from interventions for autistic children Progression for Developmental Retardation:  Progression for Developmental Retardation Limited parenting practices Low rates of academic achievement Early school failure Early dropout Parenthood and continuance of the progression into next generation Interventions for Mental Retardation:  Interventions for Mental Retardation Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI) Extinction Response cost Time-out Over-correction Positive practice Assessment, teaching skills, reinforcing successful approximations, generalizing skills Language training Depression:  Depression Separation anxiety as early as 6 months old Colicky babies Depression in Older Children Passive, no interest in enjoyable activities Negative beliefs and feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and failure Do not respond in situations they can control Academic dysfunction Somatic symptoms Depression in Adolescence (increases) More frequent in girls than boys Depressive Behaviors:  Depressive Behaviors Sadness, guilt, boredom, unimportance, irritability Crying, lack of participation in shared activities, low involvement, withdrawal Social interactions are not being reinforced Depressed mood causes low activity level, low self-concept, negativity, shame Self-reinforced behaviors Treatment for Depression:  Treatment for Depression Medication (tricyclic antidepressants) Family therapy CBT Social skills training Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) Behavioral re-conceptualization Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Treatment for Depression:  Treatment for Depression Behavior-analytic approach Targets the avoidance of events and increases the ability for changes in behavior Promotes acceptance of behaviors of feeling depressed School-Based Interventions Relaxation, social skills, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, affective education

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