ch3 1

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Information about ch3 1

Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Joshua


Chap.3 Representative Processes:  Chap.3 Representative Processes 3.1 Standard Bipolar Slide2:  741 opamp 555 Timer 1. Essential Features:  1. Essential Features Optimized for NPN, at the expense of PNP But, PNP’s built from existing steps – does the job, even though relatively poor performance. NPN JI: Junction isolation – isolate current flow between this and other devices – P+ isolation JI-P+ touches underlying substrate – also defines N Tank JI: P side is lower potential than N side (reverse bias) 2. Fab Sequence:  2. Fab Sequence Starting Material Lightly doped (111) Si P-type Off-cut a few degrees to minimize NBL shadow distortion (111) suppresses parasitic PMOS (N-epi is the Backgate of this PMOS, metal-1 over the FOX is Gate, P-base is the Source, and P+ Iso is the Drain. Vt = thick field threshold) (111) has high Thick-Field Threshold due to positive Qit, at Oxide-Si interface. 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d N-Buried Layer NBL mask on oxide NBL implant (As or Sb) NBL drive (anneal & thin oxide on top – later cause NBL shadow iii. Epi Growth N-type epi, 10-25 um thick NBL shadow propagates at 45 degree angle (makes lateral shift = epi thickness) 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d Isolation Diffusion Mask aligned at offset from NBL shadow Heavy B deposition High Temp drive (also causes oxidation), which stops before Iso junction touches substrate 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d Deep N+ sinker Deep-N+ mask Heavy Phosphorus deposition High Temp drive, causes deep N+ to meet NBL (+25% overdrive), forms thick F.Oxide 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d Base Implant Base mask & light Boron implant forms p-type Base Implant = precise doping level = minimizes process derived Beta variation ! Base drive: anneal & decides junction depth Base implant covers Isolation regions too (BOI – base-over-isolation) ==> increases Thick field Vt 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d viii. Contact Contact mask & oxide removal (contact OR) ix. Metallization Evaporate or sputter Al-Cu-Si alloy over entire wafer, at least 1 um thick. 2% Si suppress the Emitter punchthrough 0.5% Cu improves Electromigration resistance metal mask  interconnection wires vii. Emitter Diffusion Emitter mask & concentrated P source (POCl3) & brief drive 2. Fab Sequence, cont’d:  2. Fab Sequence, cont’d Protective Overcoat (PO) Compressed Nitride or phophosilicate-doped glass (PSG) PO over entire wafer PO mask to open bonding areas 3. Available Devices:  3. Available Devices NPN 1) C=N-epi tank; B=Pbase, counter doping; E=N+ diffusion 2) Base width – set by diffusion depths (< min. feature size) 3) NBL and deep-N+: low Collector resistance (minimum NPN <100W, power NPN < 1W) 4) Distance from bottom of Base to top of NBL sets max. op. voltage (50-80V typical). Epi thickness sets Vceo = 10V to 100+V 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d NPN , cont’d Typical Parameter values of minimum-emitter NPN Drawn emitter area 100 mm2 Peak Beta 150 VA, Early volt. 120V Collector resistance (sat) 100W IC range for max. Beta 5mA – 2 mA Vebo 7 V Vcbo 60V Vceo 45V 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d NPN , cont’d NPN as Diode CB-shorted Diode or diode-connected transistor Breakdown voltage = Vebo = 7V Fast switching speed Can be used as Zener Diode also (allow +- .3V Vz tolerance) 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d PNP Substrate PNP i) Non-isolated vertical PNP ii) Vc = Vsubstrate = usually negative supply rail iii) Base = N-tank; Emitter = Pbase diffusion iv) Ic exits from Substrate => substrate debiasing ! v) Base width = Epi thickness – Emitter (Pbase) diffusion vi) Do not use NBL 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d Typical parameters in 40V Stand.Bipolar Device: Lat_PNP Sub_PNP Drawn emitter area 100mm2 100mm2 Drawn base width 10mm N/A Peak Beta 50 100 VA 100V 120V IC for max. Beta 5-100mA 5-200mA Vebo 60V 60V Vcbo 60V 60V Vceo 45V 45V 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d Lateral PNP Better isolation, worse performance than Substrate PNP B=N-tank E, C = Pbase diffusion into N-tank = single mask Base width = separation of E & C (Pbase) diffusions Effective Base width << drawn width due to outdiffusion Narrow-base lateral PNP = low VA and low punchthrough V. Parasitic substrate_PNP Much current near surface – where large Recomb. Centers reside Very slow due to large parasitic junction cap at B terminal PNP = supporting role in analog IC’s 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d Resistors (several types) Ohms per square, Sheet resistance. Typical values = 5 to 5000 W/sq. Base resistor: N-tank, typical 150-250 W/sq. Emitter resistor: in Emitter diffusion, isolated by Pbase diffusion. Typical < 10 W/sq. differential voltage < 6V Pinched Base resistor: R body in Pbase, but under the Emitter diffusion. Can exceed 5000W/sq (notoriously variable). Severe voltage modulation. Differential voltage < 7V. 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d Resistor Parameters Type: Emitter Base Pinch Rs (Sheet R) 5 W/sq. 150W/sq. 3kW/s Min.dr.Width 8mm 8mm 8mm Vbr 7V 50V 7V Variability(15mm wide) 20% 20% 50+% 3. Available Devices, cont’d:  3. Available Devices, cont’d Capacitors (one type) Base-Emitter Junction Capacitance, 0.8 fF/mm2 Base diff. overlap Emitter diffusion, both in common tank Vbr = 7V Depends on bias, varies +- 50% or more Used in compensating feedback loops where high Cap is needed. 4. Process Extension:  4. Process Extension Up-Down Isolation Double-level Metal Schottky Diode High Sheet Resistors Up-Down Iso Slide24:  Schottky Diode High-Sheet Resistor

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