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Information about CH27

Published on January 25, 2008

Author: Teodora


Slide1:  America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 27 Entering a New Era (1992 to the Present) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. The 1992 Election:  The 1992 Election The Candidates President George Bush, a Republican, sought a second term. Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot, an independent candidate, entered the race out of frustration over government economic policies. Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, a Democrat, pledged to address the nation’s economic problems. Campaign Issues Clinton campaigned on the belief that government was necessary but that it should be made smaller and more efficient. Character issues, including reports of a past affair, marred Clinton’s campaign. Nonetheless, he won the election with 43 percent of the votes. Chapter 27, Section 1 Clinton’s First Term:  Clinton’s First Term Economic Reform Clinton tried to follow a middle course in dealing with the economy. To reduce the deficit, Clinton proposed a budget including both spending cuts and tax increases. Congress passed the budget, but just barely. Neither the spending cuts nor the tax increases were well received by the public. The Battle Over Healthcare When Clinton took office, many Americans lacked access to affordable healthcare. Clinton proposed the creation of a government-supervised health insurance program that would guarantee affordable coverage to every American. Despite popular support for healthcare reform, Clinton’s proposal failed to gain the necessary votes in Congress. Chapter 27, Section 1 The Republicans’ Contract With America:  The Republicans’ Contract With America Welfare Reform In August 1996, Congress and Clinton agreed on a sweeping reform of the nation’s welfare system. The new law eliminated federal guarantees of cash assistance, gave more authority to states, and placed limits on the length of time Americans could receive welfare. Balancing the Budget and Welfare Reform, 1994–1996 Contract With America During the 1994 midterm elections, Georgia Representative Newt Gingrich called on Republican candidates to endorse a Contract with America, a pledge to scale back the role of the federal government, eliminate some regulations, cut taxes, and balance the budget. Congress Versus the President In the 1994 elections, Republicans won majorities in both houses of Congress. Newt Gingrich became Speaker of the House and proposed cuts in many social services to balance the budget. The debate turned from whether or not to balance the budget to how to balance it. The Government Is Shut Down At the end of 1995, Clinton and Gingrich were unable to compromise on budget issues. As a result, budget allocations expired without reauthorization, leading to the temporary closure of government offices and disruption of services to many Americans. Chapter 27, Section 1 Clinton’s Second Term:  Clinton’s Second Term Clinton won reelection in 1996, defeating Republican Bob Dole and Ross Perot of the newly created Reform Party. A strong economy improved Clinton’s popularity. In 1998, the government achieved its first budget surplus since 1969. Charges of scandal continued during Clinton’s second term. In what came to be known as the Whitewater affair, Clinton was accused of having taken part in fraudulent loans and land deals in Arkansas years earlier. A further scandal arose when Clinton denied a sexual relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. In December 1998, the House voted to impeach Clinton on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice. In the Senate trial which followed, Clinton was acquitted. Chapter 27, Section 1 The 2000 Election:  The 2000 Election The mixture of a strong economy and a scandal-ridden presidency promised a close presidential election in 2000. Vice President Al Gore ran for the Democrats, while the Republicans nominated Texas Governor George W. Bush. Pre-election polls showed Gore and Bush virtually tied. On election night, votes in several states were too close to call. One undecided state, Florida, could give either candidate enough electoral votes to win the presidency. Lawyers, politicians, and the media swarmed to Florida to monitor a recount of votes there. A series of court battles eventually reached the Supreme Court, which voted 5–4 to stop the Florida recounts, awarding the state’s electoral votes to Bush. Although Gore had won the popular vote, Bush won the election by 271 electoral votes to Gore’s 266. Chapter 27, Section 1 The George W. Bush Administration:  The George W. Bush Administration Change in Presidential Style Bush’s approach to the presidency differed from that of Clinton. Bush preferred a more formal atmosphere in the White House and began keeping a stricter schedule than the former President. Advisors, staff members, and the Vice President, Dick Cheney, were granted more responsibility for setting policy under Bush’s administration. Bush on Domestic Policy Early in his presidency, Bush received congressional approval for a tax cut that granted most taxpayers a $300 rebate. Bush also proposed an educational reform bill that called for redirected funding and increased accountability from schools. Chapter 27, Section 1 Attack on America:  Attack on America On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes. Two hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, causing both towers as well as several surrounding buildings to collapse. A third plane hit the Pentagon, and a fourth crashed in a field near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Thousands died in the collapse of the towers, including hundreds of emergency workers who had rushed to the scene. Americans responded to the tragedy with an outpouring of support for the victims. Meanwhile, President Bush vowed to bring justice to those responsible for the attack. On October 7, an American bombing campaign known as “Operation Enduring Freedom” began against Afghanistan, whose ruling Taliban was believed to be harboring Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden, suspected of masterminding the attack. Chapter 27, Section 1 Political Changes Worldwide:  Political Changes Worldwide Russia and Eastern Europe The United States applauded Russia’s move toward democracy and a free market economy, including the election of Boris Yeltsin as president. A conflict in Chechnya, a republic which sought independence from Russia, became the source of great public support for Vladimir Putin. Putin later became president of Russia. Some Eastern European nations, including Poland, joined NATO and initiated economic reforms. South Africa In South Africa, a system called apartheid had separated people of different racial backgrounds and denied equal rights to the nation’s black majority. Nations around the world had used economic sanctions, or trade restrictions and other economic measures, to encourage reform. Between 1990 and 1994, Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk and anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela worked together to end apartheid peacefully. Chapter 27, Section 2 The Difficult Search for Peace :  The Difficult Search for Peace Afghanistan In 1996, a group of Muslim fundamentalists known as the Taliban seized the Afghan capital of Kabul from its ruling pro-Soviet government. The Taliban sought to set up what their leaders considered a pure Islamic state in Afghanistan. Conflict Around the World, Early 1990s Somalia In the early 1990s, famine combined with civil war devastated the East African nation of Somalia. President Bush sent American troops to assist a United Nations relief effort, but the troops returned without having restored order. Northern Ireland In Northern Ireland, the United States encouraged renewed efforts to end decades of violence between Protestants and Catholics. The Good Friday Accords, signed in 1998, provided for major reforms and offered the best hope yet for ending the violence. Iraq After the Gulf War Despite defeat in the Gulf War, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein continued to oppress opposition groups and failed to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors. An “oil-for-food” program allowed Iraq to export small quantities of oil in return for food and related supplies. Chapter 27, Section 2 The Search for Peace in Israel and the Balkans:  The Search for Peace in Israel and the Balkans Israel In September 1993, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin signed a historic peace agreement in Washington, D.C. This agreement, however, failed to resolve all issues in the Middle East or stop violence in the region. Israeli prime ministers who succeeded Rabin were more reluctant to grant concessions to the Palestinians. The Balkans Tensions among ethnic and religious groups in Yugoslavia exploded into violence after the collapse of the nation’s Communist government. Millions were killed in a ferocious “ethnic cleansing” campaign carried out by Bosnian Serbs. Steps toward peace in 1995 failed to resolve underlying issues, and violence again erupted. In 2001, Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic was indicted for war crimes by an international tribunal. Chapter 27, Section 2 Relations With China:  Relations With China The United States sought to remain on peaceful terms with China during the 1990s. However, the issue of Taiwan resulted in tensions between the two nations. China viewed the island of Taiwan as part of China. The United States, however, supplied weapons to Taiwan and opposed any military action against Taiwan by China. Relations between the United States and China improved as both nations worked on ways to expand China’s trade with other nations. A strain in relations occurred in 2001, when the Bush administration stated that the United States would defend Taiwan from military attacks by China. China, in turn, warned the United States against sales of advanced weapons to Taiwan. Chapter 27, Section 2 Trade and the Global Economy:  Trade and the Global Economy Rise of Multinationals Multinational corporations, or businesses that operate in more than one country, gained importance in the 1990s. Multinationals continue to provide both advantages and disadvantages to the nations in which they operate. The Continuing Growth of World Trade The European Union In 1993, the European Union (EU) was formed from the older European Economic Community (EEC) to coordinate political and monetary policies. In the late 1990s, member nations agreed to gradually replace their individual currencies with the euro. NAFTA In 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which called for a gradual removal of trade restrictions among the three nations. NAFTA produced tremendous controversy in the United States. GATT and the WTO The United States joined other countries in adopting a revised version of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994. In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created to ensure cooperation with GATT, negotiate new trade agreements and resolve trade disputes. Chapter 27, Section 2 A Nation of Diversity:  A Nation of Diversity Changing immigration policies contributed to America’s growing diversity during the 1990s. The Immigration Act of 1990 increased immigration quotas by 40 percent and erased restrictions which had denied entrance to many people in the past. Immigrants during the 1990s chose to settle in a variety of places, with different ethnic groups concentrating in particular cities or areas. Cities with large immigrant populations saw widespread competition for jobs and housing. As minority groups grew in size, they also gained new political power. Numerous African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos were elected to the Senate and House of Representatives. Chapter 27, Section 3 Making Diversity Work:  Making Diversity Work Multiculturalism A movement known as multiculturalism called for greater attention to non-European cultures in areas such as education. Like immigration and affirmative action, debate over multiculturalism remains ongoing. The Debate Over Immigration Americans continue to present numerous arguments both for and against immigration. Bilingual education, in which students are taught in their native language as well as English, has come under attack. Debating Issues of Diversity Affirmative Action Another continuing debate concerns affirmative action, or giving preference to African Americans, women, and other minorities who had been discriminated against in the past. Whether race should be a deciding factor in hiring, or just one of the factors, is still being debated today. Chapter 27, Section 3 America’s Aging Population:  America’s Aging Population As the United States approached the turn of the millennium, its population was older than ever before. An increase in elderly Americans had important political and economic effects. The Social Security system became strained when the number of retirees receiving benefits rose faster than the number of workers paying taxes into the program. The American medical system began to face similar challenges. Federal lawmakers agreed that long-term changes were needed to meet these challenges, but disagreed on what those changes should be. Chapter 27, Section 3 A Technological Revolution:  A Technological Revolution Education Education is becoming increasingly important in a technology-driven world, but the role of computers and the Internet in education is still being determined. Information, Economic Issues, and Education Communication and Information Computer ownership rose tremendously during the 1990s. The Internet, a computer network that links millions of people around the world, revolutionized many areas of American life. The “New Economy” The technological boom helped the United States enjoy the greatest period of economic expansion in its history. The face of business began to change as more companies, both old and new, adopted more casual policies. Chapter 27, Section 3 Impacts of Technology:  Impacts of Technology Impact on Daily Life Americans have come to rely on technology, such as cell phones and the Internet, for keeping in touch with friends and family, shopping, and many other tasks. However, some have begun to question whether the advantages of modern technology outweigh the disadvantages. Impact of Technology Impact on Foreign Affairs New technologies are enabling greater communication among people around the world. However, poorer nations often lack the wealth or infrastructure to participate in this global network. Impact on Government Privacy and ownership rights have become issues faced by the federal government. In 1998, the government sued the giant software company Microsoft, accusing it of gaining a monopoly over Internet browsers. Chapter 27, Section 3 Facing the Future:  Facing the Future As changes occur increasingly fast in the years ahead, Americans will face new advances and new challenges. The preservation of freedom will likely remain a priority to Americans in the time to come. Chapter 27, Section 3

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