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Published on October 12, 2007

Author: Wanderer

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The Macroevolutionary Puzzle:  The Macroevolutionary Puzzle Chapter 19 Asteroid Impacts:  Asteroid Impacts Many past catastrophic impacts altered the course of evolution K–T boundary 2.3 million years ago in southern Pacific Ocean Macroevolution:  Macroevolution The large-scale patterns, trends, and rates of change among families and other more inclusive groups of species Fossils:  Fossils Recognizable evidence of ancient life What do fossils tell us? Each species is a mosaic of ancestral and novel traits All species that ever evolved are related to one another by way of descent Stratification:  Stratification Fossils are found in sedimentary rock This type of rock is formed in layers In general, layers closest to the top were formed most recently Fossilization:  Fossilization Organism becomes buried in ash or sediments Organic remains become infused with metal and mineral ions Carbon 14 dating Figure 19.6 Page 309 Radiometric Dating:  Radiometric Dating after two half-lives after one half-lives parent isotope in newly formed rock Figure 19.5 Page 309 Geologic Time Scale:  Geologic Time Scale Boundaries based on transitions in fossil record Cambrian period Proterozoic eon 2,500 mya Archean eon and earlier Ordovician period Silurian period Devonian period 570 505 435 410 Carboniferous period Permian period Cretaceous period Tertiary period Quaternary period 370 290 210 205 138 65 1 Cambrian period Jurassic period Triassic period Paleozoic era Mesozoic era Cenozoic era Phanerozoic eon Figure 19.4 (2) Page 308 Record Is Incomplete:  Record Is Incomplete Fossils have been found for about 250,000 species Most species weren’t preserved Record is biased toward the most accessible regions Continental Drift:  Continental Drift Idea that the continents were once joined and have since “drifted” apart Initially based on the shapes Wegener refined the hypothesis and named the theoretical supercontinent Pangea Changing Land Masses:  Changing Land Masses 10 mya 65 mya 260 mya 420 mya Figure 19.8c Page 311 Evidence of Movement:  Evidence of Movement Wegener cited evidence from glacial deposits and fossils Magnetic orientations in ancient rocks do not align with the magnetic poles Discovery of seafloor spreading provided a possible mechanism Plate Tectonics:  Plate Tectonics Earth’s crust is fractured into plates Movement of plates driven by upwelling of molten rock Pacific plate Nazca plate North American plate South American plate Eurasian plate African plate Somali plate Pacific plate Indo-Australian plate Antarctic plate Figure 19.8b Page 311 Comparative Morphology:  Comparative Morphology Comparing body forms and structures of major lineages Guiding principle: When it comes to introducing change in morphology, evolution tends to follow the path of least resistance Morphological Divergence:  Morphological Divergence Change from body form of a common ancestor Produces homologous structures 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 early reptile pterosaur chicken bat porpoise penguin human Figure 19.10 Page 312 Morphological Convergence:  Morphological Convergence Individuals of different lineages evolve in similar ways under similar environmental pressures Produces analogous structures that serve similar functions Comparative Development:  Comparative Development Each animal or plant proceeds through a series of changes in form Similarities in these stages may be clues to evolutionary relationships Mutations that disrupt a key stage of development are selected against Altering Developmental Programs:  Altering Developmental Programs Some mutations shift a step in a way that natural selection favors Small changes at key steps may bring about major differences Insertion of transposons or gene mutations Development of Larkspurs:  Development of Larkspurs Two closely related species have different petal morphology They attract different pollinators front view side view D. decorum flower front view side view D. nudicaule flower Figure 19.12 Page 314 Development of Larkspurs:  Development of Larkspurs Petal difference arises from a change in the rate of petal development 0 0 10 20 40 2 4 6 Petal length (millimeters) Days (after onset of meiosis) D. decorum D. nudicaule Figure 19.12 Page 314 Similar Vertebrate Embryos:  Similar Vertebrate Embryos Alterations that disrupted early development have been selected against FISH REPTILE BIRD MAMMAL Figure 19.13a Page 315 Similar Vertebrate Embryos:  Similar Vertebrate Embryos Adult shark Early human embryo Two-chambered heart Aortic arches Certain veins Figure 19.13b Page 315 Developmental Changes:  Developmental Changes Changes in the onset, rate, or time of completion of development steps can cause allometric changes Adult forms that retain juvenile features Proportional Changes in Skull:  Proportional Changes in Skull Chimpanzee Human Figure 19.14b Page 315 Comparative Biochemistry:  Comparative Biochemistry Kinds and numbers of biochemical traits that species share is a clue to how closely they are related Can compare DNA, RNA, or proteins More similarity means species are more closely related Comparing Proteins:  Comparing Proteins Compare amino acid sequence of proteins produced by the same gene Human cytochrome c (a protein) Identical amino acids in chimpanzee protein Chicken protein differs by 18 amino acids Yeast protein differs by 56 Sequence Conservation:  Sequence Conservation Cytochrome c functions in electron transport Deficits in this vital protein would be lethal Long sequences are identical in wheat, yeast, and a primate Sequence Conservation:  Sequence Conservation Yeast Wheat Primate Figure 19.15 Page 316-317 Nucleic Acid Comparison:  Nucleic Acid Comparison Use single-stranded DNA or RNA Hybrid molecules are created, then heated The more heat required to break hybrid, the more closely related the species Molecular Clock:  Molecular Clock Assumption: “Ticks” (neutral mutations) occur at a constant rate Count the number of differences to estimate time of divergence Taxonomy:  Taxonomy Field of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species Somewhat subjective Information about species can be interpreted differently Binomial System:  Binomial System Devised by Carl von Linne Each species has a two-part Latin name First part is generic Second part is specific name Higher Taxa:  Higher Taxa Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Inclusive groupings meant to reflect relationships among species Phylogeny:  Phylogeny The scientific study of evolutionary relationships among species Practical applications Allows predictions about the needs or weaknesses of one species on the basis of its known relationship to another Examples of Classification:  Examples of Classification Plantae Vanilla V. planifolia Orchidaceae Asparagales Monocotyledonae Anthophyta corn vanilla orchid housefly human Figure 19.17 Page 318 A Cladogram:  A Cladogram heart lungs feathers fur shark mammal crocodile bird Five-Kingdom Scheme:  Five-Kingdom Scheme Proposed in 1969 by Robert Whittaker Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Three-Domain Classification:  Three-Domain Classification Favored by microbiologists EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA EUKARYOTES Six-Kingdom Scheme:  Six-Kingdom Scheme EUBACTERIA ARCHAEBACTERIA PROTISTA FUNGI PLANTAE ANIMALIA Constructing A Cladogram:  Constructing A Cladogram Jaws Limbs Hair Lungs Tail Shell - - - - + - + + - + + + + + + + + - + + + + - - + - - + + - + - - - + - + + + + - - Lamprey Turtle Cat Gorilla Lungfish Trout Human Taxon Traits (Characters) Jaws Limbs Hair Lungs Tail Shell 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 Lamprey Turtle Cat Gorilla Lungfish Trout Human Taxon Traits (Characters) In-text figure Page 320 Constructing a Cladogram:  Constructing a Cladogram gorilla human turtle lungfish trout jaws lamprey lungs limbs hair tail loss cat Figure 19.20e Page 320 Evolutionary Tree:  Evolutionary Tree extreme thermophiles halophiles methanogens cyanobacteria ARCHAEBACTERIA PROTISTANS FUNGI PLANTS ANIMALS club fungi sac fungi zygospore- forming fungi echino-derms chordates annelids mollusks flatworms sponges cnidarians flowering plants conifers horsetails lycophytes ferns bryophytes sporozoans green algae amoeboid protozoans slime molds ciliates red algae brown algae chrysophytes cycads ginkgos rotifers arthropods round-worms chytrids oomycotes euglenoids dinoflagellates Gram-positive bacteria spirochetes chlamydias proteobacteria ? crown of eukaryotes (rapid divergences) molecular origin of life EUBACTERIA parabasalids diplomonads (e.g., Giardia) (alveolates) (stramenopiles) chlorophytes kinetoplastids extreme (e.g., Trichomonas) Figure 19.21 Page 321 Transitional Forms:  Transitional Forms Dromaeosaurus Archaeopteryx

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